The Relational Elements of Design
Just as everything in the visible world can be
described by its quality(s) such as its shape, depth,
color texture, etc.,
...
SIZE: The comparative or measured magnitude of an entity
COMPARATIVE MAGNITUDE : The relative magnitude
between similar or...
MEASURED MAGNITUDE: The magnitude of an entity
relative to a standard of measure.
Example: Jane is 5’-4” TALL
or Jane is 1...
We measure long distances
Such al length of ballpark.

Some distances are short like in
small mechanical parts.
In theatre we dimension
bodies for proper fitting
costumes.
We often have to measure scenery so it it fits properly on the stage.
PROPORTION: Equality or ratio between parts of a whole
Or between a part of a whole and the whole itself.
Example: A IS TH...
Artists, designers, architects, mathematicians, scientists
and philosophers have tried, for centuries to find an
ideal pro...
One of the most popular and useful proportion systems
is that of anthropometrics.

ANTHROPOMETRICS is a proportion system ...
ONE OF THE OLDEST ANDAESTHETICALLY PLESING
PROPORTIONS, THE GOLDEN MEAN HAS BEEN WIDELY
OBSERVED IN NATURE, AND EVEN MORE ...
LET US LOOK CLOSELY AT
ITS CONSTRUCTION.
THE GOLDEN RATIO CAN BE OBSERVED IN NATURE:
THE GOLDEN SPIRAL
IS DEVELOPED FROM
THE GOLDEN RECTANGLE
IT CLOSELY APPROXIMATES
THE NAUTILUS.
GREAT WALL - CHINA

THE GREAT
PYRAMIDS - EGYPT
IT HAS BEEN USED
WIDELY IN
ARCHITECTURE.
THE PARTHENON

CITY GATE - BAGDAD
VILLA EMO
PALLADIO
ST PAUL’S LONDON

NOTRE DAME - PARIS
MANY OBJECTS ARE MADE TO THE GOLDEN MEAN
PROPORTION:
THE VIOLIN
CREDIT CARDS
FASHION AND COSTUME OFTEN USE GOLDEN MEAN
PROPORTIONS.
SOME FAMOUS ART USES THE GOLDEN MEAN AS WELL.
THE PENTAGON EMPLOYS
THE GOLDEN MEAN AS WELL.
FOR CENTURY IT WAS
REGARDED AS A MAGICAL
OR MYSTICAL PROPORTION.
THE INFAMOU...
AND OF COURSE, THE
GOLDEN MEAN IS ALSO
FOUND IN THE PROPORTIONS
OF THE HUMAN BODY
OBVIOUSLY, SINCE THE
CONCEPT OF THE GOLDEN
MEAN PRE DATES THE
EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS, MANY
PEOPLE HAVE STUDIED IT
AMONG THEM TH...
FIBONACCI, CREATED A RATIO SEQUENCE WHICH HE
MAINTAINED WAS MOST CLOSELY RELATED
TO THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY.
1, ...
LEONARDO DA VINCI ALSO
STUDIED HUMAN
PROPORTIONS AND APPLIED
THEM TO HIS ART AND
ARCHITECTURE.

HE OF COURSE USED TO
ITALI...
MORE RECENTLY, THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
ARCHITECT, LE CORBUSIER WANTED TO CREATE
A SYSTEM FOR STANDARDIZATION OF BUILDING
MAT...
Taking the total
height, from the
hand of the
vertically raised
arm to the feet
he divides it into
two equal parts,
at the...
He finds that this total
height is divided according
to the golden section at
wrist level of the other arm.

This proporti...
The distance from
the feet to the top
of the head is also
divided by the
golden section, in
this case using the
division a...
This yields a ratio of 70 to 113.
Both ratios 86: 140 and 70 to 113 correspond to
Fibonacci’s earlier findings and are con...
Le Corbusier went on to explore how the human
body ought to relate to its environment at work,
leisure, play etc.
Today architects and designers use
anthropometric data in virtually everything we
come in contact with. Most elements on s...
ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA
THE ROOT PROPORTION SYSTEM IS ANOTHER SYSTEM
WIDELY USED IN THE DESIGN OF MANY PRODUCTS.
THE ROOT 2 SYSTEM, FOR EXAMPLE, I...
SCALE: A PROPORTION BETWEEN TWO DISTINCT
SIZES

HALF SCALE
Doll house scale
SCALE: 1” = 1’-0”
STAGE MODEL SCALE:
SCALE: 1/2” = 1’-0”
RESIDENTIAL DESIGN SCALE
SCALE 1/4” = 1’-0”
MONUMENTAL/ CIVIC DESIGN SCALE
SCALE: 1/8” = 1’-0”
SCALE EXAMPLES
DESIGNERS USE VARIOUS SCALE RULERS
TO DETERMINE THE SCALE IN WHICH THEY WILL
WORK.
THERE ARE ARCHITECTURAL
MECHANICAL
ENGI...
DIMENSION IS THE NUMERIC EXPRESSION OF
SIZE. IT REFERS TO LENGTH, WIDTH, HEIGHT
AND SOMETIMES DURATION

A DIMENTIONED
THRU...
26   proportion scale
26   proportion scale
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26 proportion scale

  1. 1. The Relational Elements of Design
  2. 2. Just as everything in the visible world can be described by its quality(s) such as its shape, depth, color texture, etc., it can also quantified or measured. We measure time, (duration or age), recurrence (rate, frequency, etc.), size (distance, weight, volume), movement (speed, acceleration etc.), viscosity, temperature, density, purity, elasticity, rigidity, etc. If it can be seen, it can, in some way be quantified.
  3. 3. SIZE: The comparative or measured magnitude of an entity COMPARATIVE MAGNITUDE : The relative magnitude between similar or dissimilar entities. Example: JOE IS A HEAD SHORTER THAN TONYA. Or A SOFA IS A MUCH, MUCH LARGER THAN A SNAIL
  4. 4. MEASURED MAGNITUDE: The magnitude of an entity relative to a standard of measure. Example: Jane is 5’-4” TALL or Jane is 1 meter and 62.5 cm tall
  5. 5. We measure long distances Such al length of ballpark. Some distances are short like in small mechanical parts.
  6. 6. In theatre we dimension bodies for proper fitting costumes.
  7. 7. We often have to measure scenery so it it fits properly on the stage.
  8. 8. PROPORTION: Equality or ratio between parts of a whole Or between a part of a whole and the whole itself. Example: A IS THE LENGTH OF ONE’S FOREARM FROM ELBOW TO THE WRIST. B IS THE LENGHT OF THE HAND FROM WRIST TO FINGER TIPS A= 1.5 of B or THE HAND IS 2/5 THE DISTANCE FROM ELBOW TO FINGER TIPS. A B B``
  9. 9. Artists, designers, architects, mathematicians, scientists and philosophers have tried, for centuries to find an ideal proportion, that is, a relationship between parts that would be functional, practical, aesthetically pleasing etc. Because no single proportion system has been found ideal for all applications, numerous systems and methodologies are being employed for a variety of uses.
  10. 10. One of the most popular and useful proportion systems is that of anthropometrics. ANTHROPOMETRICS is a proportion system based on the human body. Essentially, it is concerned with developing structures which are related to human size, race, gender and occupational groups.
  11. 11. ONE OF THE OLDEST ANDAESTHETICALLY PLESING PROPORTIONS, THE GOLDEN MEAN HAS BEEN WIDELY OBSERVED IN NATURE, AND EVEN MORE WIDELY REPLICATED IN ART AND ARTIFACT. IT IS BASED ON THE FOLLOWING RATIO: A:B = B: (A+B) EXPRESSED NUMERICALLY: 1:1.618 RATIO IS THE COMPARISON OF TWO QUANTITIES.
  12. 12. LET US LOOK CLOSELY AT ITS CONSTRUCTION.
  13. 13. THE GOLDEN RATIO CAN BE OBSERVED IN NATURE:
  14. 14. THE GOLDEN SPIRAL IS DEVELOPED FROM THE GOLDEN RECTANGLE IT CLOSELY APPROXIMATES THE NAUTILUS.
  15. 15. GREAT WALL - CHINA THE GREAT PYRAMIDS - EGYPT
  16. 16. IT HAS BEEN USED WIDELY IN ARCHITECTURE.
  17. 17. THE PARTHENON CITY GATE - BAGDAD
  18. 18. VILLA EMO PALLADIO
  19. 19. ST PAUL’S LONDON NOTRE DAME - PARIS
  20. 20. MANY OBJECTS ARE MADE TO THE GOLDEN MEAN PROPORTION: THE VIOLIN CREDIT CARDS
  21. 21. FASHION AND COSTUME OFTEN USE GOLDEN MEAN PROPORTIONS.
  22. 22. SOME FAMOUS ART USES THE GOLDEN MEAN AS WELL.
  23. 23. THE PENTAGON EMPLOYS THE GOLDEN MEAN AS WELL. FOR CENTURY IT WAS REGARDED AS A MAGICAL OR MYSTICAL PROPORTION. THE INFAMOUS SATANIC PENTANGLE CARRIES THE SAME MYSTIC MEANING
  24. 24. AND OF COURSE, THE GOLDEN MEAN IS ALSO FOUND IN THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY
  25. 25. OBVIOUSLY, SINCE THE CONCEPT OF THE GOLDEN MEAN PRE DATES THE EGYPTIAN PYRAMIDS, MANY PEOPLE HAVE STUDIED IT AMONG THEM THE 13 TH CENTURY, ITALIAN MATHEMATICIAN LEONARDO DA PISA KNOWN AS FIBONACCI.
  26. 26. FIBONACCI, CREATED A RATIO SEQUENCE WHICH HE MAINTAINED WAS MOST CLOSELY RELATED TO THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN BODY. 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13. 21, 34, etc. HE OBSERVED THAT THIS SEQUENCE (after the number 3) WAS THE CLOSEST MATHEMATICAL APPROXIMATION OF THE GOLDEN MEAN ie. 1:1.618 WHICH HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN USED TO PROPORTION THE HUMAN BODY.
  27. 27. LEONARDO DA VINCI ALSO STUDIED HUMAN PROPORTIONS AND APPLIED THEM TO HIS ART AND ARCHITECTURE. HE OF COURSE USED TO ITALIAN, 15TH CENTURY MALE AS A BASIS FOR HIS PROPORTIONS.
  28. 28. MORE RECENTLY, THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ARCHITECT, LE CORBUSIER WANTED TO CREATE A SYSTEM FOR STANDARDIZATION OF BUILDING MATERIALS, TO MAKE HOUSING MORE COST EFFICIENT. HE ALSO WANTED OUR “BUILT” ENVIRONMENT TO BE IN PROPORTION TO OUR BODIES. Le Corbusier
  29. 29. Taking the total height, from the hand of the vertically raised arm to the feet he divides it into two equal parts, at the level of the navel.
  30. 30. He finds that this total height is divided according to the golden section at wrist level of the other arm. This proportion yields a ratio of 86 to 140.
  31. 31. The distance from the feet to the top of the head is also divided by the golden section, in this case using the division at the navel.
  32. 32. This yields a ratio of 70 to 113. Both ratios 86: 140 and 70 to 113 correspond to Fibonacci’s earlier findings and are consistent with his series of numbers.
  33. 33. Le Corbusier went on to explore how the human body ought to relate to its environment at work, leisure, play etc.
  34. 34. Today architects and designers use anthropometric data in virtually everything we come in contact with. Most elements on stage are based on this data.
  35. 35. ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA
  36. 36. THE ROOT PROPORTION SYSTEM IS ANOTHER SYSTEM WIDELY USED IN THE DESIGN OF MANY PRODUCTS. THE ROOT 2 SYSTEM, FOR EXAMPLE, IS USED IN PROPORTIONING AMERICAN PAPER STANDARDS.
  37. 37. SCALE: A PROPORTION BETWEEN TWO DISTINCT SIZES HALF SCALE
  38. 38. Doll house scale SCALE: 1” = 1’-0”
  39. 39. STAGE MODEL SCALE: SCALE: 1/2” = 1’-0”
  40. 40. RESIDENTIAL DESIGN SCALE SCALE 1/4” = 1’-0”
  41. 41. MONUMENTAL/ CIVIC DESIGN SCALE SCALE: 1/8” = 1’-0”
  42. 42. SCALE EXAMPLES
  43. 43. DESIGNERS USE VARIOUS SCALE RULERS TO DETERMINE THE SCALE IN WHICH THEY WILL WORK. THERE ARE ARCHITECTURAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING METRIC GRAPHIC AND OTHER SCALE RULES
  44. 44. DIMENSION IS THE NUMERIC EXPRESSION OF SIZE. IT REFERS TO LENGTH, WIDTH, HEIGHT AND SOMETIMES DURATION A DIMENTIONED THRUST THEATRE

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