Memory Psychology powerpoint


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Psychology AS Memory powerpoint

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Memory Psychology powerpoint

  1. 1. INPUT Sensory Store STM LTM
  2. 2. Sensory - register Modality specific (taste held as taste, visual image as an icon) Capacity is large but duration limited approx ½ a second. Processing is largely unconscious so info is taken from experiments.
  3. 3.  Encoding is mainly acoustic  Capacity is limited to an average 7 items  Duration is limited to 30 seconds LTM  Encoding is semantic  Capacity unlimited  Duration unlimited
  4. 4.  Murdock (1962)  o Murdock (1962) presented participants with lists of words that varied in length form 10 to 40 words at intervals of 2 seconds.  o When participants were asked to recall the words in any order they recalled items from the end of the list first and got more of these correct (the recency effect).  o Items from the beginning of the list are also recalled quite well (the primacy effect).  o Poorest recall is for words from the middle of the list.
  5. 5. STORE ENCODING CAPACITY DURATION SENSORY MEMORY Modality specific Large Limited (1/2 second) STM Acoustic 7 or more items 30 seconds LTM Semantic Unlimited Unlimited
  6. 6.  The model over emphasises rehearsal in the transfer from STM to LTM in everyday life we rarely rehearse info yet we can recall it  Could be better explained by CRAIK AND LOCKHART’S LEVELS OF PROCESSING THEORY  Oversimplifies functions of STM and LTM by suggesting they are uniformed.  Lacks ecological validity  Case studies are over simplified.  Stimulated further research  Empirical evidence
  7. 7. CRAIK AND LOCKHART  rehearsal is not as important to learning. 1. 2. 3. Structural- Appearance- capital and lower case Phonological-sound-rhyme Semantic-meaning Depth or level of processing determines persistence of a memory trace in long-term memory.
  8. 8. Aim: investigate effects of types of processing on the recall of words  Method- participants were presented with 60 words and asked about each one  1-word in caps (shallow)  2- rhyme(phonetic)  3-fit in a sentence(semantic)  RESULTS- Better recognition with deeper levels of processing  CONLUSION- deeper levels of processing based on meaning of info is better than shallower recall methods. 
  9. 9.  Credible alternative- ELIAS AND PERFETTI – PPs had greater recognition of words.  Flashbulb- amount of info we recall e.g bumping into David Bekham  Elaborative-rather than repition LIMITATIONS  Lack ecological validity  Isn’t up to date
  10. 10. Central executive- directs attention to particular tasks  Phonological loops- limited capacity and deals with organising information.  Visuo-spatial sketch pad- things look like  Episodic buffer-linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information with time sequencing (or chronological ordering), such as the memory of a story or a movie scene. The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantic meaning. 
  11. 11.  Flexible system  Understanding of central exec is limited  WMM only explains our biology and not our socialisation
  12. 12. LONG TERM MEMORY Procedural Memory Implicit - Not usually conscious Declarative Memory Explicit – can be inspected consciously Episodic Memory for personal events Autobiographical Episodic Memory Flashbulb Memory Experimental Episodic Memory Semantic Memory for general knowledge and facts
  13. 13. Procedural memory is a motor or action based memory and it is sometimes referred to as knowing how. One example of procedural memory would be remembering how to swim.  Procedural memory:  does not call on our conscious memory  cannot be consciously inspected   non-declarative (meaning it is is difficult to put into words) 
  14. 14.  Declarative memory is sometimes referred as knowing that.  Declarative memory:  can be put into words quite easily  can be inspected consciously, e.g. you could tell someone about your first day at St. Christopher’s   includes both semantic and episodic it memory and both are very closely linked
  15. 15. Semantic memory is long-term memory for information about the world or general knowledge. This includes memory about the meaning of words.  Examples of semantic memory would be to know that grass is green or that Paris is the capital of France.  Such semantic memories can be used without reference to when and where the information was learned. 
  16. 16.  Episodic memory is the long-term memory for events or episodes that we have experienced ourselves or heard about from another source.
  17. 17.  This is the memory for specific life events that have personal meaning.  Being able to remember the events of your first day at college would  be an example of autobiographical memory.   is very difficult to It check the accuracy of this type of memory, but a  way it can be checked is to use a diary or photographs. 
  18. 18. A flashbulb memory is a detailed and vivid memory of an event that is stored after one occasion and lasts a lifetime. Such events are often life changing, such as births or deaths or may be associated with important historical events such as 9/11. There is usually fear or excitement associated with the event and this is what makes it particularly vivid.
  19. 19.      AIM: To see whether episodic memory and semantic memory are separate memory systems located in different areas of the brain. METHOD:  Tulving injected quantities of radioactive gold into his own blood stream.  then thought about semantic memories e.g. historical facts or about episodic He memories e.g. events from his summer holidays when he was a child.  Scanners were used to monitor the blood flow in his brain.      RESULTS: The two different memory tasks showed distinct patterns of blood flow in the brain:  Episodic memories involved increased blood flow in the front of the brain  Semantic memories involved increased blood flow in areas toward the back of the brain.   CONCLUSION: The results supported the view that episodic memory and semantic memory are located in different areas of the brain. However, as this was a preliminary study involving a single participant, the findings should be interpreted with caution.
  20. 20.      AIM: To investigate the ability to acquire new procedural skills in a person with amnesia. METHOD:  case study of an amnesic patient (HM) was carried out. A  memory problems were so serious that he appeared His to be unable to remember new information.  was trained to carry out a task which involved HM tracking or following a curvy line in a rotating disc.     RESULTS:  first, his performance at the tracking tasks was poor, At but he improved with practise.  Several days later, when he carried out the task again he had no conscious memory of the
  21. 21.  To - understand the nature of forgetting we have to make a distinction between: Availability-is the info still stored? Accessibility- can it be retrieved at will?
  22. 22.  Learning something creates a memory or an ‘ENGRAM’ which gradually fades  This affects both STM/LTM –  STUDY- Waugh and Norman
  23. 23.  Limited number of slots in the STM  If new info is taken in then other info will be  KNOCKED OUT
  24. 24.  Memory - is distorted in someway either by: Something learned in the past (proactive interference) - Something learned in the future (retroactive interference)  STUDY- Tulving & Psotka
  25. 25.  When we take in new info a certain amount of time is necessary for changes in the nervous system to take place  In the consolidation process forgetting can occur when consolidation is prevented.  STUDY- Yarnell & Lynch
  26. 26.  ‘cues’ are important- we are likely to remember info better if we recall it in the same state and context that it was rehearsed in the first place.  STUDY- Abernethy-when sat in the same room the instructor got better marks from his pupils
  27. 27.  People unconsiously ‘repress’ (push back) painful or disturbing memories.  This is a LTM theory of forgetting