Depression powerpoint


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Depression powerpoint

  1. 1. Depression and the Six Approaches to Personality Olivia Goodin South Puget Sound Community College
  2. 2. Psychoanalytic Approach <ul><li>Founded by Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Large emphasis on the unconscious and its effect on behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Anger turned inward </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Id: immediate personal satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego: considers consequences of actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superego: outside values </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Psychoanalytic approach <ul><li>Superego imposes shame guilt and pride on ego </li></ul><ul><li>Defense mechanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning against self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displaces direction of anger from outward to inward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps patients identify own feelings </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Trait Approach <ul><li>Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively stable characteristics that cause people to act a certain way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relies on differences between groups of people instead of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Big Five Personality Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Trait Approach <ul><li>Depression is effected by neuroticism and extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-pity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount of significant traits still in debate </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biological Approach <ul><li>Some people are born with a genetic susceptibility to depression </li></ul><ul><li>serotonin monoamine neurotransmitter theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depression is due to depletion of serotonin and/or other neurotransmitters at receptor sites in the brain </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Biological Approach <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-depressant medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoped to alter imbalance of chemicals in brain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Humanistic approach <ul><li>Self-concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what kind of person they believe themselves to be </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-worth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whether or not they approve of who they see in their self-concept </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free to choose own behavior despite outside factors </li></ul>
  9. 9. Humanistic Approach <ul><li>Hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>belongingness and love </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-actualization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves patient towards self-actualization </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Behavioral and Social Learning Approach <ul><li>People learn behaviors through observation and conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcer: Any stimulus which strengthens or increases the likelihood of a specific response </li></ul><ul><li>Depression is a lack of positive reinforcers in a person’s life </li></ul>
  11. 11. Behavioral and Social Learning <ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal (self-controlled) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External (other-controlled) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To internalize a patient’s locus of control </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Depressed people can more easily recall sad thoughts to their consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>People are depressed because of how they interpret their inability to control events </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Approach <ul><li>Mindfulness Based Cognitive Theory (MBCT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided meditations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group discussion sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could reduce rates of relapse of depression </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. References <ul><li>Zinbarg, R., Uliaszek, A., & Adler, J. (2008). The Role of Personality in Psychotherapy for Anxiety and Depression. Journal of Personality , 76 (6), 1649-1688. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00534.x. </li></ul><ul><li>Leventhal, A., & Antonuccio, D. (2009). On Chemical Imbalances, Antidepressants, and the Diagnosis of Depression. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry , 11 (3), 199-214. doi:10.1891/1559-4343.11.3.199. </li></ul><ul><li>Parrish, M., Stanard, R., & Cobia, D. (2008). Using Existential--Humanistic Approaches in Counseling Adolescents With Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development , 47 (1), 26-41. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. </li></ul><ul><li>Kingston, T., Dooley, B., Bates, A., Lawlor, E., & Malone, K. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for residual depressive symptoms. Psychology & Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice , 80 (2), 193-203. doi:10.1348/147608306X116016. </li></ul><ul><li>Anagnostopoulos, D. (2008). Depression in children and adolescents. Annals of General Psychiatry , 7 1-2. doi:10.1186/1744-859X-7-S1-S14. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolpin, M. (2009). A New Direction for Psychoanalysis: In Search of a Transference of Health. International Journal of Psychoanalytic Self Psychology , 4 31-43. doi:10.1080/15551020902958643. </li></ul><ul><li>Moran, M., Watson, C., Brown, J., White, C., & Jacobs, L. (1978). SYSTEMS RELEASING ACTION THERAPY WITH ALCOHOLICS: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 34 (3), 769-774. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. </li></ul><ul><li>(2010). in the clinic Depression. Annals of Internal Medicine , 152 (9), ITC51-ITC516. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. </li></ul><ul><li>(2004). Managing depression: an overview. Mental Health Practice , 7 (9), 33-37. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Trait Theory of Personality. New York Times Company. </li></ul><ul><li>(2003). The Ocean of Personality. Personality Synopsis. Allpsych, Hefner Media Group, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>(2005). Humanistic Theory and Therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Rivas, Lino. (2010). Defense Mechanisms and Dealing with Anxiety or Depression. Articles Base. </li></ul><ul><li>(2010). What is Psychotherapy? What are the Benefits of Psychotherapy? Medlexicon International Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Grohol, John Psy.D. (2010). Psychotherapy. PschCentral. </li></ul><ul><li>(2003). Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology. Personality Synopsis. Allpsych, Hefner Media Group, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Jonas. (2005). Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. </li></ul>