What IS PCR?• A method used to quickly produce a good amount of identical genetic material for studying and analyzing• Basically, it’s used to make many copies of genes in a quick and easy way so scientists can observe them
A Brief History• Developed in 1983 by Kary Mullis• The first announcement of PCR was made in October of 1985 That guy• In 1986, Edward Blake ( a forensics scientist) collaborated with the FBI to apply the process of PCR to criminal evidence• Rights to the PCR patents were sold to Hoffman-La Roche on July 23rd, 1991
Where or When is it used?• Diagnosis of hereditary diseases, paternity testing, DNA fingerprinting, forensic science, and so much more!
Summary of Steps• 1. Denaturation- The ‘melting’ of DNA into separate strands• 2. Annealing- Primers bind to the complementary sequences on the lone strands of DNA• 3. Extension-Continuation of annealing, creates copies• Repeat
Step One• Denaturing-Heated to 94 degrees Celsius-Bonds that are joining the two strands of DNAtogether break-Enables DNA to separate into lone strands
Step Two• Annealing-Cooled to 54 degrees Celsius-Primers bind to their complementarysequences on the single strands of DNA
Step Three• Extension-Sample is heated again to around74 degrees Celsius-DNA polymerase begins making anew strand of DNA by joiningonto the primers-Adds dNTPS (DNA’s monomer) tothe original strand, creates a copyof the target sequence