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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part III
 

How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part III

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Part three in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural ...

Part three in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural quirk(s).

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    How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part III How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part III Presentation Transcript

    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
      February 2010
      Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty
      Colwyn Elder, Partner, Director of Planning & Strategy
      ,
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – then go public
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
    • 18. Ask kinetically
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
      Easy rider
      yourbikeishot.com have made a downloadable notice to put on other people’s bicycles, reinforcing bikes and bike riding as an activity that has a positive influence on one’s social standing
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
      (Herd instinct)
      Social norms
      Easy rider
      yourbikeishot.com have made a downloadable notice to put on other people’s bicycles, reinforcing bikes and bike riding as an activity that has a positive influence on one’s social standing
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
      c. A ball of energy
      Attempts by Southern California Edison to notify people of their energy use with e-mails and text messages did no good.
       
      Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
      c. A ball of energy
      They tried an Ambient Orb – a
      personal energy meter in the
      shape of a little ball:
      • It glows red when people are using lots of energy
      • It glows green when their use is modest.
      Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
      c. A ball of energy
      They tried an Ambient Orb – a
      personal energy meter in the
      shape of a little ball:
      Within weeks users of the orb
      reduced their energy consumption
      during peak times by 40%
      Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green
    • 13. Let the feedback ask the question
      Social norms
      Loss aversion
      c. A ball of energy
      They tried an Ambient Orb – a
      personal energy meter in the
      shape of a little ball:
      Within weeks users of the orb
      reduced their energy consumption
      during peak times by 40%
      Chicago Tribune | A gentle prod to go green
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      a. Towel reuse
      In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse:
      1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature)
      2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)
      3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)
      4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)
      US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007
      The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      a. Towel reuse
      In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse:
      1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature)
      2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)
      3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)
      4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)
      Only this message reinforces a social norm
      US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007
      The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      a. Towel reuse
      In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse:
      1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature)
      2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)
      3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)
      4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)
      Guests exposed to this message were 34% more likely to recycle their towels
      US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007
      The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      Social norms
      a. Towel reuse
      In an upscale hotel in Phoenix, USA one of these cards was placed in guestrooms urging towel reuse:
      1. Help Save The Environment – (respect for nature)
      2. Help Save Resources For Future Generations – (saving energy)
      3. Partner With Us To Help Save The Environment – (co-operate)
      4. Join Your Fellow Citizens In Helping To Save The Environment – (what other guest do in that room)
      Guests exposed to this message were 34% more likely to recycle their towels
      US Government Subcommittee on Research & Science Education :: September 25, 2007
      The Contribution of the Social Sciences to the Energy Challenge
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)
      In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)
      In Australia, tax-payers were informed that that normal practice was honesty in tax returns
      Deductions plunged by 47%
      (over $800 million Aus$ extra revenue)
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)
      Minnesota tried to increase honesty on tax returns with 4 types of intervention:
      Taxes go to good works
      Threats risk of punishment
      How to get help if confused
      Told that 90% of people complied in full
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)
      Minnesota tried to increase honesty on tax returns with 4 types of intervention:
      Taxes go to good works
      Threats risk of punishment
      How to get help if confused
      Told that 90% of people complied in full
      This was the only intervention to work
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 14. Don’t ask. (Tell.)
      Social norms
      b. Tax doesn’t have to be taxing (no, really)
      Minnesota tried to increase honesty on tax returns with 4 types of intervention:
      Taxes go to good works
      Threats risk of punishment
      How to get help if confused
      Told that 90% of people complied in full
      This was the only intervention to work
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
      Competitive Dad
      When a Jeep driver got a Prius he became fixated with stretching his
      mileage as far as possible
      For Hybrid Drivers, Every Trip Is a Race for Fuel Efficiency | Washington Post | 2008
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
      Competitive Dad
      When a Jeep driver got a Prius he became fixated with stretching his
      mileage as far as possible
      • His record is 57.4 mpg
      • More than double the 27.5 mpg that non-hybrid cars are required to deliver under US law
      For Hybrid Drivers, Every Trip Is a Race for Fuel Efficiency | Washington Post | 2008
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
      Competitive Dad
      When a Jeep driver got a Prius he became fixated with stretching his
      mileage as far as possible
      • His record is 57.4 mpg
      • More than double the 27.5 mpg that non-hybrid cars are required to deliver under US law
      “It has totally changed my driving in that for the first time I’m completely cognizant of how the car works.”
      (Washington Post)
      Loss aversion
      For Hybrid Drivers, Every Trip Is a Race for Fuel Efficiency | Washington Post | 2008
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
      Switched on
      In 1923 a study was carried out at Hawthorne Works, Illinois to see if
      workers would become more productive in:
      Higher levels of light
      Lower levels of light
      The Hawthorn Effect | Bad Science | Ben Goldachre | pp 139
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
      Switched on
      In 1923 a study was carried out at Hawthorne Works, Illinois to see if
      workers would become more productive in:
      Higher levels of light
      Lower levels of light
      The workers' productivity improved when ANY changes were made
      The Hawthorn Effect | Bad Science | Ben Goldachre | pp 139
    • 15. Ask nothing, other than simply to measure
      Switched on
      In 1923 a study was carried out at Hawthorne Works, Illinois to see if
      workers would become more productive in:
      Higher levels of light
      Lower levels of light
      The workers' productivity improved when ANY changes were made
      Exposure effect
      The Hawthorn Effect | Bad Science | Ben Goldachre | pp 139
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public
      a. A clean win
      Los Angeles restaurants required to display hygiene grades
      in their windows
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public
      a. A clean win
      Los Angeles restaurants required to display hygiene grades
      in their windows
      • Many made hygiene improvements
      • C-graded restaurants lost revenue
      • A-grade ratings up from 58% to 83%
      (mostly from consumer choice)
      • Food-borne-illness hospitalisations decreased by up to 20%
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public
      a. A clean win
      Los Angeles restaurants required to display hygiene grades
      in their windows
      Social norms
      • Many made hygiene improvements
      • C-graded restaurants lost revenue
      • A-grade ratings up from 58% to 83%
      (mostly from consumer choice)
      • Food-borne-illness hospitalisations decreased by up to 20%
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public
      b. S’up?
      Wattson is a personal energy meter from
      design firm, DIY Kyoto
      Derek Foster developed the WattsUp
      application to record users’ live and historical
      household energy consumption via the
      Wattson monitor – and then transmits the data
      to Facebook
      Microsoft Windows Developer Center | Featured Application – WattsUp
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public
      b. S’up?
      “By using Facebook as the delivery platform it [WattsUp] introduces social psychology elements such as peer-pressure and normative behaviour between friends which can introduce competitiveness to reduce energy usage.”
      Derek Foster, post-graduate, University of York
      Microsoft Windows Developer Center | Featured Application – WattsUp
    • 16. Don’t ask anything – other than they go public
      Social norms
      b. S’up?
      “By using Facebook as the delivery platform it [WattsUp] introduces social psychology elements such as peer-pressure and normative behaviour between friends which can introduce competitiveness to reduce energy usage.”
      Derek Foster, post-graduate, University of York
      Microsoft Windows Developer Center | Featured Application – WattsUp
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      a. Water water everywhere
      A shower timer asks for us to commit to a length of time using our clear-thinking rational brain, rather than leaving the decision to our pleasure-demanding ‘me, now’ brain
       
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      Temporal discounting
      a. Water water everywhere
      A shower timer asks for us to commit to a length of time using our clear-thinking rational brain, rather than leaving the decision to our pleasure-demanding ‘me, now’ brain
       
      ‘time-inconsistent preferencing’ is a recognition that we can prefer one outcome in a low-stimulus (i.e. reflective) context, and a different outcome in a high-stimulus (i.e. tempting) context.
      HEADS, YOU DIE: Bad decisions, choice architecture, and how to mitigate predictable irrationality | Jack Fuller | Per Capita research
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      b. Do a good turn
      Will you wash your clothes in colder water?
      • 80% of washing machine’s energy heats water
      • Switching from 40°to 30°saves 40% of washing machine’s energy
      • Ariel created powder to wash at 30°
      Do a good turn
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      b. Do a good turn
      Will you wash your clothes in colder water?
      • 80% of washing machine’s energy heats water
      • Switching from 40°to 30°saves 40% of washing machine’s energy
      • Ariel created powder to wash at 30°
      “Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”
      Do a good turn
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      b. Do a good turn
      Will you wash your clothes in colder water?
      • The illustration of creating a commitment is key
      • The actual effect of turning to 30°is small
      “Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”
      Do a good turn
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      b. Do a good turn
      Will you wash your clothes in colder water?
      • The illustration of creating a commitment is key
      • The actual effect of turning to 30°is small
      The maths:
      There are 3,000,000 homes in London
      (Office for National Statistics, 2001)
      Saving 24,769 families fuel & power
      = 0.83% of total fuel & power need
      “Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”
      Do a good turn
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      Temporal discounting
      b. Do a good turn
      Will you wash your clothes in colder water?
      • The illustration of creating a commitment is key
      • The actual effect of turning to 30°is small
      The maths:
      There are 3,000,000 homes in London
      (Office for National Statistics, 2001)
      Saving 24,769 families fuel & power
      = 0.83% of total fuel & power need
      “Did you know that if every household in London turned to 30°, there would be enough money saved to pay 24,769 families fuel & power bills for a full year”
      Do a good turn
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      Put a contract on yourself
      STICKK.com enables users to form commitment contracts to help them achieve their personal goals. These goals may be to lose weight, run a marathon, etc
      STICKK.com
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      Put a contract on yourself
      The Commitment Contract concept is based on two well known principles of behavioural economics:
      • People don't always do what they claim they want to do, and
      • Incentives get people to do things
      STICKK.com
    • 17. Ask for a commitment – in the future
      Temporal discounting
      Put a contract on yourself
      The Commitment Contract concept is based on two well known principles of behavioural economics:
      • People don't always do what they claim they want to do, and
      • Incentives get people to do things
      STICKK.com
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • 18. Ask kinetically
    • 18. Ask kinetically
      a. Lights. Out.
      Communicating ‘turn off the lights’ in a hotel is tricky – the guest derives no personal benefit (either delayed or short-term) by turning off lights, etc
      So what do you say?
      ?
      A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008
    • 18. Ask kinetically
      a. Lights. Out.
      Link to an action that is in the interests of the guest:
      “In some hotel rooms, guests are required to insert their room key card into a slot by the door to turn on the lights and air conditioning. When they leave the room and take their key, the lights and AC are automatically turned off.”
      Chicago Tribune
      A gentle prod to go green: Turning wishes into actions a matter of showing people the way | Chicago Tribune | Thaler, Sunstein | 2008
    • 18. Ask kinetically
      c. Square peg
      Architect Shigeru Ban is well-known for his innovative use of paper as a structural element.
       
       
      Can he minimise the amount of wasted
      lavatory paper?
      Squared Toilet Paper = Less Waste | TreeHugger | Kimberley D. Mok | 2009
    • 18. Ask kinetically
      c. Square peg
       
      Make the tube square instead of round
      - Each tug is met with resistance
      - Only take what you really need
      Can he minimise the amount of wasted
      lavatory paper?
      Squared Toilet Paper = Less Waste | TreeHugger | Kimberley D. Mok | 2009
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      a. The answer on a plate
      Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable
      research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.
       
      How do they make their healthy menu more popular?
      Smarter Lunchrooms
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      a. The answer on a plate
      Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable
      research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.
       
      They make the plates smaller, making the food look a lot bigger,
      and a lot better value
      Smarter Lunchrooms
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      a. The answer on a plate
      Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable
      research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.
       
      They make the plates smaller, making the food look a lot bigger,
      and a lot better value
      Smarter Lunchrooms
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      Selective perception
      a. The answer on a plate
      Smarter Lunchrooms’ mission is to design sustainable
      research-based lunchrooms that subtly guide smarter choices.
       
      They make the plates smaller, making the food look a lot bigger,
      and a lot better value
      Smarter Lunchrooms
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      b. As clear as day
      How do you create energy efficiency at home?
      Solar
      Wind
      Insulation
      Feedback metering
      Pricing
       
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      b. As clear as day
      How do you create energy efficiency at home?
      During his time as Ambassador to France from 1776–1785, Benjamin Franklin suggested Parisians economise on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight…
       
      Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      b. As clear as day
      How do you create energy efficiency at home?
      In 1916 Germany and its World War I allies were the first European nations to move the clocks forwards and backwards as a way to conserve coal during wartime…
       
      Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      b. As clear as day
      How do you create energy efficiency at home?
      Britain, most of its allies, and many European neutrals soon followed.
       
      Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51
    • 19. Make the question irrelevant
      Social norms
      b. As clear as day
      British Summer Time (BST) starts on the last Sunday in March and ends on the last Sunday in October
       
      Daylight savings time | Nudge pp 51
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part III
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Thank you
      (look out for part I & II)
    • Part I & II – Ready to download now>