How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />February 2010<br />Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynas...
7. Ask at the right time <br />
8. Ask with the right incentive <br />
9. Add options <br />
10. Take away options <br />
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />
12. Ask a completely different question<br />
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
7. Ask at the right time <br />
7. Ask at the right time <br />a. 	Reduced carbon food. Delivered.<br />Ocado - a U.K. grocery delivery service - operates...
7. Ask at the right time <br />Scarcity effect<br />Social norms<br />Reciprocity<br />a. 	Reduced carbon food. Delivered....
7. Ask at the right time <br />b. 	Speed limit target<br />What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive? <br ...
7. Ask at the right time <br />b. 	Speed limit target<br />What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive? <br ...
7. Ask at the right time <br />Self-serving bias <br />b. 	Speed limit target<br />What if a sign told you the most effici...
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
8. Ask with the right incentive <br />
8. Ask with the right incentive <br />a.		Start stopping<br />Arkansas’ sustainability officer John Coleman is paid $57,00...
8. Ask with the right incentive <br />a.		Start stopping<br />Arkansas’ sustainability officer John Coleman is paid $57,00...
8. Ask with the right incentive <br />b.	Recycling: Heavy, man<br />RecycleBank in the US & UK weighs the amount you recyc...
Partners include eBay, Marks & Spencer, Boris Johnson  (Reciprocity)
Totals number of trees and barrels of oil conserved. (Personally meaningful feedback)</li></ul>A Philadelphia Inquirer col...
8. Ask with the right incentive <br />b.	Recycling: Heavy, man<br />Results:<br /><ul><li>They pay households in over 500 ...
They deliver savings for local authorities in landfill tax bills
Increased recycling by up to 200% (without additional government spending)
Turned poorer communities from the worst recyclers to among the best
Over 300 million barrels of oil conserved in US (In 2006 global daily use = 85 million barrels)</li></ul>A Philadelphia In...
8. Ask with the right incentive <br />Excessive temporal discounting<br />Social norms<br />Reciprocity<br />b.	Recycling:...
They deliver savings for local authorities in landfill tax bills
Increased recycling by up to 200% (without additional government spending)
Turned poorer communities from the worst recyclers to among the best
Over 300 million barrels of oil conserved in US (In 2006 global daily use = 85 million barrels)</li></ul>A Philadelphia In...
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
9. Add options <br />
a.		Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />Rome (all expenses pai...
a.		Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />Rome (all expenses pai...
a.		Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />?<br />Rome (all expen...
a.		Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />?<br />Rome (all expen...
a.		Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />Rome (all expenses pai...
9. Add options <br />a.		Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Hybrid car (Used)<br /...
9. Add options <br />Framing effect<br />Distinction bias<br />Decoy effect<br />a.		Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect...
9. Add options <br />b.		What rubbish<br />Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of t...
9. Add options <br />b.		What rubbish<br />Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of t...
9. Add options <br />Framing effect<br />b.		What rubbish<br />Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste...
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
10. Take away options <br />
10. Take away options <br />a.	Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something ...
10. Take away options <br />a.	Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something ...
10. Take away options <br />a.	Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something ...
10. Take away options <br />a.	Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something ...
10. Take away options <br />Framing effect<br />a.	Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process...
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu o...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu o...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu o...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu o...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Framing effect<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with ...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />b.		Viva España(and California, Denmark, <br />		Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portug...
beneficiaries saved an average $30
0.3% received an error notice vs. 3.1% of other filers
won a 98% satisfaction rate</li></ul> <br />Los Angeles Times |  California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />b.		Viva España(and California, Denmark, <br />		Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portug...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />b.		Viva España(and California, Denmark, <br />		Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portug...
11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Framing effect<br />Temporal discounting<br />b.		Viva España(and California, Denm...
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
12. Ask a completely different question<br />
12. Ask a completely different question<br />a.		Want some fun? Part I<br />In Sweden many people return plastic bottles a...
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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part II

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Part two in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural quirk(s).

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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part II

  1. 1. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />February 2010<br />Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty<br />Colwyn Elder, Partner, Director of Planning & Strategy<br />, <br />
  2. 2. 7. Ask at the right time <br />
  3. 3. 8. Ask with the right incentive <br />
  4. 4. 9. Add options <br />
  5. 5. 10. Take away options <br />
  6. 6. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />
  7. 7. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  11. 11. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  12. 12. 7. Ask at the right time <br />
  13. 13. 7. Ask at the right time <br />a. Reduced carbon food. Delivered.<br />Ocado - a U.K. grocery delivery service - operates a ‘green’ van that allows shoppers to take delivery at times when a van will already be in their area – saving fuel.<br />Nudge blog | An grocery delivery service that lets you see when its vans have plans to be in your neighborhood August 18, 2008 <br />
  14. 14. 7. Ask at the right time <br />Scarcity effect<br />Social norms<br />Reciprocity<br />a. Reduced carbon food. Delivered.<br />Ocado - a U.K. grocery delivery service - operates a ‘green’ van that allows shoppers to take delivery at times when a van will already be in their area – saving fuel.<br />Nudge blog | An grocery delivery service that lets you see when its vans have plans to be in your neighborhood August 18, 2008 <br />
  15. 15. 7. Ask at the right time <br />b. Speed limit target<br />What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive? <br />U.S. Department of Transportation traffic light synchronization program in Texas did exactly that<br />Tom Vanderbilt | TrafficFlow Manager | Nudge blog<br />
  16. 16. 7. Ask at the right time <br />b. Speed limit target<br />What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive? <br />U.S. Department of Transportation traffic light synchronization program in Texas did exactly that<br />Delays reduced by 25% <br />Fuel consumption reduced by 14%<br />Tom Vanderbilt | TrafficFlow Manager | Nudge blog<br />
  17. 17. 7. Ask at the right time <br />Self-serving bias <br />b. Speed limit target<br />What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive? <br />U.S. Department of Transportation traffic light synchronization program in Texas did exactly that<br />Delays reduced by 25% <br />Fuel consumption reduced by 14%<br />Tom Vanderbilt | TrafficFlow Manager | Nudge blog<br />
  18. 18. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  19. 19. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  20. 20. 8. Ask with the right incentive <br />
  21. 21. 8. Ask with the right incentive <br />a. Start stopping<br />Arkansas’ sustainability officer John Coleman is paid $57,000 a<br />year to make sure he saves the city at least $57,000 a year<br />through energy efficiency improvements. <br /> <br /> Good idea?<br /> <br />Fayetteville’s energy cop | Nudgeblog<br />
  22. 22. 8. Ask with the right incentive <br />a. Start stopping<br />Arkansas’ sustainability officer John Coleman is paid $57,000 a<br />year to make sure he saves the city at least $57,000 a year<br />through energy efficiency improvements. <br />  <br />“ I would point to the perverse incentive here. As soon as Tom<br />reaches the $57,000 target, he should wait until the following<br />financial year before implementing the next energy saving<br />initiative.” Comment | Dave Comerford<br />Fayetteville’s energy cop | Nudgeblog<br />
  23. 23. 8. Ask with the right incentive <br />b. Recycling: Heavy, man<br />RecycleBank in the US & UK weighs the amount you recycle and turns into points <br /><ul><li>Redeem for coupons to local & national stores. (A simple incentive)
  24. 24. Partners include eBay, Marks & Spencer, Boris Johnson (Reciprocity)
  25. 25. Totals number of trees and barrels of oil conserved. (Personally meaningful feedback)</li></ul>A Philadelphia Inquirer columnist’s take on nudge July 22, 2008 Chris Satullo<br />
  26. 26. 8. Ask with the right incentive <br />b. Recycling: Heavy, man<br />Results:<br /><ul><li>They pay households in over 500 cities about £20 a month for recycling
  27. 27. They deliver savings for local authorities in landfill tax bills
  28. 28. Increased recycling by up to 200% (without additional government spending)
  29. 29. Turned poorer communities from the worst recyclers to among the best
  30. 30. Over 300 million barrels of oil conserved in US (In 2006 global daily use = 85 million barrels)</li></ul>A Philadelphia Inquirer columnist’s take on nudge July 22, 2008 Chris Satullo<br />
  31. 31. 8. Ask with the right incentive <br />Excessive temporal discounting<br />Social norms<br />Reciprocity<br />b. Recycling: Heavy, man<br />Results:<br /><ul><li>They pay households in over 500 cities about £20 a month for recycling
  32. 32. They deliver savings for local authorities in landfill tax bills
  33. 33. Increased recycling by up to 200% (without additional government spending)
  34. 34. Turned poorer communities from the worst recyclers to among the best
  35. 35. Over 300 million barrels of oil conserved in US (In 2006 global daily use = 85 million barrels)</li></ul>A Philadelphia Inquirer columnist’s take on nudge July 22, 2008 Chris Satullo<br />
  36. 36. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  37. 37. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  38. 38. 9. Add options <br />
  39. 39. a. Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />Rome (all expenses paid)<br />Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger<br />
  40. 40. a. Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />Rome (all expenses paid)<br />Paris (all expenses paid)<br />Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger<br />
  41. 41. a. Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />?<br />Rome (all expenses paid)<br />Paris (all expenses paid)<br />Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger<br />
  42. 42. a. Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />?<br />Rome (all expenses paid)<br />Paris (all expenses paid)<br />Rome (all expenses paid <br />except morning espresso)<br />Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger<br />
  43. 43. a. Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />9. Add options <br />Rome (all expenses paid)<br />Paris (all expenses paid)<br />“…when people cannot decide between two front-runners, they use the third candidate as a sort of measuring stick…”<br />Washinton Post, Shankar Vedantam<br />Rome (all expenses paid <br />except morning espresso)<br />Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger<br />
  44. 44. 9. Add options <br />a. Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Hybrid car (Used)<br />Small-engine petrol car (Used)<br />“…when people cannot decide between two front-runners, they use the third candidate as a sort of measuring stick…”<br />Washinton Post, Shankar Vedantam<br />Hybrid car (New)<br />Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger<br />
  45. 45. 9. Add options <br />Framing effect<br />Distinction bias<br />Decoy effect<br />a. Three’s a crowd<br />The decoy effect in action:<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Hybrid car (Used)<br />Small-engine petrol car (Used)<br />“…when people cannot decide between two front-runners, they use the third candidate as a sort of measuring stick…”<br />Washinton Post, Shankar Vedantam<br />Hybrid car (New)<br />Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger<br />
  46. 46. 9. Add options <br />b. What rubbish<br />Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of the paper unrecyclable <br /><ul><li>In Singapore 100% of recycling bins were spoiled*</li></ul>* Sample of 80<br />Singapore Straits Times, on June 15, “What rubbish,”<br />
  47. 47. 9. Add options <br />b. What rubbish<br />Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of the paper unrecyclable <br />National University of Singapore<br />tackled this ‘Expect Error’ by adding a non-recycling bin <br />Singapore Straits Times, on June 15, “What rubbish,”<br />
  48. 48. 9. Add options <br />Framing effect<br />b. What rubbish<br />Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of the paper unrecyclable<br />National University of Singapore<br />tackled this ‘Expect Error’ by adding a non-recycling bin <br />Singapore Straits Times, on June 15, “What rubbish,”<br />
  49. 49. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  50. 50. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  51. 51. 10. Take away options <br />
  52. 52. 10. Take away options <br />a. Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone <br /> <br />How do you present a recycling option that deals with this behaviour?<br />?<br />Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog<br />
  53. 53. 10. Take away options <br />a. Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone <br />Use a smaller hole<br />Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog<br />
  54. 54. 10. Take away options <br />a. Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone <br />34% more appropriate material than a bin with a large hole<br /> <br />Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog<br />
  55. 55. 10. Take away options <br />a. Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone<br />34% more appropriate material than a bin with a large hole<br />“…recycling bins… that lacked those [small] holes were basically used as trash cans.”<br />Sean Duffy, Associate professor of psychology at Rutgers–Camden<br /> <br />Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog<br />
  56. 56. 10. Take away options <br />Framing effect<br />a. Hole solution<br /> People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone <br />34% more appropriate material than a bin with a large hole<br />“…recycling bins… that lacked those [small] holes were basically used as trash cans.”<br />Sean Duffy, Associate professor of psychology at Rutgers–Camden<br /> <br />Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog<br />
  57. 57. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  58. 58. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  59. 59. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />
  60. 60. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />Vegetarian<br />Meat <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
  61. 61. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />83%<br />17%<br />Vegetarian = option<br />Meat = default <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
  62. 62. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />80%<br />20%<br />Vegetarian = default <br />Meat = option <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
  63. 63. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />“Omnivores contribute seven times the greenhouse gas emissions, when compared to vegans…”<br />Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez, conference chair, Pre American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy <br />80%<br />Vegetarian = default <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
  64. 64. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Framing effect<br />Catering for a conference<br />A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian<br />“Omnivores contribute seven times the greenhouse gas emissions, when compared to vegans…”<br />Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez, conference chair, Pre American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy <br />80%<br />Vegetarian = default <br />When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com<br />
  65. 65. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />b. Viva España(and California, Denmark, <br /> Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )<br /> Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data<br />In the pilot group:<br /><ul><li>median filing times fell by 80%
  66. 66. beneficiaries saved an average $30
  67. 67. 0.3% received an error notice vs. 3.1% of other filers
  68. 68. won a 98% satisfaction rate</li></ul> <br />Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009<br />
  69. 69. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />b. Viva España(and California, Denmark, <br /> Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )<br /> Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data<br />Opposition to Ready Return has come from businesses. Stanford Law professor Joseph Bankman says Intuit, the California company that sells the popular TurboTax software, spent more than $1 million lobbying Republican lawmakers against the plan<br />Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009<br />
  70. 70. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />b. Viva España(and California, Denmark, <br /> Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )<br /> Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data<br />“I’ve always felt anxious about preparing my own taxes but this way was extremely easy and made me feel very comfortable.”<br />(Quotes from actual ready return users)<br />“ABSOLUTELY AWESOME. THIS IS THE BEST SERVICE I HAVE EVER SEEN BY THE GOVERNMENT. THANK YOU!”<br />(Quotes from actual ready return users)<br />Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009<br />
  71. 71. 11. Ask, but have a default option<br />Framing effect<br />Temporal discounting<br />b. Viva España(and California, Denmark, <br /> Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )<br /> Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data<br />“I’ve always felt anxious about preparing my own taxes but this way was extremely easy and made me feel very comfortable.”<br />(Quotes from actual ready return users)<br />“ABSOLUTELY AWESOME. THIS IS THE BEST SERVICE I HAVE EVER SEEN BY THE GOVERNMENT. THANK YOU!”<br />(Quotes from actual ready return users)<br />Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009<br />
  72. 72. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  73. 73. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  74. 74. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />
  75. 75. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />a. Want some fun? Part I<br />In Sweden many people return plastic bottles and cans. Noticeably<br />fewer recycle glass.<br />How do you create the desire to recycle glass?<br />Funtheory.com | Bottle Bank Arcade Machine<br />
  76. 76. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />a. Want some fun? Part I<br />In Sweden many people return plastic bottles and cans. Noticeably<br />fewer recycle glass.<br />How do you create the desire to recycle glass?<br />Funtheory.com | Bottle Bank Arcade Machine<br />
  77. 77. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Framing effect<br />a. Want some fun? Part I<br />In Sweden many people return plastic bottles and cans. Noticeably<br />fewer recycle glass.<br />How do you create the desire to recycle glass?<br />Funtheory.com | Bottle Bank Arcade Machine<br />
  78. 78. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />a. Want some fun? Part II<br />Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer. <br />How do you create the desire to use the stairs?<br />Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase<br />
  79. 79. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />a. Want some fun? Part II<br />Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer. <br />Piano stairs increased stair use by 66%<br />Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase<br />
  80. 80. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Temporal discounting<br />Framing effect<br />a. Want some fun? Part II<br />Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer. <br />Piano stairs increased stair use by 66%<br />Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase<br />
  81. 81. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Your benefit? Part I<br />Do you want to take the stairs? <br />FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times<br />
  82. 82. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Your benefit? Part I<br />Do you want to take the stairs lose weight? <br /> These stairs in the Goodnight<br /> Hostel in Lisbon appeal to the<br /> calorie conscious. <br />FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times<br />
  83. 83. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Your benefit? Part I<br />Do you want to take the stairs get fit? <br />(elevator call button crossed out) <br />“to harden the butt”<br />FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times<br />
  84. 84. 12. Ask a completely different question<br />Framing effect<br />Your benefit? Part I<br />Do you want to…<br />FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times<br />
  85. 85.
  86. 86. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part II<br />
  87. 87. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Thank you <br />(look out for part I & III)<br />
  88. 88. Part II & III – Ready to download now><br />Part I & III – Ready to download now><br />

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