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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part II
 

How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part II

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Part two in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural ...

Part two in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural quirk(s).

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    How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part II How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part II Presentation Transcript

    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
      February 2010
      Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty
      Colwyn Elder, Partner, Director of Planning & Strategy
      ,
    • 7. Ask at the right time
    • 8. Ask with the right incentive
    • 9. Add options
    • 10. Take away options
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • 7. Ask at the right time
    • 7. Ask at the right time
      a. Reduced carbon food. Delivered.
      Ocado - a U.K. grocery delivery service - operates a ‘green’ van that allows shoppers to take delivery at times when a van will already be in their area – saving fuel.
      Nudge blog | An grocery delivery service that lets you see when its vans have plans to be in your neighborhood August 18, 2008
    • 7. Ask at the right time
      Scarcity effect
      Social norms
      Reciprocity
      a. Reduced carbon food. Delivered.
      Ocado - a U.K. grocery delivery service - operates a ‘green’ van that allows shoppers to take delivery at times when a van will already be in their area – saving fuel.
      Nudge blog | An grocery delivery service that lets you see when its vans have plans to be in your neighborhood August 18, 2008
    • 7. Ask at the right time
      b. Speed limit target
      What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive?
      U.S. Department of Transportation traffic light synchronization program in Texas did exactly that
      Tom Vanderbilt | TrafficFlow Manager | Nudge blog
    • 7. Ask at the right time
      b. Speed limit target
      What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive?
      U.S. Department of Transportation traffic light synchronization program in Texas did exactly that
      Delays reduced by 25%
      Fuel consumption reduced by 14%
      Tom Vanderbilt | TrafficFlow Manager | Nudge blog
    • 7. Ask at the right time
      Self-serving bias
      b. Speed limit target
      What if a sign told you the most efficient speed to drive?
      U.S. Department of Transportation traffic light synchronization program in Texas did exactly that
      Delays reduced by 25%
      Fuel consumption reduced by 14%
      Tom Vanderbilt | TrafficFlow Manager | Nudge blog
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • 8. Ask with the right incentive
    • 8. Ask with the right incentive
      a. Start stopping
      Arkansas’ sustainability officer John Coleman is paid $57,000 a
      year to make sure he saves the city at least $57,000 a year
      through energy efficiency improvements.
       
      Good idea?
       
      Fayetteville’s energy cop | Nudgeblog
    • 8. Ask with the right incentive
      a. Start stopping
      Arkansas’ sustainability officer John Coleman is paid $57,000 a
      year to make sure he saves the city at least $57,000 a year
      through energy efficiency improvements.
        
      “ I would point to the perverse incentive here. As soon as Tom
      reaches the $57,000 target, he should wait until the following
      financial year before implementing the next energy saving
      initiative.” Comment | Dave Comerford
      Fayetteville’s energy cop | Nudgeblog
    • 8. Ask with the right incentive
      b. Recycling: Heavy, man
      RecycleBank in the US & UK weighs the amount you recycle and turns into points
      • Redeem for coupons to local & national stores. (A simple incentive)
      • Partners include eBay, Marks & Spencer, Boris Johnson (Reciprocity)
      • Totals number of trees and barrels of oil conserved. (Personally meaningful feedback)
      A Philadelphia Inquirer columnist’s take on nudge July 22, 2008 Chris Satullo
    • 8. Ask with the right incentive
      b. Recycling: Heavy, man
      Results:
      • They pay households in over 500 cities about £20 a month for recycling
      • They deliver savings for local authorities in landfill tax bills
      • Increased recycling by up to 200% (without additional government spending)
      • Turned poorer communities from the worst recyclers to among the best
      • Over 300 million barrels of oil conserved in US (In 2006 global daily use = 85 million barrels)
      A Philadelphia Inquirer columnist’s take on nudge July 22, 2008 Chris Satullo
    • 8. Ask with the right incentive
      Excessive temporal discounting
      Social norms
      Reciprocity
      b. Recycling: Heavy, man
      Results:
      • They pay households in over 500 cities about £20 a month for recycling
      • They deliver savings for local authorities in landfill tax bills
      • Increased recycling by up to 200% (without additional government spending)
      • Turned poorer communities from the worst recyclers to among the best
      • Over 300 million barrels of oil conserved in US (In 2006 global daily use = 85 million barrels)
      A Philadelphia Inquirer columnist’s take on nudge July 22, 2008 Chris Satullo
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • 9. Add options
    • a. Three’s a crowd
      The decoy effect in action:
       
       
       
      9. Add options
      Rome (all expenses paid)
      Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger
    • a. Three’s a crowd
      The decoy effect in action:
       
       
       
      9. Add options
      Rome (all expenses paid)
      Paris (all expenses paid)
      Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger
    • a. Three’s a crowd
      The decoy effect in action:
       
       
       
      9. Add options
      ?
      Rome (all expenses paid)
      Paris (all expenses paid)
      Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger
    • a. Three’s a crowd
      The decoy effect in action:
       
       
       
      9. Add options
      ?
      Rome (all expenses paid)
      Paris (all expenses paid)
      Rome (all expenses paid
      except morning espresso)
      Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger
    • a. Three’s a crowd
      The decoy effect in action:
       
       
       
      9. Add options
      Rome (all expenses paid)
      Paris (all expenses paid)
      “…when people cannot decide between two front-runners, they use the third candidate as a sort of measuring stick…”
      Washinton Post, Shankar Vedantam
      Rome (all expenses paid
      except morning espresso)
      Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger
    • 9. Add options
      a. Three’s a crowd
      The decoy effect in action:
       
       
       
      Hybrid car (Used)
      Small-engine petrol car (Used)
      “…when people cannot decide between two front-runners, they use the third candidate as a sort of measuring stick…”
      Washinton Post, Shankar Vedantam
      Hybrid car (New)
      Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger
    • 9. Add options
      Framing effect
      Distinction bias
      Decoy effect
      a. Three’s a crowd
      The decoy effect in action:
       
       
       
      Hybrid car (Used)
      Small-engine petrol car (Used)
      “…when people cannot decide between two front-runners, they use the third candidate as a sort of measuring stick…”
      Washinton Post, Shankar Vedantam
      Hybrid car (New)
      Voting Yea for the Decoys | Consumerology | December 11th, 2009 by Julie Adelsberger
    • 9. Add options
      b. What rubbish
      Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of the paper unrecyclable
      • In Singapore 100% of recycling bins were spoiled*
      * Sample of 80
      Singapore Straits Times, on June 15, “What rubbish,”
    • 9. Add options
      b. What rubbish
      Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of the paper unrecyclable
      National University of Singapore
      tackled this ‘Expect Error’ by adding a non-recycling bin
      Singapore Straits Times, on June 15, “What rubbish,”
    • 9. Add options
      Framing effect
      b. What rubbish
      Paper recycling bins are often contaminated with food waste, rendering all of the paper unrecyclable
      National University of Singapore
      tackled this ‘Expect Error’ by adding a non-recycling bin
      Singapore Straits Times, on June 15, “What rubbish,”
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • 10. Take away options
    • 10. Take away options
      a. Hole solution
       People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone
       
      How do you present a recycling option that deals with this behaviour?
      ?
      Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog
    • 10. Take away options
      a. Hole solution
       People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone
      Use a smaller hole
      Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog
    • 10. Take away options
      a. Hole solution
       People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone
      34% more appropriate material than a bin with a large hole
       
      Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog
    • 10. Take away options
      a. Hole solution
       People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone
      34% more appropriate material than a bin with a large hole
      “…recycling bins… that lacked those [small] holes were basically used as trash cans.”
      Sean Duffy, Associate professor of psychology at Rutgers–Camden
       
      Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog
    • 10. Take away options
      Framing effect
      a. Hole solution
       People generally discard waste while in the process of doing something else, like talking on a phone
      34% more appropriate material than a bin with a large hole
      “…recycling bins… that lacked those [small] holes were basically used as trash cans.”
      Sean Duffy, Associate professor of psychology at Rutgers–Camden
       
      Recycling bins work better when they have holes in them | nudgeblog
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      Catering for a conference
      A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
      Vegetarian
      Meat
      When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      Catering for a conference
      A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
      83%
      17%
      Vegetarian = option
      Meat = default
      When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      Catering for a conference
      A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
      80%
      20%
      Vegetarian = default
      Meat = option
      When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      Catering for a conference
      A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
      “Omnivores contribute seven times the greenhouse gas emissions, when compared to vegans…”
      Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez, conference chair, Pre American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
      80%
      Vegetarian = default
      When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      Framing effect
      Catering for a conference
      A conference experimented with their default menu options: one year they offered meat as default, the next year vegetarian
      “Omnivores contribute seven times the greenhouse gas emissions, when compared to vegans…”
      Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez, conference chair, Pre American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
      80%
      Vegetarian = default
      When Behavioral Economics Meets Climate Change, Guess What's Coming for Dinner? | Marc Gunther | climatebiz.com
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      b. Viva España(and California, Denmark,
      Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )
      Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data
      In the pilot group:
      • median filing times fell by 80%
      • beneficiaries saved an average $30
      • 0.3% received an error notice vs. 3.1% of other filers
      • won a 98% satisfaction rate
       
      Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      b. Viva España(and California, Denmark,
      Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )
      Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data
      Opposition to Ready Return has come from businesses. Stanford Law professor Joseph Bankman says Intuit, the California company that sells the popular TurboTax software, spent more than $1 million lobbying Republican lawmakers against the plan
      Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      b. Viva España(and California, Denmark,
      Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )
      Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data
      “I’ve always felt anxious about preparing my own taxes but this way was extremely easy and made me feel very comfortable.”
      (Quotes from actual ready return users)
      “ABSOLUTELY AWESOME. THIS IS THE BEST SERVICE I HAVE EVER SEEN BY THE GOVERNMENT. THANK YOU!”
      (Quotes from actual ready return users)
      Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009
    • 11. Ask, but have a default option
      Framing effect
      Temporal discounting
      b. Viva España(and California, Denmark,
      Australia, Belgium, Chile, Portugal, Spain, France, Netherlands… )
      Californian’s ‘Ready Return’ tax form has been a giant success. It’s pre-filled with last year’s data
      “I’ve always felt anxious about preparing my own taxes but this way was extremely easy and made me feel very comfortable.”
      (Quotes from actual ready return users)
      “ABSOLUTELY AWESOME. THIS IS THE BEST SERVICE I HAVE EVER SEEN BY THE GOVERNMENT. THANK YOU!”
      (Quotes from actual ready return users)
      Los Angeles Times | California GOP legislators blocked 20 bills after demands were unmet | Sept 2009
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      a. Want some fun? Part I
      In Sweden many people return plastic bottles and cans. Noticeably
      fewer recycle glass.
      How do you create the desire to recycle glass?
      Funtheory.com | Bottle Bank Arcade Machine
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      a. Want some fun? Part I
      In Sweden many people return plastic bottles and cans. Noticeably
      fewer recycle glass.
      How do you create the desire to recycle glass?
      Funtheory.com | Bottle Bank Arcade Machine
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      Framing effect
      a. Want some fun? Part I
      In Sweden many people return plastic bottles and cans. Noticeably
      fewer recycle glass.
      How do you create the desire to recycle glass?
      Funtheory.com | Bottle Bank Arcade Machine
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      a. Want some fun? Part II
      Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer.
      How do you create the desire to use the stairs?
      Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      a. Want some fun? Part II
      Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer.
      Piano stairs increased stair use by 66%
      Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      Temporal discounting
      Framing effect
      a. Want some fun? Part II
      Few people use stairs when there’s an escalator on offer.
      Piano stairs increased stair use by 66%
      Funtheory.com | Piano Staircase
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      Your benefit? Part I
      Do you want to take the stairs?
      FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      Your benefit? Part I
      Do you want to take the stairs lose weight?
      These stairs in the Goodnight
      Hostel in Lisbon appeal to the
      calorie conscious.
      FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      Your benefit? Part I
      Do you want to take the stairs get fit?
      (elevator call button crossed out)
      “to harden the butt”
      FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times
    • 12. Ask a completely different question
      Framing effect
      Your benefit? Part I
      Do you want to…
      FREAK Shots: Nudging the Calorie Counters | Freakonomics Blog | New York Times
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Part II
    • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
      Thank you
      (look out for part I & III)
    • Part II & III – Ready to download now>
      Part I & III – Ready to download now>