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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I

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Part one in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural ...

Part one in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural quirk(s).

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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I Presentation Transcript

  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
    February 2010
    Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty
    Colwyn Elder, Partner, Director of Planning & Strategy
    ,
  • 1. Simply ask
  • 2. Ask using the right words
  • 3. Ask using the right images
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
  • 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority
  • 6. Ask in the right order
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • 1. Simply ask
  • 1. Simply ask
    a. What can I get you sir?
    When asked nothing while in a queue for food
    40% of students took a serving of fruit
    Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study
  • 1. Simply ask
    a. What can I get you sir?
    When asked nothing while in a queue for food
    40% of students took a serving of fruit
    When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’
    70% of students took a serving of fruit
    Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study
  • 1. Simply ask
    Exposure effect
    a. What can I get you sir?
    When asked nothing while in a queue for food
    40% of students took a serving of fruit
    When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’
    70% of students took a serving of fruit
    Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study
  • 1. Simply ask
    Schrodinger’s cat
    Forty thousand people were asked:
    “Do you intend to buy a new car
    in the next six months?”
    Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein, p 76
  • 1. Simply ask
    Schrodinger’s cat
    Forty thousand people were asked:
    “Do you intend to buy a new car
    in the next six months?”
    The question increase purchase rates by 35%
    Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein, p 76
  • 1. Simply ask
    Exposure effect
    Schrodinger’s cat
    Forty thousand people were asked:
    “Do you intend to buy a new car
    in the next six months?”
    The question increase purchase rates by 35%
    Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein, p 76
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • 2. Ask using the right words
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Mandatory option
    When asked opinions of carbon payment
    • Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
    • Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable
     
    A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory
    | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Mandatory option
    When asked opinions of carbon payment
    • Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
    • Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable
     
    When asked if acceptable to make the carbon offset mandatory?
    A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory
    | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Mandatory option
    When asked opinions of carbon payment
    • Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
    • Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable
     
    When asked if acceptable to make the carbon offset mandatory?
    • Response20% more favourable than compulsory carbon tax
    A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory
    | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Framing
    effect
    Mandatory option
    When asked opinions of carbon payment
    • Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
    • Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable
     
    When asked if acceptable to make the carbon offset mandatory?
    • Response20% more favourable than compulsory carbon tax
    A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory
    | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    b. Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    The signs above were tested to stop the theft: Some were more successful than others…
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    b. Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    b. Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    3% theft
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    b. Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    1.7% theft
    3% theft
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    b. Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    1.7% theft
    3% theft
    “…a message that focuses recipients on the injunctive norm will be superior to messages that focus recipients on the descriptive norm.” (Cialdini et al., 2003)
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Social norms
    b. Petrified Thieves
    People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park.
     
    Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    Please don’t remove the
    petrified wood from the Park,
    in order to preserve
    the natural state
    of the Petrified Forest
    [nothing]
    8% theft
    1.7% theft
    3% theft
    “…a message that focuses recipients on the injunctive norm will be superior to messages that focus recipients on the descriptive norm.” (Cialdini et al., 2003)
    Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Personal taste
    Naming carrots‘X-Ray Vision Carrots’ (preschoolers)
    - Consumption jumps to 200%
    - Days later consumption at150%
     
    Smarter Lunchrooms Descriptive Names Make Healthy Sales | Making Veggies Cool for Kids
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Personal taste
    Naming carrots‘X-Ray Vision Carrots’ (preschoolers)
    - Consumption jumps to 200%
    - Days later consumption at150%
     
    Naming Vegetable Soup ‘Rich Vegetable Medley Soup’
    - Sales jump to 130%
    - Ratings also increased for:
    - the soup, the lunchroom, and the chef
    Smarter Lunchrooms Descriptive Names Make Healthy Sales | Making Veggies Cool for Kids
  • 2. Ask using the right words
    Selective perception
    Personal taste
    Naming carrots‘X-Ray Vision Carrots’ (preschoolers)
    - Consumption jumps to 200%
    - Days later consumption at150%
     
    Naming Vegetable Soup ‘Rich Vegetable Medley Soup’
    - Sales jump to 130%
    - Ratings also increased for:
    - the soup, the lunchroom, and the chef
    Smarter Lunchrooms Descriptive Names Make Healthy Sales | Making Veggies Cool for Kids
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • 3. Ask using the right images
  • 3. Ask using the right images
    a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody
    "People Start Pollution. People can stop it."  YouTube
  • 3. Ask using the right images
    a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody
    Considered successful:
    • 16th best television commercial of all time by TV Guide magazine (“The Fifty Greatest,” 1999)
    • Top 100 advertising campaigns of the 20th Century by Ad Age Magazine
    • 2 Clio awards
    Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University
  • 3. Ask using the right images
    a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody
    However - imagery is of a world overrun with litter reinforcing damaging message that many people do litter
    Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University
  • 3. Ask using the right images
    Social norms
    (Herd instinct)
    a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody
    “…small but conceptually meaningful modification of changing the depicted environment from trashed to clean—and thereby changing the perceived descriptive norm regarding littering.”
    Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    a. Insulating expectation
     
    Marks & Spencer is launching a home energy division (Feb 2010) - offering free loft or cavity wall insulation to employees
    Sutton council worked with B&Q to made 6,000 rolls of loft insulation available at massively reduced prices
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    a. Insulating expectation
     
    “…create 30,000 green M&S ambassadors by offering this energy efficient solution free of charge to our employees”
    Director of Marks & Spencer’s Plan A environmental scheme
    “[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”
    Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    Authority effect
    Social
    norms
    a. Insulating expectation
     
    “…create 30,000 green M&S ambassadors by offering this energy efficient solution free of charge to our employees”
    Director of Marks & Spencer’s Plan A environmental scheme
    “[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”
    Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    b. Don’t mess with Texas
     
    Males under 35 yrs in Texas were the main source of litter
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    b. Don’t mess with Texas
     
    Males under 35 yrs in Texas were the main source of litter
    Fines for didn’t work
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    b. Don’t mess with Texas
    Texas’s sporting and country-music heroes to front a campaign imploring not to litter:
    • Lance Armstrong
    • Chuck Norris
    • Willie Nelson
    • Lyle Lovett
    • Owen Wilson
    …and more
    http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    b. Don’t mess with Texas
    Ads avoided the negatives of guilt and
    shame in favour of the positives of
    pride and group identity.
    Within five years roadside litter was down by over 70%
    http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/
  • 4. Ask using the right authority
    Social
    norms
    b. Don’t mess with Texas
    Ads avoided the negatives of guilt and
    shame in favour of the positives of
    pride and group identity.
    Within five years roadside litter was down by over 70%
    http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    Eye eye
    An office tea & coffee ‘honour box’ alternated these images each week:
    ‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    Eye eye
    People paid 2.76 times more when the sign included the pair of eyes
    ‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    Eye eye
    "Frankly we were staggered by the size of the effect,”
    Gilbert Roberts, one of the researchers
    ‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    Authority
    effect
    Eye eye
    We’re sensitive to whether our actions are being observed by others… even if no one is actually watching.
    ‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    b. Smile, you’re on camera
    South Lanarkshire Council speed signs show numeral and ‘smiley face’ or ‘sad face’ icon according to driver’s speed
    Speed signs reduce you to a smile | October 2007 | South Lanarkshire Council
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    b. Smile, you’re on camera
    South Lanarkshire Council speed signs show numeral and ‘smiley face’ or ‘sad face’ icon according to driver’s speed
    Speeding fallen by 53%
    Speed signs reduce you to a smile | October 2007 | South Lanarkshire Council
  • 5. Ask using the right fake authority
    b. Smile, you’re on camera
    South Lanarkshire Council speed signs show numeral and ‘smiley face’ or ‘sad face’ icon according to driver’s speed
    Social approval
    "The feedback… has been extremely positive… children are desperate to see the smiley face and this encourages whoever is driving the car to slow down.”
    Councillor Michael McCann, the depute leader of South Lanarkshire Council (UK)
    Speed signs reduce you to a smile | October 2007 | South Lanarkshire Council
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    6. Ask in the right order
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    a. Order tax
     
    List advantages, then disadvantages of carbon taxes:
    46% of Republicans complied
    100% of Democrats complied
    A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory
    | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    a. Order tax
     
    List disadvantages, then advantages of carbon taxes:
    100% of Republicans complied
    100% of Democrats complied
    List advantages, then disadvantages of carbon taxes:
    46% of Republicans complied
    100% of Democrats complied
    A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory
    | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    Attribute
    framing
    Anchoring
    effect
    a. Order tax
     
    List disadvantages, then advantages of carbon taxes:
    100% of Republicans complied
    100% of Democrats complied
    List advantages, then disadvantages of carbon taxes:
    46% of Republicans complied
    100% of Democrats complied
    A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory
    | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    The mpg illusion
    Which trade-in saves the most fuel?
    Trade-in A
    Trade-in B
    10 mpg
    25 mpg
    50 mpg
    12.5 mpg
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    The mpg illusion
    Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?
    Trade-in A
    Trade-in B
    10 mpg = 10 GPhM
    25 mpg = 4 GPhM
    50 mpg = 2 GPhM
    12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    The mpg illusion
    Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?
    Trade-in A
    Trade-in B
    10 mpg = 10 GPhM
    25 mpg = 4 GPhM
    50 mpg = 2 GPhM
    12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM
    MPG makes you
    undervalue
    improvements in
    inefficient cars
    MPG makes you
    overvalue
    improvements in
    efficient cars
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • 6. Ask in the right order
    Framing
    effect
    The mpg illusion
    “The New York Senate Environmental Conservation Committee has passed a new fuel efficiency bill that includes a "gallons per mile" requirement… vehicle manufacturers [must] list "gallons per 1,000 miles" for city, highway, and combined driving.”
    Rick Larrick, The MPG Illusion, Feb 2010
    10 mpg = 10 GPhM11 mpg = 9 GPhM
    12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM
    14 mpg = 7 GPhM
    16.5 mpg = 6 GPhM
    20 mpg = 5 GPhM
    25 mpg = 4 GPhM
    33 mpg = 3 GPhM50 mpg = 2 GPhM
    100 mpg = 1 GPhM
    The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Part I
  • How do you create sustainable behaviour?
    Thank you
    (look out for part II & III)
  • Part II & III – Ready to download now>