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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I
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How do you create sustainable behaviour? Part I

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Part one in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural …

Part one in a series of three: Full of examples of behavioural change that create, or can create, sustainable actions. Includes measurement of success and the name of the corresponding behavioural quirk(s).

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  1. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />February 2010<br />Oliver Payne,Founder, CEO, The Hunting Dynasty<br />Colwyn Elder, Partner, Director of Planning & Strategy<br />, <br />
  2. 1. Simply ask <br />
  3. 2. Ask using the right words<br />
  4. 3. Ask using the right images <br />
  5. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />
  6. 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority <br />
  7. 6. Ask in the right order<br />
  8. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  9. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  10. 1. Simply ask <br />
  11. 1. Simply ask <br />a. What can I get you sir?<br />When asked nothing while in a queue for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br />Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study<br />
  12. 1. Simply ask <br />a. What can I get you sir?<br />When asked nothing while in a queue for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br />When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’<br />70% of students took a serving of fruit<br />Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study<br />
  13. 1. Simply ask <br />Exposure effect<br />a. What can I get you sir?<br />When asked nothing while in a queue for food<br />40% of students took a serving of fruit<br />When asked if they would ‘like fruit or fruit juice’<br />70% of students took a serving of fruit<br />Yale University researcher Marlene Schwartz in a 2007 study<br />
  14. 1. Simply ask <br />Schrodinger’s cat<br />Forty thousand people were asked:<br />“Do you intend to buy a new car <br />in the next six months?” <br />Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein, p 76<br />
  15. 1. Simply ask <br />Schrodinger’s cat<br />Forty thousand people were asked:<br />“Do you intend to buy a new car <br />in the next six months?” <br /> The question increase purchase rates by 35%<br />Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein, p 76<br />
  16. 1. Simply ask <br />Exposure effect<br />Schrodinger’s cat<br />Forty thousand people were asked:<br />“Do you intend to buy a new car <br />in the next six months?” <br /> The question increase purchase rates by 35%<br />Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein, p 76<br />
  17. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  18. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  19. 2. Ask using the right words<br />
  20. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Mandatory option <br />When asked opinions of carbon payment <br /><ul><li>Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
  21. Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable</li></ul> <br />A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory<br /> | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University <br />
  22. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Mandatory option <br />When asked opinions of carbon payment <br /><ul><li>Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
  23. Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable</li></ul> <br />When asked if acceptable to make the carbon offset mandatory?<br />A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory<br /> | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University <br />
  24. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Mandatory option <br />When asked opinions of carbon payment <br /><ul><li>Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
  25. Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable</li></ul> <br />When asked if acceptable to make the carbon offset mandatory?<br /><ul><li>Response20% more favourable than compulsory carbon tax</li></ul>A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory<br /> | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University <br />
  26. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Framing<br />effect<br />Mandatory option <br />When asked opinions of carbon payment <br /><ul><li>Compulsory carbon tax was unpopular
  27. Non-compulsory carbon offset was acceptable</li></ul> <br />When asked if acceptable to make the carbon offset mandatory?<br /><ul><li>Response20% more favourable than compulsory carbon tax</li></ul>A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory<br /> | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University <br />
  28. 2. Ask using the right words<br />b. Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />The signs above were tested to stop the theft: Some were more successful than others…<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
  29. 2. Ask using the right words<br />b. Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
  30. 2. Ask using the right words<br />b. Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />3% theft<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
  31. 2. Ask using the right words<br />b. Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />1.7% theft<br />3% theft<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
  32. 2. Ask using the right words<br />b. Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />1.7% theft<br />3% theft<br />“…a message that focuses recipients on the injunctive norm will be superior to messages that focus recipients on the descriptive norm.” (Cialdini et al., 2003)<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
  33. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Social norms<br />b. Petrified Thieves<br />People steal bits of wood from Arizona’s Petrified Forest National Park. <br /> <br />Many past visitors have removed petrified wood from the Park, changing the natural state <br />of the Petrified Forest<br />Please don’t remove the <br />petrified wood from the Park, <br />in order to preserve <br />the natural state<br />of the Petrified Forest <br />[nothing]<br />8% theft<br />1.7% theft<br />3% theft<br />“…a message that focuses recipients on the injunctive norm will be superior to messages that focus recipients on the descriptive norm.” (Cialdini et al., 2003)<br />Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion | Goldstein, Martin, Cialdini | 2007 | pp20<br />
  34. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Personal taste<br />Naming carrots‘X-Ray Vision Carrots’ (preschoolers) <br /> - Consumption jumps to 200%<br /> - Days later consumption at150%<br /> <br />Smarter Lunchrooms Descriptive Names Make Healthy Sales | Making Veggies Cool for Kids<br />
  35. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Personal taste<br />Naming carrots‘X-Ray Vision Carrots’ (preschoolers) <br /> - Consumption jumps to 200%<br /> - Days later consumption at150%<br /> <br /> Naming Vegetable Soup ‘Rich Vegetable Medley Soup’ <br /> - Sales jump to 130%<br /> - Ratings also increased for:<br /> - the soup, the lunchroom, and the chef <br />Smarter Lunchrooms Descriptive Names Make Healthy Sales | Making Veggies Cool for Kids<br />
  36. 2. Ask using the right words<br />Selective perception<br />Personal taste<br />Naming carrots‘X-Ray Vision Carrots’ (preschoolers) <br /> - Consumption jumps to 200%<br /> - Days later consumption at150%<br /> <br /> Naming Vegetable Soup ‘Rich Vegetable Medley Soup’ <br /> - Sales jump to 130%<br /> - Ratings also increased for:<br /> - the soup, the lunchroom, and the chef <br />Smarter Lunchrooms Descriptive Names Make Healthy Sales | Making Veggies Cool for Kids<br />
  37. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  38. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  39. 3. Ask using the right images <br />
  40. 3. Ask using the right images <br />a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />"People Start Pollution. People can stop it."  YouTube<br />
  41. 3. Ask using the right images <br />a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />Considered successful:<br /><ul><li>16th best television commercial of all time by TV Guide magazine (“The Fifty Greatest,” 1999)
  42. Top 100 advertising campaigns of the 20th Century by Ad Age Magazine
  43. 2 Clio awards</li></ul>Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University<br />
  44. 3. Ask using the right images <br />a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />However - imagery is of a world overrun with litter reinforcing damaging message that many people do litter<br />Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University<br />
  45. 3. Ask using the right images <br />Social norms<br />(Herd instinct)<br />a. Chief Iron Eyes Cody <br />“…small but conceptually meaningful modification of changing the depicted environment from trashed to clean—and thereby changing the perceived descriptive norm regarding littering.” <br />Crafting Normative Messages to Protect the Environment Robert B. Cialdini, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University<br />
  46. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  47. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  48. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />
  49. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />a. Insulating expectation<br /> <br />Marks & Spencer is launching a home energy division (Feb 2010) - offering free loft or cavity wall insulation to employees<br />Sutton council worked with B&Q to made 6,000 rolls of loft insulation available at massively reduced prices<br />
  50. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />a. Insulating expectation<br /> <br />“…create 30,000 green M&S ambassadors by offering this energy efficient solution free of charge to our employees”<br />Director of Marks & Spencer’s Plan A environmental scheme <br />“[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”<br />Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council <br />
  51. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />Authority effect<br />Social<br />norms<br />a. Insulating expectation<br /> <br />“…create 30,000 green M&S ambassadors by offering this energy efficient solution free of charge to our employees”<br />Director of Marks & Spencer’s Plan A environmental scheme <br />“[A] very simple step to make their homes more carbon efficient and to save on their bills”<br />Daniel Ratchford -Strategic Director, Environment & Leisure, Sutton Council <br />
  52. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />b. Don’t mess with Texas<br /> <br /> Males under 35 yrs in Texas were the main source of litter<br />
  53. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />b. Don’t mess with Texas<br /> <br /> Males under 35 yrs in Texas were the main source of litter<br /> Fines for didn’t work<br />
  54. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />b. Don’t mess with Texas<br />Texas’s sporting and country-music heroes to front a campaign imploring not to litter:<br /><ul><li>Lance Armstrong
  55. Chuck Norris
  56. Willie Nelson
  57. Lyle Lovett
  58. Owen Wilson</li></ul> …and more<br />http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/<br />
  59. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />b. Don’t mess with Texas<br />Ads avoided the negatives of guilt and<br />shame in favour of the positives of<br />pride and group identity.<br />Within five years roadside litter was down by over 70%<br />http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/<br />
  60. 4. Ask using the right authority <br />Social<br />norms<br />b. Don’t mess with Texas<br />Ads avoided the negatives of guilt and<br />shame in favour of the positives of<br />pride and group identity.<br />Within five years roadside litter was down by over 70%<br />http://www.dontmesswithtexas.org/<br />
  61. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  62. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  63. 5. Ask using the right fakeauthority <br />
  64. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Eye eye<br />An office tea & coffee ‘honour box’ alternated these images each week:<br />‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist <br />
  65. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Eye eye<br />People paid 2.76 times more when the sign included the pair of eyes<br />‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist <br />
  66. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Eye eye<br />"Frankly we were staggered by the size of the effect,” <br />Gilbert Roberts, one of the researchers<br />‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist <br />
  67. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />Authority<br />effect<br />Eye eye<br />We’re sensitive to whether our actions are being observed by others… even if no one is actually watching.<br />‘Big Brother' eyes make us act more honestly, June 2006, New Scientist <br />
  68. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />b. Smile, you’re on camera<br />South Lanarkshire Council speed signs show numeral and ‘smiley face’ or ‘sad face’ icon according to driver’s speed<br /> Speed signs reduce you to a smile | October 2007 | South Lanarkshire Council<br />
  69. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />b. Smile, you’re on camera<br />South Lanarkshire Council speed signs show numeral and ‘smiley face’ or ‘sad face’ icon according to driver’s speed<br />Speeding fallen by 53%<br /> Speed signs reduce you to a smile | October 2007 | South Lanarkshire Council<br />
  70. 5. Ask using the right fake authority <br />b. Smile, you’re on camera<br />South Lanarkshire Council speed signs show numeral and ‘smiley face’ or ‘sad face’ icon according to driver’s speed<br />Social approval<br /> "The feedback… has been extremely positive… children are desperate to see the smiley face and this encourages whoever is driving the car to slow down.”<br />Councillor Michael McCann, the depute leader of South Lanarkshire Council (UK)<br /> Speed signs reduce you to a smile | October 2007 | South Lanarkshire Council<br />
  71. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  72. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  73. 6. Ask in the right order<br />6. Ask in the right order<br />
  74. 6. Ask in the right order<br />a. Order tax <br /> <br />List advantages, then disadvantages of carbon taxes:<br /> 46% of Republicans complied<br /> 100% of Democrats complied<br />A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory<br /> | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University <br />
  75. 6. Ask in the right order<br />a. Order tax <br /> <br />List disadvantages, then advantages of carbon taxes:<br /> 100% of Republicans complied<br /> 100% of Democrats complied<br />List advantages, then disadvantages of carbon taxes:<br /> 46% of Republicans complied<br /> 100% of Democrats complied<br />A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory<br /> | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University <br />
  76. 6. Ask in the right order<br />Attribute<br />framing<br />Anchoring<br />effect<br />a. Order tax <br /> <br />List disadvantages, then advantages of carbon taxes:<br /> 100% of Republicans complied<br /> 100% of Democrats complied<br />List advantages, then disadvantages of carbon taxes:<br /> 46% of Republicans complied<br /> 100% of Democrats complied<br />A Dirty Word or a Dirty World? Attribute Framing, Political Affiliation, and Query Theory<br /> | David Hardisty, Eric Johnson and Elke Weber at Columbia University <br />
  77. 6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br /> Which trade-in saves the most fuel?<br />Trade-in A<br />Trade-in B<br />10 mpg<br />25 mpg<br />50 mpg<br />12.5 mpg<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
  78. 6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br />Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?<br />Trade-in A<br />Trade-in B<br />10 mpg = 10 GPhM<br />25 mpg = 4 GPhM<br />50 mpg = 2 GPhM<br />12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
  79. 6. Ask in the right order<br />The mpg illusion<br />Now let’s show Miles-per-gallon as Gallons-per-(hundred)mile. Same answer?<br />Trade-in A<br />Trade-in B<br />10 mpg = 10 GPhM<br />25 mpg = 4 GPhM<br />50 mpg = 2 GPhM<br />12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM<br />MPG makes you<br />undervalue<br />improvements in<br />inefficient cars<br />MPG makes you<br />overvalue<br />improvements in<br />efficient cars<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
  80. 6. Ask in the right order<br />Framing<br />effect<br />The mpg illusion<br />“The New York Senate Environmental Conservation Committee has passed a new fuel efficiency bill that includes a "gallons per mile" requirement… vehicle manufacturers [must] list "gallons per 1,000 miles" for city, highway, and combined driving.”<br />Rick Larrick, The MPG Illusion, Feb 2010<br />10 mpg = 10 GPhM11 mpg = 9 GPhM<br />12.5 mpg = 8 GPhM<br />14 mpg = 7 GPhM<br />16.5 mpg = 6 GPhM<br />20 mpg = 5 GPhM<br />25 mpg = 4 GPhM<br />33 mpg = 3 GPhM50 mpg = 2 GPhM<br />100 mpg = 1 GPhM<br />The MPG Illusion | Professors Richard Larrick, Jack Soll | Duke University<br />
  81. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Part I<br />
  82. How do you create sustainable behaviour?<br />Thank you <br />(look out for part II & III)<br />
  83. Part II & III – Ready to download now><br />

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