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 Higher Education Profiling using Open Source GISA Primer on OpenStreetMap Data, Mapnik & OpenLayers <br />Oliver O’Brien ...
Contents<br />The Problem<br />Requirements<br />The Solution<br />OpenStreetMap Data<br />Mapnik<br />OpenLayers<br />Dat...
The Problem: Presenting the Data<br />A large amount of education-related spatial information available from various gover...
Requirements I. Straightforward<br />Standalone GISes<br />Hard to use (Haklay, 2009a)<br />Often expensive<br />Require d...
Requirements I. Straightforward<br />Web GISes<br />Slow<br />Unattractive<br />Difficult and/or expensive to build<br />M...
Requirements I. Straightforward<br />“Slippy Maps”<br />Simple to use<br />Very popular<br />Simple to build<br />Powerful...
Requirements II. Accessible<br />Software installation<br /> Requires time and skill<br /> Constrained by platform<br />Pl...
Requirements III. Self Contained<br />No dependencies on third parties with constraints<br />Ordnance Survey “tile limits”...
Requirements III. Self Contained<br />Full control over what’s on the map<br />Google’s colour scheme and branding can be ...
The Solution: An Education Atlas<br />Static tiles of choropleth maps<br />Minimal computer requirements<br />Scalable<br ...
Using OpenStreetMap Data<br />For a background map to provide context<br />Will include roads, town names, coastlines<br /...
Using Mapnik<br />“Mapnik is a Free Toolkit for developing mapping applications. Above all Mapnik is about making beautifu...
Using Mapnik<br />Stylesheets for the cartography<br />e.g. minor rivers and canals<br /> &lt;Rule&gt;<br />&lt;Filter&gt;...
Using OpenLayers<br />A way to display maps on a website<br />Just a simple web browser is needed<br />Accepts “layers” fr...
Other Data Sources<br />New Popular Edition Postcoding<br />Government Data<br />Combined with UKBORDERS boundary data, to...
Putting it all Together: Tile Generation<br />OpenStreetMap API<br />Stylesheet<br />Geofabrik Shapefiles<br />Mapnik<br /...
Putting it all Together: The Website<br />Web Browsers<br />OpenLayers<br />Tiles<br />mySQL<br />Database<br />The layers...
The Completed AtlasIDACI in Hampstead vs. Willesden, London<br />
The Completed AtlasA-Level French Popularity in S.E. England<br />
Putting it all Together: The Completed AtlasA-Level Geography Popularity in England<br />
The Completed AtlasOutput Area Classification in Manchester<br />
The Completed AtlasIDACI in Manchester<br />
The Completed AtlasGCSE Performance in Manchester<br />
Problems<br /><ul><li>No spatial data for independent schools or further education colleges – hence no A-Level metrics for...
Tiling process is quite slow and requires ~1GB of storage space for each choropleth set</li></ul>Next Steps<br /><ul><li>B...
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Higher Education Profiling using Open Source GIS - A Primer on OpenStreetMap Data, Mapnik & OpenLayers

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  • DCSF – attainment. CLG – IDACI. HEFCE – POLAR. HESA – school-to-university flows. ONS - for census information, from which are derived the Output Area Classifications. Widening participation is also known as Access to Higher Education.
  • Using ArcGIS as an example here as it is the dominant GIS application, however there are numerous other such as MapInfo, GRASS, Quantum GIS. Some are easier to use, some harder, but almost all require skills beyond that of the average web browser.
  • Slow – on-the-fly vector display, so slow on the client, or on-the-flyrasterisation, so slow on the server.Unattractive – produced by a GIS rather than a cartographical application, so generally no anti-aliasing or generalisation techniques applied.Difficult/expensive to build – May require delivery of vector data – licensing issues, as the client has a “digital copy” of the vector data, rather than a degraded raster.
  • Because they are popular, users don’t need “special skills”
  • Flash is popular, but not available on the iPhone.
  • If data supplied includes only National Grid References and not latitude/longitude, there is a good chance that it has been derived from Ordnance Survey data. Therefore, in theory, placing that data on a Google Map “mashup” would allow Google ownership of that data, which Ordnance Survey forbids.Ordnance Survey sent a letter to all district councils in the UK recently, advising them of the derived data problem.
  • Note the added “Parks” symbols roughly correspond to some (but not all) of Google’s own “Tree” symbol for public parks. It would be better if we could choose not to show Google’s own one. Also, you are stuck with Google’s colour scheme – here, the green is different to the green of the main website.
  • OS OpenSpace have built their own version of OpenLayers, which can be used to display Ordnance Survey mapping imagery. However you cannot directly use the OpenSpace maps in a standalone version of OpenLayers.
  • OS OpenSpace have built their own version of OpenLayers, which can be used to display Ordnance Survey mapping imagery. However you cannot directly use the OpenSpace maps in a standalone version of OpenLayers.
  • The data sources are on the left. The intermediate systems are in the middle. The systems used in the final map are in the box on the right.
  • Transcript of "Higher Education Profiling using Open Source GIS - A Primer on OpenStreetMap Data, Mapnik & OpenLayers"

    1. 1. Higher Education Profiling using Open Source GISA Primer on OpenStreetMap Data, Mapnik & OpenLayers <br />Oliver O’Brien & Alex Singleton<br />Department of Geography<br />University College London<br />
    2. 2. Contents<br />The Problem<br />Requirements<br />The Solution<br />OpenStreetMap Data<br />Mapnik<br />OpenLayers<br />Data Sources<br />Putting it all Together<br />The Completed Atlas<br />
    3. 3. The Problem: Presenting the Data<br />A large amount of education-related spatial information available from various governmental bodies but not in a readily accessible graphical form (i.e. maps) for non-technical users.<br />Dept. for Schools, Children and Families<br />Communities and Local Government<br />Higher Education Funding Council for England<br />Higher Education Statistics Agency<br />Office for National Statistics<br />“Widening participation” initiatives require effective ways to view such data, to make decisions on target schools and areas. <br />
    4. 4. Requirements I. Straightforward<br />Standalone GISes<br />Hard to use (Haklay, 2009a)<br />Often expensive<br />Require delivery of data to the client<br />
    5. 5. Requirements I. Straightforward<br />Web GISes<br />Slow<br />Unattractive<br />Difficult and/or expensive to build<br />May require delivery of vector data to the client<br />
    6. 6. Requirements I. Straightforward<br />“Slippy Maps”<br />Simple to use<br />Very popular<br />Simple to build<br />Powerful API (e.g. Google Maps API)<br />
    7. 7. Requirements II. Accessible<br />Software installation<br /> Requires time and skill<br /> Constrained by platform<br />Plug-ins<br /> Generally require a fast computer<br /> Still some platform issues<br />A solution without installation or plug-ins is most accessible<br /> HTML, CSS, AJAX<br /> PNG images<br />
    8. 8. Requirements III. Self Contained<br />No dependencies on third parties with constraints<br />Ordnance Survey “tile limits”<br />The “derived data” problem, Google and Ordnance Survey<br />Can’t put Ordnance Survey derived data on a Google Maps “mashup”<br />Government departments often provide data that has been geolocated from Ordnance Survey mapping (e.g. using National Grid References)<br />Ordnance Survey is being very active at protecting use of its data at the moment<br />
    9. 9. Requirements III. Self Contained<br />Full control over what’s on the map<br />Google’s colour scheme and branding can be distracting <br />
    10. 10. The Solution: An Education Atlas<br />Static tiles of choropleth maps<br />Minimal computer requirements<br />Scalable<br />Mapnik<br />Makes “beautiful” raster maps<br />OpenStreetMap data<br />Easily available data source to create background maps<br />Full control over what is included<br />OpenLayers<br />Provides the “slippy map” interface familiar to users<br />Self-contained<br />
    11. 11. Using OpenStreetMap Data<br />For a background map to provide context<br />Will include roads, town names, coastlines<br />We don’t want all the data – just what we need<br />Ways to obtain the data<br />Directly from osm.org as XML, requires converting<br />Shapefiles produced by CloudMade or Geofabrik<br />Data quality and completeness<br />Improving rapidly (Haklay, 2009b)<br />Now pretty good for England (Reed, 2009)<br />Can always obtain a very up-to-date dataset<br />www.openstreetmap.org<br />
    12. 12. Using Mapnik<br />“Mapnik is a Free Toolkit for developing mapping applications. Above all Mapnik is about making beautiful maps.” – mapnik.org<br />Data Sources<br />Shapefiles<br />PostGIS databases<br />Direct from OpenStreetMap<br />Tiles<br />Can be configured to systemically create square tiles at different zoom levels for the whole country<br />www.mapnik.org<br />
    13. 13. Using Mapnik<br />Stylesheets for the cartography<br />e.g. minor rivers and canals<br /> &lt;Rule&gt;<br />&lt;Filter&gt;[waterway]=&apos;river&apos; <br /> or [waterway]=&apos;canal&apos;&lt;/Filter&gt;<br />&lt;MaxScaleDenominator&gt;80000<br /> &lt;/MaxScaleDenominator&gt;<br /> &lt;LineSymbolizer&gt;<br /> &lt;CssParameter name=&quot;stroke&quot;&gt;#88c <br /> &lt;CssParameter name=&quot;stroke-width&quot;&gt;3<br /> &lt;CssParameter name=&quot;stroke-linejoin”&gt;round<br /> &lt;CssParameter name=&quot;stroke-linecap&quot;&gt;round<br /> &lt;/LineSymbolizer&gt;<br /> &lt;TextSymbolizername=&quot;name&quot; <br />face_name=&quot;DejaVu Sans Book&quot; size=&quot;10&quot; <br /> fill=&quot;#666&quot; halo_radius=&quot;1&quot; <br /> placement=&quot;line&quot; min_distance=&quot;200&quot;/&gt;<br /> &lt;/Rule&gt;<br />
    14. 14. Using OpenLayers<br />A way to display maps on a website<br />Just a simple web browser is needed<br />Accepts “layers” from many sources<br />Google Maps<br />Microsoft Bing, Virtual Earth, Yahoo<br />ArcGIS 9.3 Mapping Services<br />Ordnance Survey OpenSpace<br />More powerful (but more complex) than the popular Google Maps API<br />www.openlayers.org<br />
    15. 15. Other Data Sources<br />New Popular Edition Postcoding<br />Government Data<br />Combined with UKBORDERS boundary data, to create choropleths of each educational metric<br />Includes the National Pupil Database with postcode, for Key Stage 4 (GCSE) and Key Stage 5 (A-Level)<br />
    16. 16. Putting it all Together: Tile Generation<br />OpenStreetMap API<br />Stylesheet<br />Geofabrik Shapefiles<br />Mapnik<br />PostGIS<br />Database<br />Other .gov.uk<br />Tiles<br />Shapefiles<br />UKBORDERS<br />mySQL<br />Database<br />DSCF.gov.uk<br />
    17. 17. Putting it all Together: The Website<br />Web Browsers<br />OpenLayers<br />Tiles<br />mySQL<br />Database<br />The layers in OpenLayers<br />Top: Schools (pins)<br />Middle: Network (B&W)<br />NPEMap Postcodes<br />Bottom: Choropleth (colours)<br />
    18. 18. The Completed AtlasIDACI in Hampstead vs. Willesden, London<br />
    19. 19. The Completed AtlasA-Level French Popularity in S.E. England<br />
    20. 20. Putting it all Together: The Completed AtlasA-Level Geography Popularity in England<br />
    21. 21. The Completed AtlasOutput Area Classification in Manchester<br />
    22. 22. The Completed AtlasIDACI in Manchester<br />
    23. 23. The Completed AtlasGCSE Performance in Manchester<br />
    24. 24. Problems<br /><ul><li>No spatial data for independent schools or further education colleges – hence no A-Level metrics for Manchester
    25. 25. Tiling process is quite slow and requires ~1GB of storage space for each choropleth set</li></ul>Next Steps<br /><ul><li>Bring in higher education flow data
    26. 26. Incorporate individual school metrics</li></li></ul><li>Further Information<br />http://ollie.blogs.splintdev.geog.ucl.ac.uk/<br />References<br />Haklay, 2009a: Neo and Paleo GIS – is the difference in the usability culture? http://povesham.wordpress.com/category/gis-usability/<br />Haklay, 2009b: OpenStreetMap and OS Master Map – Beyond good enough http://povesham.wordpress.com/2009/07/15/openstreetmap-and-ordnance-survey-master-map-–-beyond-good-enough/<br />Reed, 2009: More on OSM Coverage http://tlatet.blogspot.com/2009/08/more-on-osm-coverage.html<br />
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