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Maintenance

Maintenance

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    Presentation   rmc Presentation rmc Presentation Transcript

        • REGIONAL METROLOGY CONFERENCE 2010
        • ELECTRICAL
        • INSTRUMENTATION
        • By: A. Ochieng
        • 08. 10. 2008
        • INSTRUMENTATION
        • 1. INTRODUCTION
        • DEFINITION :
        • Instrumentation is the branch of science that deals with measurement and control.
        • It is a specialization focused on the principle and operation of measuring instruments which are used in design and configuration of automated systems.
        • 2 Instrument Composition
        • An instrument consists of;
        • system under measurement or measurand,
        • sensors/transducers,
        • signal conditioners,
        • signal processors and
        • effectuator / output (display, recording or storage).
        • 2.1 These measured values include:
        • pressure - flow
        • temperature - level
        • position, speed, vibration or acceleration)
        • density - viscosity
        • radiation - current
        • voltage
        • inductance - capacitance
        • frequency - resistance
        • chemical composition
      • The can be an output in the form of:
      • -analogue or digital readout,
      • -graphical display
      • -or video display.
      • 2.5 Control
      • examples :
      • Device Field Parameters
      • Valve Flow, Pressure
      • Relay Voltage, Current
      • Solenoid Physical Location, Level
      • Circuit breaker Voltage, Current
      • 3.0 INSTRUMENT OPERATION
      • Instruments mode of operation may be either
      • -manual,
      • -semi-automatic or
      • -automatic
      • This depends on the purpose and technology at the time of manufacture
      • 4.0 Instrument Failure
      • Failures may be categorised as:-
      • - intermittent or permanent,
      • - partial or complete,
      • - sudden or gradual,
      • - Catastrophic or degrading.
      • - Random, time-dependent or failure soon after being put into use (infant mortality).
      • The common causes of instrument faults are:
      • 4.1 Improper Operation in usage
      • - due to not inadequate training
      • - not following procedures
      • - ignorance
      • - lack of exposure
      • 4.2 Incorrect Installation
      • Can result in incorrect measurements or malfunction which can be costly and time consuming .
      • 4.3 Careless handling and misuse
      • Improper handling, storage and misuse
      • .
      • This could include
      • -damage during transportation or movement ,
      • -accumulation of dust,
      • -operation under harsh environments
      • -Spillage of corrosive substances
      • -leaving instrument powered /on for extended period of time.
      • 4.4 Ageing
      • -Mechanical parts wear and tear,
      • -Electronic components like transistors age, wear out or degenerate
      • These parts need to be replaced in time by qualified, experienced and skilled personnel.
      • 4.5 Poor design or construction
      • Inherent weaknesses or defects due to
      • - poor designs
      • - construction using low quality materials or components
      • - or bad processes can results in failure of instruments in usage.
      • 4.6 Environment
      • - Physical (temperature, humidity, pressure, vibration etc) chemical (gases, acids, alkalis) and
      • - biological (fungi), factors can cause instrument to fail.
      • - Electrical and pneumatic power fluctuations or lightning may also lead to failures.
      • 5. Repair & Maintenance
      • 5.1 Repairs
      • - This is corrective maintenance done on an instrument which has broken down.
      • - This entails faultfinding or trouble-shooting and then fixing the problem.
      • 5.2 Equipment Maintenance
      • - Maintenance is a process of keeping an instrument in a state fit for carrying out measurements by either
      • - preventing it from failing to function properly or
      • restoring it to the desired proper operating state after failure.
      • - Maintenance includes tests, measurements, adjustments, and parts replacement , performed specifically to prevent faults from occurring.
      • Benefits to preventive maintenance:
      • Prevention of downtime
      • Ensure instrument is performing according to the manufacturers’ specification.
      • Extend the useful life of the instrument
      • Avoid premature capital expenditure
      • Less probability of a costly breakdown
      • More reliable instrument
      • Increased likelihood that the instrument will maintain its specifications
      • Minimization of potential contamination issues
      • A safer instrument for staff
      • 5.2.1. Preventive Maintenance (planned)
      • This is planned maintenance aimed at the timely overcoming of the causes that lead to operational degradation of an instrument.
      • It can either be:
        • scheduled or
        • condition based (predictive) maintenance.
      • 5.2.1.1 Scheduled Maintenance
      • -Periodic, planned, regular and routine
      • - Carried out on a functioning instrument or system to forestall the occurrence of a breakdown which may occur in future
      • -The daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly or yearly
      • 5.2.1.2 Condition based or Predictive Maintenance
      • - This entails optimum or continuous monitoring of selected characteristics - vibration, pressure, temperature etc. - of sensitive and critical instruments
      • - to predict or detect deviant abnormal occurrences
      • - offers cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance because tasks are performed only when warranted.
      • 5.2.2 Corrective (unplanned/ breakdown / curative) Maintenance
      • - This maintenance is carried out when an instrument has ceased to work or broken down.
      • - It is corrective in that action is taken after actual failure.
      • 5.2.3 Modification
      • modified or improved by
      • - change to the design or
      • - substitution of parts with better ones.
      • This may be due to the need to
      • -avoid repeat of earlier critical failure,
      • -reduce the frequency of failures,
      • -access to better parts and components
      • -or the extension or conversion of the use of the instrument.
      • 6.0 INSTRUMENT WRITE-OFF, DISPOSALS OR REPLACEMENT
      • Instruments may be written-off, replaced or put out of service when :
      • -when it is no longer cost-effective to maintain/operate
      • -non-availability of spare parts,
      • -obsolete technology,
      • - legal - regulatory requirements,
      • -lack of know-how,
      • -lack of qualified and competent personnel,
      • -advances in technology or policy
      • -environment safety concerns,
      • -design concepts like inbuilt obsolescence,
      • -operating costs
      • 6.2 Disposal
      • This may be through sale , scraping , donation or relocation .
      • INSTRUMENTATION AT KEBS
      • Primary responsibility:
      • -Repair and maintenance of test, measurement and analytical instruments and equipment.
      • -Design and development
      • -Installation and commissioning
      • EQUIPMENT SERVICED
      • These include:
      • -Laboratory equipments/Instruments such as:
      • - Carbon sulphur analyzers - Photometers,
      • - Autoclaves - Chromatographs
      • - Ovens - Echographs
      • - Polarimeters - X-ray equipment
      • - Electronic/mechanical analytical balances
      • - Testing machines (textile, tensile, compression, hardness, etc.)
      • - Spectrophotometers
      • Industrial instruments such as:
      • -Industrial weighing scales/machines
      • -Process monitoring and control instruments e.g. temperature controllers,
      • -X-rays equipment,
      • -tensile and compression testers
      • Telecommunication Instruments :
      • - Oscilloscopes
      • - Signal generators
      • - Pulse generators
      • - Power meters
      • - Spectrum analyzers
      • Commercial and Trade Instruments such as:
      • -Flow meters (water meters etc.)
      • -Energy meters, etc
      • ENGINEERING /MECHANICAL WORKSHOP
      • 3.1 Preparation of samples
      • Samples prepared include: -
      • - Welding rods, tensile and impact samples
      • - Chippings for chemical analysis
      • - Hardness test samples
      • - Other samples
      • 3.2 Support primary calibration laboratory.
      • - Machining and fabrication of spare for equipment e.g. adaptors for pressure testing.
      • - Engraving of dipsticks and scales in volume measurements.
      • - Design and development of testing rigs required in calibration e.g. a tensiometer Force laboratory,
      • - Development of calibration benches e.g. in Photometry lab
      • 3.4 Fabrication works
      • - Fabrication of metallic doors, barriers widow grills etc
      • Machining Work and Other Metal Works
      • Some of the main machines found in the section are:
      • - Lathe machines
      • - Milling machines
      • - Welding machines
      • - Engraving machines
      • - Power saw
      • - Guillotine machines
      • - Grinding machines e.t.c.
      • THANK YOU