S1 4 adventist health study

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Basado en investigaciones realizadas a los habitos de vida de miembros de la iglesia adventista.

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  • This program is designed to give some statistics regarding the Adventist Health Study conducted in California. The slides are self-explanatory. Notes are also on the closing slide.
  • The Brown Super’s Whole grains-wheat, yellow corn, brown and red rice, oats, rye, buckwheat, millet, and buckwheat. Legumes- beans and peas and lentils.
  • The Green Super’s Kale, Spinach, Broccoli, Collards, Cabbage, Cauliflower Herbs: Basil, oregano, dill, mint, Disease Reduction Activity Slows Muscular Degeneration, Antioxidant Chemical Contribution Indoles, Vitamin C Carotenoids Fiber Iron Calcium AJCN 1991, 53, p. 298S Preventive Medicine , 1989, 18:732-739
  • The White Super Food Garlic, onions, leeks, shallots and milk. Disease Reduction Effect Antibiotic, anti-tumor cancer, less platelet, stickiness, lower cholesterol Lowered osteoporosis and cancer Chemical Contributions Allylsolfides, Allicin Calcium, Vitamin A,( B 12 in dairy foods)
  • The Red Super’s Cranberries, strawberries, sweet qne sour cherries, raspberries, watermelon, apples, pink grape fruit, red grapes, pomegranates. Tomatoes, red peppers, beets, radishes Disease Reduction Effect Inhibits initiation of cancer cells Antioxidants. Active Chemical Component Ellagic Acid, terpenes, Vitamin C, and lycopene
  • The Purple and Blue Super Foods Blueberries, blackberries, grapes, raisins, prunes, plums, eggplant, blue potatoes, purple peppers and figs.
  • The Brown Super’s Whole grains-wheat, yellow corn, brown and red rice, oats, rye, buckwheat, millet, and buckwheat. Legumes- beans and peas and lentils.
  • The Healthiest Seeds Flax-highest in omega 3 fatty acids Pumpkin Dill Sesame Coriander Sunflower Fenugreek Watermelon Nutmeg Lotus Poppy Safflower Fennel Anise Cardamom
  • With the Adventist Church’s emphasis on a vegetarian lifestyle, freedom from drugs, alcohol, tea, coffee and smoking, an emphasis on physical activity, cleanliness and water, sunshine, fresh air, rest and trust in God it can be seen that all these findings demonstrate that these teachings are being upheld in the lives of those who have adopted them. It is not just that Adventists live longer but that their quality of life is better as well. It is important to remember however that our attitudes also impact on our health and that to be truly healthy we need to have peace of mind and the joy of the abundant life in Christ. It is no good to be physically healthy but morose and unhappy. Also it should be noted that many are losing the advantage as they seek to compromise the position which the church has upheld. Let’s keep the advantage and promote it to the community.
  • S1 4 adventist health study

    1. 1. Adventist Health Study By: Stoy Proctor, MPH., M.Div. Associate Director Health Ministries Department General Conference Seventh-day Adventist Church Adjunct Professor Loma Linda University July 2005
    2. 2. In 1974 a study involving 34,000 Adventists in California was commenced. It was called the Californian Adventist Health Study (Adventist Health Study I) and compared two groups of Adventists the vegetarian group and the omnivorous group. It attempted to see whether there were any associations between the way people ate and the incidence of cancer and heart disease.
    3. 3. Healthiest Diets
    4. 5. <ul><li>Whole grains- whole wheat, </li></ul><ul><li>yellow corn, brown and </li></ul><ul><li>red rice, oats, rye, buckwheat </li></ul><ul><li>and millet, bulgur, amaranth, </li></ul><ul><li>quinoa, kamut, triticale, spelt, </li></ul><ul><li>couscous, and buckwheat.. </li></ul>Go for the Gold- Golden Whole Grains
    5. 6. Nutrition of Whole Grains <ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble and insoluble fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B, 1,2,3,6 </li></ul><ul><li>Folate </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Trace minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphenoics </li></ul>
    6. 7. Whole Grains and Fatal and Non-Fatal IHD <ul><li>Whole White </li></ul><ul><li>Grains Bread </li></ul><ul><li>Fatal IHD .89 1.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Non-fatal IHD .56 1.00 </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>5-8 Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>1 Slice of whole grain bread </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup of whole gain cereal </li></ul><ul><li>1 cup of dry whole grain cereal </li></ul><ul><li>¼ cup of granola </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup of pasta </li></ul><ul><li>1 chapatti, tortilla </li></ul><ul><li>3-4 whole grain crackers </li></ul>
    8. 9. Vote for the vegetables
    9. 10. <ul><li>Onion </li></ul><ul><li>Chives </li></ul><ul><li>Leeks </li></ul><ul><li>Basil </li></ul><ul><li>Tarragon </li></ul><ul><li>Dill </li></ul>Green Super Herbs AICR News Letter - Spring 1999* <ul><li>Parsley </li></ul><ul><li>Thyme </li></ul><ul><li>Cilantro </li></ul><ul><li>Coriander </li></ul><ul><li>Anise </li></ul><ul><li>Fennel </li></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><li>Kale, spinach, broccoli, </li></ul><ul><li>Bok choy, </li></ul><ul><li>Collards, Romaine </li></ul><ul><li>AJ Epid 1985, 119:775-787 </li></ul>The Green Super’s
    11. 12. Root Vegetables <ul><li>White potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Parsnips </li></ul><ul><li>Rutabaga </li></ul><ul><li>Beets </li></ul>
    12. 13. The Yellow-Orange Super’s Vegetables <ul><li>Carrots </li></ul><ul><li>Winter squash </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>Pumpkin </li></ul>
    13. 14. The White Super’s <ul><li>Food: </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic, onions </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Death from all causes was associated with a low consumption of green salads </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    15. 16. Nutrition of Vegetables <ul><li>Complex carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Flavonoids, Carot </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>4-6 Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>1 cup vegetable salad </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup of cooked vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>¾ cup of vegetable juice </li></ul><ul><li>1 baked potato </li></ul>Vary the Vegetables
    17. 18. Focus on Fruits Focus on Fruits Favor the Fruits
    18. 19. <ul><li>Papaya, </li></ul><ul><li>Mango </li></ul><ul><li>Cantaloupe </li></ul><ul><li>Apricots </li></ul><ul><li>Persimmon </li></ul><ul><li>Peaches </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive Medicine, 1989, 18:732-739 </li></ul>The Orange Super Fruits
    19. 20. The Red Super’s <ul><li>Food: </li></ul><ul><li>Cranberries, strawberries, cherries, raspberries, watermelon, apples, pink grape fruit and red grapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes, </li></ul>AJPH, 79, 1989, p. 1806-1819
    20. 21. Purple and Blue Super Foods <ul><ul><ul><li>Blueberries, blackberries, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>grapes, raisins, prunes, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plums, and figs. </li></ul></ul></ul>Figs Blueberries Blackberries Grapes Raisins Prunes Eggplants
    21. 22. Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study <ul><li>Regular consumption of dried fruit, legumes and tomatoes by men was associated with significantly decreased risk (40-50%) of prostate cancer. </li></ul>
    22. 23. <ul><li>Persons who consumed beans, lentils, peas, dried fruit and vegetable protein products more than 4 times a week had only one-fifth the risk of pancreatic cancer. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    23. 24. Fruit and Cancer (AHS 1) <3/wk 1.00 3-7/wk 0.30 >1/day 0.26 All fruits Lung <1/wk 1.00 1-4/wk 1.17 > 5/wk 0.62 Raisins, dates, dried fruit Prostate <1/month 1.00 > 3/wk 0.19 Raisins, dates, dried fruit Pancreas < 5/wk 1.00 1-2/day 1.24 >2/day 0.59 All fruits Ovary Frequency Relative Risk Fruit Types Cancer Site
    24. 25. Tomatoes and Cancer (AHS 1 ) Tomato Frequency .001 0.32 0.72 1.00 Ovary .10 0.60 0.64 1.00 Prostate p values 5 > / week 1-4 week <1/week Cancer Site
    25. 26. Fruit and Cancer (AHS 1) (<3/wk) 1.00; (3-7/wk) 0.30; (>1/day) 0.26 All fruits Lung (<1/wk) 1.00; (1-4/wk) 1.17; ( > 5/wk) 0.62 Raisins, dates, dried fruit Prostate (<1/month) 1.00; ( > 3/wk) 0.19 Raisins, dates, dried fruit Pancreas ( < 5/wk) 1.00; (1-2/day)1.24; (>2/day) 0.59 All fruits Ovary ( Fruit Frequencies)/Risk Ratios Fruit Types Cancer Site
    26. 27. Nutrition of Fruits <ul><li>Vitamin C </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Folate </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Flavonoids </li></ul><ul><li>Carotenoids </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>3-4 Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>1 medium fresh fruit </li></ul><ul><li>¼ cup dried fruit </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup canned or frozen fruit </li></ul><ul><li>¾ cup fruit juice </li></ul>
    28. 29. Log on to Legumes <ul><li>Legumes – </li></ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Peas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lentils </li></ul>
    29. 30. Power with Nuts <ul><li>WALNUTS ,ALMONDS, PEANUTS, pecans </li></ul><ul><li>High in MUFAS linoleic and linolenic. </li></ul><ul><li>BMJ 1998 Nov. 14, 317 (7169), 1341-5 </li></ul>
    30. 31. <ul><li>Flax-highest in omega 3 fatty acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Pumpkin Dill </li></ul><ul><li>Sesame Coriander </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower Fenugreek </li></ul><ul><li>Watermelon Nutmeg </li></ul><ul><li>Lotus Poppy </li></ul><ul><li>Safflower Fennel </li></ul><ul><li>Anise </li></ul><ul><li>Cardamom </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures of these seeds </li></ul>Power with Seeds
    31. 32. Nut Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease (AHS 1) Events 63 55 15 79 76 57 Non-Vegetarians Vegetarians Relative Risk P(t) <.05 P<.05 P(t) <.001 P<.001
    32. 33. Nut Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease Events 65 85 34 77 47 38 Age <80 Age 80+ Relative Risk P(t) <.05 P<.05 P(t) <.001 P<.001
    33. 34. <ul><li>3-4 Servings Daily </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup cooked legumes </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup tofu </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 cup soy alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>1 egg </li></ul><ul><li>2 egg whites </li></ul>
    34. 35. Nutrition of Legumes <ul><li>Protein Niacin </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Linolenic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble Fiber Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B 6 Folate </li></ul>
    35. 36. Reported Benefits from orgaganics <ul><li>Healthier for the family and </li></ul><ul><li>farmer, Less pesticide and herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Lower nitrates= exposed to bess Better for the environment- water .air, and soil </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe higher in Vitamin C and phyto-chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>In some studies organically grown food tasted better </li></ul><ul><li>With the No-till methods of farming soil humus is similar </li></ul><ul><li>Organic maybe lower in minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Food may be more expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot feed the whole population </li></ul><ul><li>More labor intensive </li></ul>
    36. 37. <ul><li>¼ cup nuts </li></ul><ul><li>1/4 seeds </li></ul><ul><li>2 t. nut butter </li></ul>
    37. 38. Move more Milk to your Menu Go Low-fat Dairy Or Fortified Alternatives
    38. 39. Nutrition of Dairy Products <ul><li>Vitamin B 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin A and d </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine </li></ul><ul><li>Isoflavones in soy </li></ul>
    39. 40. <ul><li>Frequent consumption of soy milk (more than once a day) was associated with a 70% reduction of risk of prostate cancer. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    40. 41. Relative risk* of prostate cancer by intake of soy milk. P(t) = .02 *Adjusted for age, BMI, consumption of coffee, whole milk, eggs and citrus fruit and age at first marriage . Jacobsen et al, (0.5-1.4) Never < daily 1 x/day 2+ day # men 10,875 902 395 223 (0.4-1.4) (0.1-0.9)
    41. 42. <ul><li>3 servings daily </li></ul><ul><li>1 cup of low-fat milk </li></ul><ul><li>1 cup fortified soy milk </li></ul><ul><li>1 cup yogurt </li></ul><ul><li>½ cup ricotta or cottage cheese </li></ul><ul><li>1 oz. fresh cheese </li></ul><ul><li>1 ½ T. cream cheese </li></ul>
    42. 43. <ul><li>Oils: olive, canola, soy, walnut </li></ul><ul><li>Olives, avocados, </li></ul><ul><li>Flax seed and flax seed oils </li></ul>
    43. 44. <ul><li>Olive increases elasticity of arteries. (MUFA) </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower oil reduces serum cholesterol. (Omega 6’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Canola and flaxseed oil high in alpha linolenic acid (Omega 3’s) </li></ul><ul><li>reduces clotting. * </li></ul><ul><li>Nutr. Rev. 1998: 56: 142-147 * </li></ul>
    44. 45. Nutrition of Healthy Fats <ul><li>Vitamin E </li></ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Linolenic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin A and D in margarines </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Servings </li></ul><ul><li>3-5 daily </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 avocado </li></ul><ul><li>2 t. nut butter </li></ul><ul><li>1 t. healthy plant oils </li></ul><ul><li>1 t. margarine </li></ul>
    45. 46. <ul><li>Men drinking 1-2 cups of coffee a day had a 50% higher risk of heart disease, while women had a 10-20% increase in risk. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    46. 47. Animal Protein and Fat <ul><li>You noticed that the higher the intake of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes. Nuts, soy </li></ul><ul><li>the lower the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Now notice what happens with disease as the consumption goes up. </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the Adventist Health Study </li></ul>
    47. 48. Total meat intake and risk of colon cancer Never < 1/week 1+/week P (trend)=0.01 (0.92-2.45) (1.16-2.87) RR
    48. 49. Red meat intake and risk of colon cancer, among those who eat white meat < 1x/week. Never < 1/week 1+/week P (trend) = 0.02 (0.87-2.25) (1.16-3.11) RR
    49. 50. White meat intake and risk of colon cancer, among those who eat red meat > 1x/week. Never < 1/week 1+/week P (trend) = 0.006 (0.97-2.50) (1.60-6.75) RR
    50. 51. Risk of prevalent rheumatoid arthritis and meat intake. Females. 1.49 (1.31-1.7) # Adjusted for age, BMI, education, oral contraceptive use, number of live births, smoking and alcohol intake. 1.26 (1.21-1.43 ) Meat intake: Never < 1x /wk 1+ /wk
    51. 52. Risk of prevalent rheumatoid arthritis and meat intake. Males. 1.43 (1.20-1.7) # Adjusted for age, BMI, education, number of live births, smoking and alcohol intake. 1.19 (1.05-1.34) Meat intake: Never < 1x /wk 1+ /wk
    52. 53. Meat Consumption and Cancer Meat Frequency * Not statistically significant 0.01 2.38 1.00 Bladder > 3/week <3/week 0.02 2.30) 1.59 1.00 (Postmenopausal) <0.10 1.75 1.39 1.00 Ovary NS 1.41 1.15 1.00 Prostate* .01 1.85 1.50 1.00 Colon p values >1/week <1/week Never Cancer Site
    53. 54. Relative Risk of Incidence of HYPERTENSION Requiring Medication (1960-76) according to Vegetarian Status (Adventist Mortality and Adventist Health Studies) All values significant. Relative Risk
    54. 55. Effects of Individual Risk Factors To Increase Life Expectancy 1.49 yrs 1.33 yrs Never Smoked 1.90 yrs 1.51 yrs Avoid High BMI 1.18 yrs 2.87 yrs Frequent Nut Consumption 2.19 yrs 2.14 yrs Vigorous Exercise 1.65 yrs 2.38 yrs Vegetarianism Women Men Variable
    55. 56. Health Habits and Life Expectancy in Adventists 1 Vegetarians who exercise vigorously at least 3 times weekly, eat nuts > 4 times each week. BMI < 25.90 (males), <25.20 (females), never smokers. 2 Converse of the above, including eating nuts <1/week, BMI greater than limits shown above. 8.7 years 10.8 years Difference 79.8 years 76.2 years ‘ Worst’-Behaved 2 88.5 years 87.0 years ‘ Best’-Behaved 1 Women Men
    56. 57. Percentages Dying From the Named Causes and Average Ages at these Fatal Events: California Adventists and non-Adventists. p<0.05; p<0.01; p<0.001 81.6 1.3 73.0 1.1 Diabetes 87.8 6.1 81.8 4.5 Pneumonia and Influenza 82.6 2.5 76.3 5.6 COPD and Allied Conditions 69.6 3.5 59.5 2.9 Unintentional Injuries 85.8 8.7 79.4 6.6 Cerebrovacular Disease (Stroke) 77.9 19.0 71.2 23.4 Malignant Neoplasms (Cancer) 82.9 40.4 75.7 39.0 Disease of the Heart Age (Years) % Age (Years) % Men Cause of Death (%) All Adventists All Californians
    57. 58. <ul><li>Non-vegetarians were two and a half times more likely to be obese than vegetarians. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    58. 59. <ul><li>Non-vegetarians had a risk of fatal stroke that was 20-30% higher than vegetarians. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    59. 60. <ul><li>Vegetarians had a delayed onset of dementia. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating meat doubles the risk of dementia. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    60. 61. <ul><li>Increased consumption of meat, poultry and fish is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    61. 62. <ul><li>The risk of prostate cancer is increased two and a half times and the risk of colon cancer is 3-fold greater in the overweight person. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    62. 63. <ul><li>30 year old women with a BMI above the 50 th percentile had a 57% greater lifetime risk of breast cancer. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    63. 64. <ul><li>Women who exercised infrequently had a 27% higher lifetime risk and an age at diagnosis of breast cancer 6.6 years younger than other women. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    64. 65. <ul><li>Total vegetarian men had less than 20% of the expected rate of fatal heart attacks compared to the general population. </li></ul><ul><li>Total vegetarian women had higher than the expected rate of lacto-ovo-vegetarians </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    65. 66. <ul><li>Lacto-ovo vegetarian men had about 40% of the expected rate of fatal heart attacks compared to the general population. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    66. 67. <ul><li>Men who adopted a vegetarian diet early in life (before age 20) had only one-half the risk of fatal heart disease compared to those who did not adopt a vegetarian lifestyle until after 50 years of age. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    67. 68. <ul><li>Those who adopted a vegetarian diet in their thirties had 30% less fatal heart disease than those who adopted the diet in their fifties. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    68. 69. <ul><li>Regular exercise reduced the risk of fatal coronary heart disease by 50%. </li></ul>Major Findings of the Adventist Health Study
    69. 70. <ul><li>There were four main factors that added 10-12 years to life compared with the general population, with each factor contributing 3-4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>They were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of a healthy weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An exercise program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vegetarian lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially, lots of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables, fruits, legumes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>whole grains-and little </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or no meat. </li></ul></ul>The Adventist Advantage
    70. 71. Predicted Age of Death of California Adventist <ul><li>Men 77.4 81.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Women 81.8 84.5 </li></ul><ul><li>17 % of men survive past 90 </li></ul><ul><li>24 % of women survive past 90 </li></ul>
    71. 72. MBD – Meat-Based Diet PBD – Plant-Based Diet Risk - Benefit Ratio of Meat-Based & Plant-Based Diets
    72. 73. Risk - Benefit Ratio of Meat-Based & Plant-Based Diets MBD – Meat-Based Diet PBD – Plant-Based Diet Risk of Deficiency Risk of Excess Optimal MBD PBD
    73. 74. <ul><li>‘‘ It is the position of the ADA and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits on the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.” </li></ul>American Dietetic Association
    74. 75. American Dietetic Association <ul><li>Vegetarians have lower body mass indices than non-vegetarians, as well as lower blood cholesterols, lower rates of blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, prostate and colon cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>P. 748 JADA June 2003 Vol. 103, </li></ul><ul><li># 6 </li></ul>
    75. 76. <ul><li>Vegetarian Choices </li></ul><ul><li>“ Vegetarians of all types can achieve recommended nutrient intakes through careful selection of foods. </li></ul><ul><li>If avoiding milk products, these individuals should give special attention to their intakes of protein, iron, vitamin B 12, as well as calcium and vitamin D” </li></ul>2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    76. 77. <ul><li>“ Christian behavior… means that because our bodies are the temples of the Holy Spirit, we are to care for them intelligently. Along with adequate exercise and rest, we are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures. </li></ul>SDA Church Manual-2000
    77. 78. SDA Believe-27 <ul><li>21th Fundamental Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>“ The original diet. The Bible does not condemn the eating of clean animals. But God’s original diet for man did not include flesh foods because He did not envision the taking of any animals life and because a balanced vegetarian diet is the best for health-a fact for which science offers mounting evidence” </li></ul>
    78. 79. <ul><li>“ The diet God ordained in the Garden of Eden-the vegetarian diet-is the ideal, but sometimes we cannot have the ideal. In those circumstances, in any given situation or locale, those who wish to stay in optimum health, will eat the best food that they can obtain.” </li></ul><ul><li>SDA Bible Commentary </li></ul>SDA’S Believe
    79. 80. <ul><li>“ The GCNC recommends that all fish, fowl and meat be gradually eliminated from the diet, and the use of egg yolks be limited to three or less per week. Red meats of animal origin are no longer viewed as dominant items in a healthy diet. General Conference Nutrition Council (GCNC) </li></ul>
    80. 81. Adventist Health Study The End July 2005
    81. 82. What We Eat And Drink Adventist Health Study 2 Report Dec. 2004
    82. 83. Fruit Servings/Day Less than one One 2 - 3 4 or more PERCENT Female Male
    83. 84. Vegetables Servings/Day Less than one One 2 or more PERCENT Female Male
    84. 85. No Yes PERCENT Eat Vegetarian Protein Food Female Male
    85. 86. Eggs Times/Week Never Less than Once Once 2 or more PERCENT Female Male
    86. 87. Cheese Times/Week Never Less than Once Once 2 or more PERCENT Female Male
    87. 88. Meat Times/Week Never Less than Once 1 - 4 5 or more PERCENT Female Male
    88. 89. Legumes Times/Week Less than Once Once 2 - 6 Times 7 or more PERCENT Female Male
    89. 90. Nuts Times/Week Never Once or Less 2 - 6 7 or more PERCENT Female Male
    90. 91. Soy/Rice Milk Times/Week Never Less than Once 1 - 4 5 or more PERCENT SOY Female Male
    91. 92. Coffee Drinks/Week Never Less than One 1 - 4 5 or more PERCENT Female Male
    92. 93. De-Caf Coffee Drinks/Week Never Less than One 1 - 4 5 or more PERCENT Female Male
    93. 94. Water Cups/Day One or Less 2 - 3 4 or more PERCENT Female Male
    94. 95. What We Do
    95. 96. Female Male Exercise Times/Week Never One or Less 2 - 4 5 or more PERCENT
    96. 97. Female Male Television Hours/Day Never One or Less 2 3 or more PERCENT
    97. 98. Drinking Alcohol Never Past Drinker Current Drinker PERCENT Female Male
    98. 99. Female Male Sleep Hours/Night 5 - Less 6 - 7 8 or more PERCENT
    99. 100. Female Male Eating Fast Food Times/Week Never Once or Less 2 or more PERCENT
    100. 101. Female Male Smoking Tobacco Never Past Smoker Current Smoker PERCENT
    101. 102. Female Male Restaurant Dining Times/Week Never Once or Less 2 or more PERCENT
    102. 103. <ul><li>‘‘ It is the position of the ADA and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits on the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.” </li></ul>American Dietetic Association
    103. 104. American Dietetic Association <ul><li>Vegetarians have lower body mass indices than non-vegetarians, as well as lower blood cholesterols, lower rates of blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, prostate and colon cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>P. 748 JADA June 2003 Vol. 103, </li></ul><ul><li># 6 </li></ul>
    104. 105. <ul><li>Vegetarian Choices </li></ul><ul><li>“ Vegetarians of all types can achieve recommended nutrient intakes through careful selection of foods. </li></ul><ul><li>If avoiding milk products, these individuals should give special attention to their intakes of protein, iron, vitamin B 12, as well as calcium and vitamin D” </li></ul>2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    105. 106. <ul><li>“ Christian behavior… means that because our bodies are the temples of the Holy Spirit, we are to care for them intelligently. Along with adequate exercise and rest, we are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures. </li></ul>SDA Church Manual-2000
    106. 107. SDA Believe-27 <ul><li>21th Fundamental Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>“ The original diet. The Bible does not condemn the eating of clean animals. But God’s original diet for man did not include flesh foods because He did not envision the taking of any animals life and because a balanced vegetarian diet is the best for health-a fact for which science offers mounting evidence” </li></ul>
    107. 108. <ul><li>“ The diet God ordained in the Garden of Eden-the vegetarian diet-is the ideal, but sometimes we cannot have the ideal. In those circumstances, in any given situation or locale, those who wish to stay in optimum health, will eat the best food that they can obtain.” </li></ul>SDA’S Believe
    108. 109. <ul><li>“ The GCNC recommends that all fish, fowl and meat be gradually eliminated from the diet, and the use of egg yolks be limited to three or less per week. Red meats of animal origin are no longer viewed as dominant items in a healthy diet. General Conference Nutrition Council (GCNC) </li></ul>

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