The Postwar Economic Problems
Destruction of the Second World War was
a. Loss of property; livelihood means reduces;
b. Industries such as rice, sugar, and livestock
suffered heavy losses
c. Destruction of facilities, farming, transportation
• US President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that
“those who had collaborated with the enemy must
be removed from authority and influence over the
political and economic life of the country.
• The issue divided the country. It was a source of
intense disagreement between and among officials.
• When Roxas became the president in 1946, he
proclaimed amnesty for all political prisoners
Philippines Economic Crisis
In 1949, the Philippines faces a financial crisis.
To address the crisis, the US allowed a
modification of the free trade and the imposition
of the Philippine government of import and
B. Late 1960’s and Early 1970’s
• The Philippines was on the verge of another
• To ensure his reelection in 1969, Marcos engaged
in massive spending. After his reelection, he
devalued the peso and lifted controls imposed in
1967. he also approved the Philippine Foreign
Investment Act, which provided incentives and
protection to foreign investors.
Due to the 1949 economic crisis, he implemented
foreign exchange controls(with US permission.)
His foreign policy was aimed at continuing
“friendly relations with the countries of the world.
President Roxas really wanted to rebuild the
Philippines economy even if it meant sacrificing
national patrimony. In return for American
support, the government went its way to amend
the 1935 Philippine Constitution to give parity
rights to the Americans.
He opened Mindanao for agricultural expansion.
Magsaysay’s vowed intent was “to bring freedom and
progress to the barrios.” He wanted to improve the
lot of the tao.
He initiated programs to bring about rural
upliftment and development such as “land for the
Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965)
Macapagal called for “honesty, uprightness, and
His socioeconomic policies included the
restoration of economic stability, improvement of
conditions of the common people by providing
In his inaugural address, Garcia called for austerity
– “more work, more thrift, more productive
investment, less extravagant consumption.”
Marcos aimed at attaining self-sufficiency in rice
production and diversification programs of crops and
intensifying the community development program.
One of his objectives was the implementation of the land
On September 21 1972, a year before he was to step
down, Marcos declared martial law.
III-THE HUKBALAHAP MOVEMENT
1. The HUKBALAHAP had its roots in the
encomienda, the Filipinos were
subjected to economic exploitation
, oppression ,and cruelty.
2. Some Filipinos became Lessees, and in
the 19th century, they became the native
Peasant life was characterized by poverty and
degradation, a life that was independent on the
4. The peasantry remained an exploited during the
American occupation. The landlords became the
Americas partners and political allies.
5. Individual freedom introduced by the
Americans, the development of political
consciousness, and the influence of the socialistic
novels encouraged the lower class to establish
6. The Philippine Labor Congress became an
affiliate of the Red International Organization of
the Labor Unions and became a communist
union in 1929.
7. A disagreement on matters of policy between
the conservative and communist leaders led to a
split of the organization. Crisanto Evangelista
founded the Communist Party.
The peasants took over the lands of the landlords
who fled to Manila. This resulted in ill feelings
towards the Huks. The peasants on the
otherhand, already harbored negative sentiments
towards the landlords whom they considered their
2. The Huks were the most effective and efficient
fighters against the Japanese who who feared them
more than any other ressistance group.
3. The Huks liberated some towns in Tarlac
, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and placed these areas under
4. The American authorities disarmed the Huks and
order their mass arrest. One of those arrested was Luis
Taruc who was later released.
5. When Roxas was elected president, he campaigned
a. The Democratic Alliance, a coalition of organization
(guerilla groups, notably the huks, the Pambansang
kaisahan ng mga magbubukid or PKM, and four
progressive groups) won six congressional seats in the
1946 elections thtough the support of peasant votes.
b. Because of this anti-parity stand, Roxas, through
Congress, had Taruc and other members of democratic
c. Roxas also outlawed the Huks and the PKM.
6. The Quirino administration granted amnesty to the
Huks andPKM. However the amnesty brokedown as both
sides accused each other of failure to comply with the
agreement. As a result ,the Huks went back to field.
7. Ramon Magsaysay, Quirino’s secretary of National
Defense ,adopted Military measures and policy of
attraction to stamp out the Huk rebellion. In 1954, Taruc
surrendred to Magsaysay.
The huk movement empowered the peasants and the
workers against degradation and poverty.
2. The movement is both lesson and warning to the
government of the necesity to implement a genuine
land reform program.
Iv- Neo Colonial Relations from
Roxas to Marcos
A. Neo colonialism - coloniztion without an occupation
force. It is also the alliance between the leading class or
classes of two independent nations that facilitates their
ability to maintain a dominant position over the rest of
the population of the weaker of the two nations.
B. Historical Background
1. The beginnings of the neo colonialism could be
traced to the four decades of American rule.
A . American officials gradually granted political power
to the colaborationist Filipino elite.
B . They also provided the elite access to American
markets for their exports.
2. The Philippine Comonwealthwas dependent entity
of the U.S.
3. When the commonwealth was reestablish and the
Philippines was liberated , American officials adopted
measures to restore the political and economic
structures of prewar Philippines. They were assissted
by the native elite.
4. Legislations and agreement entered into by the
newly independent Philippines with the americans
cemented neo colonial realations between two
C- The Nature of the Neo
1. The American officials assisted and supported
Filipino leaders who were “friendly” to American
interests i8n their bid for positions in the government.
2. The Americans work against the Filipino
nationalists whom they considered anti- American or
those who were poilitically unreliable they could not
depend upon to protect the US interests.
3. Filipino leaders reciprocated American
sponshorship by promoting and supporting American
Interests in the philippines , Asia , and the World.
4. Philippine foreign policy often toed the anerican
line as gleaned from its stand on international issues
in the United Nations especially duringf the Cold War
5. US policies in the Philippines were aimed
protecting, preserving , promoting American interests.
6. U.S. influence could also be seen in the presence of
American speechwriters and advisers.
The CIA was involved in a number of covert activities.
The CIA was involved in a number of covert activities.
1.Countersubversion, counter guerilla, psychological
2. rural development.
3. invested in Manila Times
4. Estabished the National Movement for Free