The Postwar Economic Problems
Destruction of the Second World War was
tremendous.

a. Loss of property; livelihood means r...
Collaboration Issue
• US President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that

“those who had collaborated with the enemy must
be...
Philippines Economic Crisis
A. 1949
 In 1949, the Philippines faces a financial crisis.
 To address the crisis, the US a...
B. Late 1960’s and Early 1970’s
• The Philippines was on the verge of another
economic crisis.
• To ensure his reelection ...
Elpidio Quirino
(1948-1952)

 Due to the 1949 economic crisis, he implemented

foreign exchange controls(with US permissi...
Manuel Roxas(1946-1948)
 President Roxas really wanted to rebuild the
Philippines economy even if it meant sacrificing
na...
Ramon Magsaysay
(1953-1957)

Magsaysay’s vowed intent was “to bring freedom and
progress to the barrios.” He wanted to imp...
Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965)

 Macapagal called for “honesty, uprightness, and
simple living.”
 His socioeconomic poli...
Carlos Garcia
(1957-1961)

 In his inaugural address, Garcia called for austerity
– “more work, more thrift, more product...
Ferdinand Marcos
(1965-1972)
 Marcos aimed at attaining self-sufficiency in rice

production and diversification programs...
III-THE HUKBALAHAP MOVEMENT
 A- Origin:
1. The HUKBALAHAP had its roots in the
encomienda, the Filipinos were
subjected t...
Peasant life was characterized by poverty and
degradation, a life that was independent on the
landlords.
4. The peasantry ...
.
6. The Philippine Labor Congress became an
affiliate of the Red International Organization of
the Labor Unions and becam...
B. Growth
The peasants took over the lands of the landlords
who fled to Manila. This resulted in ill feelings
towards the ...
3. The Huks liberated some towns in Tarlac
, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and placed these areas under
their administration.
4. ...
5. When Roxas was elected president, he campaigned
against theHuks.

a. The Democratic Alliance, a coalition of organizati...
b. Because of this anti-parity stand, Roxas, through
Congress, had Taruc and other members of democratic
alliance unseated...
7. Ramon Magsaysay, Quirino’s secretary of National
Defense ,adopted Military measures and policy of
attraction to stamp o...
c. Effects
The huk movement empowered the peasants and the
workers against degradation and poverty.
2. The movement is bot...
Iv- Neo Colonial Relations from
Roxas to Marcos
A. Neo colonialism - coloniztion without an occupation
force. It is also t...
B. Historical Background
1. The beginnings of the neo colonialism could be
traced to the four decades of American rule.
 ...
 2. The Philippine Comonwealthwas dependent entity

of the U.S.
 3. When the commonwealth was reestablish and the
Philip...
 4. Legislations and agreement entered into by the

newly independent Philippines with the americans
cemented neo colonia...
C- The Nature of the Neo
Colonilaism
 1. The American officials assisted and supported

Filipino leaders who were “friend...
 4. Philippine foreign policy often toed the anerican

line as gleaned from its stand on international issues
in the Unit...
 The CIA was involved in a number of covert activities.

1.Countersubversion, counter guerilla, psychological
warfare sch...
Thank You
By:

Cecil Tena
Clea Olitan
Michael Estaris
Clea
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Clea

  1. 1. The Postwar Economic Problems Destruction of the Second World War was tremendous. a. Loss of property; livelihood means reduces; poverty b. Industries such as rice, sugar, and livestock suffered heavy losses c. Destruction of facilities, farming, transportation
  2. 2. Collaboration Issue • US President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared that “those who had collaborated with the enemy must be removed from authority and influence over the political and economic life of the country. • The issue divided the country. It was a source of intense disagreement between and among officials. • When Roxas became the president in 1946, he proclaimed amnesty for all political prisoners
  3. 3. Philippines Economic Crisis A. 1949  In 1949, the Philippines faces a financial crisis.  To address the crisis, the US allowed a modification of the free trade and the imposition of the Philippine government of import and exchange control.
  4. 4. B. Late 1960’s and Early 1970’s • The Philippines was on the verge of another economic crisis. • To ensure his reelection in 1969, Marcos engaged in massive spending. After his reelection, he devalued the peso and lifted controls imposed in 1967. he also approved the Philippine Foreign Investment Act, which provided incentives and protection to foreign investors.
  5. 5. Elpidio Quirino (1948-1952)  Due to the 1949 economic crisis, he implemented foreign exchange controls(with US permission.)  His foreign policy was aimed at continuing “friendly relations with the countries of the world.
  6. 6. Manuel Roxas(1946-1948)  President Roxas really wanted to rebuild the Philippines economy even if it meant sacrificing national patrimony. In return for American support, the government went its way to amend the 1935 Philippine Constitution to give parity rights to the Americans.  He opened Mindanao for agricultural expansion.
  7. 7. Ramon Magsaysay (1953-1957) Magsaysay’s vowed intent was “to bring freedom and progress to the barrios.” He wanted to improve the lot of the tao. He initiated programs to bring about rural upliftment and development such as “land for the landless.”
  8. 8. Diosdado Macapagal (1961-1965)  Macapagal called for “honesty, uprightness, and simple living.”  His socioeconomic policies included the restoration of economic stability, improvement of conditions of the common people by providing employment opportunities.
  9. 9. Carlos Garcia (1957-1961)  In his inaugural address, Garcia called for austerity – “more work, more thrift, more productive investment, less extravagant consumption.”
  10. 10. Ferdinand Marcos (1965-1972)  Marcos aimed at attaining self-sufficiency in rice production and diversification programs of crops and intensifying the community development program.  One of his objectives was the implementation of the land reform program.  On September 21 1972, a year before he was to step down, Marcos declared martial law.
  11. 11. III-THE HUKBALAHAP MOVEMENT  A- Origin: 1. The HUKBALAHAP had its roots in the encomienda, the Filipinos were subjected to economic exploitation , oppression ,and cruelty. 2. Some Filipinos became Lessees, and in the 19th century, they became the native landed aristocracy.
  12. 12. Peasant life was characterized by poverty and degradation, a life that was independent on the landlords. 4. The peasantry remained an exploited during the American occupation. The landlords became the Americas partners and political allies. 5. Individual freedom introduced by the Americans, the development of political consciousness, and the influence of the socialistic novels encouraged the lower class to establish aggressive movements. 3.
  13. 13. . 6. The Philippine Labor Congress became an affiliate of the Red International Organization of the Labor Unions and became a communist union in 1929. 7. A disagreement on matters of policy between the conservative and communist leaders led to a split of the organization. Crisanto Evangelista founded the Communist Party.
  14. 14. B. Growth The peasants took over the lands of the landlords who fled to Manila. This resulted in ill feelings towards the Huks. The peasants on the otherhand, already harbored negative sentiments towards the landlords whom they considered their oppressors. 2. The Huks were the most effective and efficient fighters against the Japanese who who feared them more than any other ressistance group. 1.
  15. 15. 3. The Huks liberated some towns in Tarlac , Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, and placed these areas under their administration. 4. The American authorities disarmed the Huks and order their mass arrest. One of those arrested was Luis Taruc who was later released.
  16. 16. 5. When Roxas was elected president, he campaigned against theHuks. a. The Democratic Alliance, a coalition of organization (guerilla groups, notably the huks, the Pambansang kaisahan ng mga magbubukid or PKM, and four progressive groups) won six congressional seats in the 1946 elections thtough the support of peasant votes.
  17. 17. b. Because of this anti-parity stand, Roxas, through Congress, had Taruc and other members of democratic alliance unseated. c. Roxas also outlawed the Huks and the PKM. 6. The Quirino administration granted amnesty to the Huks andPKM. However the amnesty brokedown as both sides accused each other of failure to comply with the agreement. As a result ,the Huks went back to field.
  18. 18. 7. Ramon Magsaysay, Quirino’s secretary of National Defense ,adopted Military measures and policy of attraction to stamp out the Huk rebellion. In 1954, Taruc surrendred to Magsaysay.
  19. 19. c. Effects The huk movement empowered the peasants and the workers against degradation and poverty. 2. The movement is both lesson and warning to the government of the necesity to implement a genuine land reform program. 1.
  20. 20. Iv- Neo Colonial Relations from Roxas to Marcos A. Neo colonialism - coloniztion without an occupation force. It is also the alliance between the leading class or classes of two independent nations that facilitates their ability to maintain a dominant position over the rest of the population of the weaker of the two nations.
  21. 21. B. Historical Background 1. The beginnings of the neo colonialism could be traced to the four decades of American rule.  A . American officials gradually granted political power to the colaborationist Filipino elite.  B . They also provided the elite access to American markets for their exports.
  22. 22.  2. The Philippine Comonwealthwas dependent entity of the U.S.  3. When the commonwealth was reestablish and the Philippines was liberated , American officials adopted measures to restore the political and economic structures of prewar Philippines. They were assissted by the native elite.
  23. 23.  4. Legislations and agreement entered into by the newly independent Philippines with the americans cemented neo colonial realations between two countries.
  24. 24. C- The Nature of the Neo Colonilaism  1. The American officials assisted and supported Filipino leaders who were “friendly” to American interests i8n their bid for positions in the government.  2. The Americans work against the Filipino nationalists whom they considered anti- American or those who were poilitically unreliable they could not depend upon to protect the US interests.  3. Filipino leaders reciprocated American sponshorship by promoting and supporting American Interests in the philippines , Asia , and the World.
  25. 25.  4. Philippine foreign policy often toed the anerican line as gleaned from its stand on international issues in the United Nations especially duringf the Cold War period.  5. US policies in the Philippines were aimed protecting, preserving , promoting American interests.  6. U.S. influence could also be seen in the presence of American speechwriters and advisers.  The CIA was involved in a number of covert activities.
  26. 26.  The CIA was involved in a number of covert activities. 1.Countersubversion, counter guerilla, psychological warfare school. 2. rural development. 3. invested in Manila Times 4. Estabished the National Movement for Free Elections
  27. 27. Thank You By: Cecil Tena Clea Olitan Michael Estaris

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