Mapping London's Skyline


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Mapping London's Skyline

  1. 1. <ul><li>Mapping London’s skyline </li></ul><ul><li>The project-based networks of London’s buildings </li></ul>
  2. 4. Outline <ul><li>Background Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project-led economies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Industries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples of methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping London’s Project Skyline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Network Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical spread </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closing remarks </li></ul>
  3. 5. Economic Geography <ul><li>‘ New Economy’/’Relational turn’ (Yeung, 2005; Jones, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Regionalism/pro-scale debates countered by practice-based ontologies </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on the activities of multi-nationals (.e.g law firms, financial institusions) </li></ul><ul><li>Inter- and intra-firm networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative and qualitative techniques </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Economic Geography II <ul><li>Major characteristic of the new economy is project-based work (Christopherson, 2004, 2006; Grabher, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Employment centred around the completion of a particular project (film, album, advert, building) </li></ul><ul><li>Work is often short-term, part-time, contract-based and freelance </li></ul>
  5. 7. Economic Geography III <ul><li>Project-based work prevalent in the creative industries and wider cultural economy (Pratt, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>13 subsectors, but overlaps, spillover and intermixing creates a ‘messy’ definition (Christophers, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>City-based, with over-whelming majority of creative industry activity based in London </li></ul>
  6. 8. World Cities <ul><li>World Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sir Peter Hall (1966) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Friedmann (1986) ‘meta-narrative for world city research’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sassen (1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>London, New York and Tokyo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on APS data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other themes of connectivity include airline numbers and telecommunications </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. World Cities II <ul><li>Sassen (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-City/Inter-firm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taylor (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-City/Intra-firm </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. World Cities III <ul><li>So which one is right? </li></ul><ul><li>Is power in a city (Sassen) or between cities (Taylor)? </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe power is moving away from the city? (Kotkin, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>I would argue, both </li></ul>
  9. 11. Example: London’s Advertising Industry <ul><li>Social Network Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Company data downloaded from a companies house population and then cleaned </li></ul><ul><li>SIC code(s) and address were used to identify relevant companies and then each entry was tested for relevance </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting data was filtered to remove those companies with less than 4 people on the board – which means the networks that are produced have certain characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People-centric: Selects people on many boards rather than boards of directors that have many people. This was done as the advertising industry (and wider creative industries) tend to be ‘fluid’ (in other words, high degree of freelancing, sub-contracting etc) so the individual is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-heavy: Selects those people who sit on the board of larger companies (i.e. with more board members) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. People Company
  11. 13. People Company
  12. 16. <ul><li>Example of SNA methodology for highlighting (and measuring) intra-city networks (and clustering) of a particular industry, but not projects </li></ul><ul><li>World city network analysis also provides a quantitative method </li></ul>
  13. 17. Example: Sydney’s Film Industry City locations of Sydney’s top ten TV production firms
  14. 18. Example: Sydney’s Film Industry Number of TV co-productions between Sydney firms and firms in other cities 2000–2005
  15. 19. Example: Sydney’s Film Industry City abbreviations: AD Adelaide; AK Auckland; BR Bristol; DB Dublin; DL Delhi; JK Jakarta; LA Los Angeles; LN London; MB Mumbai; MT Montreal; NY New York; OT Ottawa; PS Paris; SH Shanghai; SN Singapore; SY Sydney; VC Vancouver; WS Washington
  16. 20. Project: Mary Bryant <ul><li>London-Sydney co-production </li></ul><ul><li>Screentime in Sydney and Granada in London </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews and site-visits (quasi-ethnographic) methodology adds data on the practices of city networks </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>Qualitative methodological techniques used to complement quantitative ‘range-finding’ techniques </li></ul>
  18. 22. Architecture <ul><li>1 of the 13 subsectors of the creative industries </li></ul><ul><li>Highly project-based (Grabher, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Economically and infrastructurally, heavily linked to design </li></ul>
  19. 23. <ul><li>David Walker </li></ul><ul><li>(1995) </li></ul>
  20. 24. Architecture <ul><li>Highly reagulated and supported; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RIBA, Design Council, Architectural Association </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of data (project-based) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norman Foster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ave Arup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. Top 20 Tallest Buildings in London 2008 122 m Pan Peninsula West Tower 20 1973 123 m Cromwell Tower 19 1974 123 m Lauderdale Tower 18 1976 123 m Shakespeare Tower 17 1970 124 m (Euston Tower) 16 2007 125 m The Willis Building 15 1967 127 m City Point 14 1974 143 m (Guy's Tower) 13 2008 147 m Pan Peninsula East Tower 12 2003 151 m 10 Upper Bank Street 11 2003 153 m 40 Bank Street 10 2003 153 m 25 Bank Street 9 2004 156 m One Churchill Place 8 2008 161 m Broadgate Tower 7 2003 180 m 30 St Mary Axe 6 1980 183 m Tower 42 5 1964 191 m BT Tower 4 2001 200 m 25 Canada Square 3 2002 200 m 8 Canada Square 2 1991 235 m One Canada Square 1 Year Built Height Building Rank
  22. 31. Going Forward…? <ul><li>Mapping projects quantitatively gives an insight, a framework </li></ul><ul><li>Further qualitative research can add the ‘practice-based’ approach to project-based work </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing projects between cities can show the international reach of certain firms/individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the global nature (carbon footprint?) of construction locales </li></ul>