Big Trouble, Little People: Paeds Retrieval by Lockie
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Big Trouble, Little People: Paeds Retrieval by Lockie

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Little Adults? Fran Lockie examines our approach to critically ill children and the importance of sticking with our tried and tested formulae.

Little Adults? Fran Lockie examines our approach to critically ill children and the importance of sticking with our tried and tested formulae.

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  • Thanks the organisers for asking me to speak
  • Declaration. <br /> I am not the other Francis Lockie, Sydney Based Health prof. <br /> If you came to see her, you are in the wrong talk! <br /> <br /> She, disappointingly is google hits 1-20 <br /> So get in there early, establish your web presence, don’t make the same mistake I have
  • 998 miles <br /> GC map.com <br /> I am lucky enough to live and work in Adelaide, capital of South Australia
  • Overlapmaps.com <br /> <br /> To put in a UK perspective
  • 1 million sq kn <br /> 1.6 million people largely based in Adelaide <br /> <br /> Roughly the size of Texas
  • When we look at the population density map, we can see Australia virtually disappears into a thin slither in the SE corner of the world map, compared to the bloated areas of the SC, china and even the UK <br /> <br /> Population density <br /> <br />
  • Makes my life interesting as I am luck enough to have a split roles in PEM and Paeds / neonatal retrieval <br /> <br /> With the retrieval work MedSTAR travels as far afield as Darwin and Alice Springs, to Melbourne for our cardiac babies. Of course we serve regional SA and metro Adelaide too. <br /> <br /> We are the only Children’s Hospital in the sate so of course all cases of critical illness and trauma comes through our department. <br /> <br /> My role has put me in a good position to notice recurring themes <br /> <br /> Yes, we live in a post imms era, with air bags, pool fences and child proof screw tops kids <br /> <br /> There is still the burdon of critical illness – it’s rarity makes the challenge greater if anything <br /> <br /> <br /> It’s great that that cardiac anaesthetist can tube kids with one arm tied behind his back, but he or she isn’t in the community hospital at midnight <br /> <br /> Doesn’t matter if we’re sitting in our ivory towers or we’re in the outback <br /> <br /> In fact in the outback I’ve met some of the most talented doctors in rural areas going above and beyond <br /> <br /> Didn’t mean to put the solutions on the horizon..but that’s sometimes where it feels like they are. <br /> <br /> However by keeping things simple and doing the basics well – we can change the trajectory for our sick kids
  • Lives with me and affects the way I practice medicine on a daily basis
  • How good are we at implementing ACCM guidelines. C/W ACCM guideline NOT timeline! Replicated in other setting including surviving sepsis campaign audit’s. <br /> <br /> Sub-optimal treatment related to FAILURE to RECOGNISE SHOCK <br /> Unsupervised juniors / lack of paediatric consultant supervision <br /> Failure to start inotrope
  • This study from UTAH worried me a lot <br /> <br /> OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and <br /> disability in children. Guidelines have been established to prevent secondary UTAH <br /> brain injury caused by hypotension or hypoxia. The purpose of <br /> this study was to identify the prevalence, monitoring, and treatment of <br /> hypotension and hypoxia during “early” (prehospital and emergency <br /> department) care and to evaluate their relationship to vital status and <br /> neurologic outcomes at hospital discharge. <br /> METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 299 children with moderate- <br /> to-severe traumatic brain injury presenting to a level 1 pediatric <br /> trauma center. We recorded vital signs and medical provider response <br /> to hypotension and/or hypoxia during all portions of early care. <br /> RESULTS: Blood pressure (31%) and oxygenation (34%) were not recorded <br /> during some portion of “early care.” Documented hypotension <br /> occurred in 118 children (39%). An attempt to treat documented hypotension <br /> was made in 48% (57 of 118 children). After adjusting for <br /> severity of illness, children who did not receive an attempt to treat <br /> hypotension had an increased odds of death of 3.4 and were 3.7 times <br /> more likely to suffer disability compared with treated hypotensive children. <br /> Documented hypoxia occurred in 131 children (44%). An attempt <br /> to treat hypoxia was made in 92% (121 of 131 children). Untreated <br /> hypoxia was not significantly associated with death or disability, except <br /> in the setting of hypotension. <br /> CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension and hypoxia are common events in pediatric <br /> traumatic brain injury. Approximately one third of children are <br /> not properly monitored in the early phases of their management. Attempts <br /> to treat hypotension and hypoxia significantly improved outcomes
  • And look at the effect on mortality! <br /> <br /> Adjusted OR for death and GOS <br /> <br /> Growing body of evidence that secondary insults occur frequently and exert a powerful, adverse influence on outcomes from severe TBI. <br /> Enemies are hypoxaemia and hypotension <br /> Trauma Coma Data Bank: hypoxaemia occurred in 22.4% of severe TBI patients: asociated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. <br /> HEMS series 55% of patients were hypoxic prior to intubation. 46% normal BP. <br /> In non-hypoxic pts mort 14.3% and 4.8% disability. If SaO2 &lt; 60% mort rate 50% with 100% severely disabled. <br /> Hypoxaemia &lt; 90 was amoung 5 most powerful predictors of outcome. Incr morbidity and doubled mortality <br /> Induction of anaesthesia is risky:
  • Recurring themes in the Sim Lab <br /> <br /> 75 Simulations <br /> 12.4 doctors / nurses per session <br /> 194 incidents of subobtimal care <br /> <br /> <br /> Knowledge deficit: delay starting inotropes, dose of dextrose for hypoglycaemia, delay starting fluid bolus <br /> <br /> This is not just in paeds <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  • THIS IS THE CFIT OF THE MEDICAL WORLD <br /> <br /> <br /> ED staff <br /> Anaethetics <br /> Theatre staff <br /> Standardised scenarios <br /> Causes of error <br /> 75 Simulations <br /> 12.4 doctors / nurses per session <br /> 194 incidents of subobtimal care <br /> <br /> <br /> Knowledge deficit: delay starting inotropes, dose of dextrose for hypoglycaemia, delay starting fluid bolus <br /> <br /> This is not just in paeds <br /> This is the (hopefully present) <br /> Examples of scenarios <br /> <br /> Knowledge <br /> Clinical skills <br /> Leadership <br /> Communication <br /> Resourse utlisation <br /> Anticipation and planning <br /> Situational awareness <br /> <br /> <br />
  • <br /> At medstar we run joint scenarios. <br /> <br /> We as paediatric specialists can learn lots from the trauma and CCM delivery outside theatre / Particularly in the vital areas of clinical decision making, CRM, leadership and teamwork <br /> <br /> Hopefully our holistic view and what we consider good communication skills are useful to the adult teams <br /> <br /> Training with the SOT paramedics has been a revelation to me not something I would do anywhere else in the world. <br /> <br /> Changed the way we run in the kids hospital where it’s often difficult to generate the momentum to make things happen quickly <br /> <br />
  • MCDonalds – I probably shouldn’t be promoting this as a paediatrician! <br /> <br /> One thing they are famous for – in addition to childhood obsesity is the consistency of their product! <br /> <br /> In fact, the strength of a nation’s currency is often judged aginst the price of a big mac! <br /> <br /> I know that if I travel to London and order a Big Mac – I will get: <br /> <br /> I just won’t be allowed to donate blood again! <br /> <br /> If I jump on the Eurostar and order Un Big Mac, I will get Ummm hopefully: albeit with a bit of surly attitude thrown in. <br /> <br /> Consistent approach to out of theatre anaesthesia to be applied to all patients from 90 years to newborn and all in between <br /> <br /> Indispensible for certain situations <br /> <br /> Generates a degree of muscle memory and automaticity that is vital when it all goes wrong. <br /> <br />
  • Creat Space: look how this adult team has created space. <br /> <br /> The scene is secure: they can get to work <br />
  • Everyone knows there place, literally where to stand and their role. <br /> <br /> We use this in PED and it has been revolutionary
  • Patient assessment <br />
  • Often predictable
  • Every moment spent on patient position is time well spent!
  • Dump bag: everything laid out and ready. <br /> <br /> Amazing the effect on the room when a piece of kit is not available: what was a calm environment becomes visible tense: everything changes <br /> <br />
  • This is a key CRM moment: everything is calm, everyone is focussed <br /> Leadership <br /> Build confidence in the team that is both Immediate and latent <br /> <br /> I authorise the c-spine controller to relax their death grip of the head to flex the neck and allow me to visualise the larynx <br /> <br /> These techniques of preparation are often amazingly eye opening for our trainees rotating through. They take them with them for the rest of their careers and always feedback that this was the most powerful message of their MedSTAR rotation. <br /> <br /> Our nursing staff love it too and feel empowered to trouble shoot and guide less experienced medical staff <br /> <br /> The most effective Graded assertivess I have encounterred was on retrieval in the middle of the night when I was being particularly physicianly when a baby patently needed a chest drain. Beard stroking was not getting the job done. <br /> <br /> I was fresh off the boat from England and shocked to be told to just “fucking do it Fran” <br /> <br /> Amazing to see that CRM is still not featuring highly in Medical education <br />
  • Time <br /> Checks <br /> Briefs <br /> <br /> Leadership <br /> Build confidence <br /> Immediate <br /> Latent <br />
  • Keep the momentum going: not pause to high five each other and nip out for coffee <br /> Amazingly hard to derail this process <br /> We did a sim recently where I was trying to be an incompetent team leader. <br /> <br /> The nurses feel so empowered in their CRM skills: worst doctor nurse, wost doctor, worst patient, worst day <br /> <br /> And still be safe. <br />
  • 10 different induction agents, <br /> 20 different LMA including one you’ve never seen before
  • Limited AP expansion, limited lateral expansion. Ventilation depends on the diaphragm: fatigues easily, lacks Type 1 muscle fibres. Any restriction of diaphragm movement results in resp difficulties <br /> Ie stomach inflation due to forced inflation <br /> Lung compliance 5ml/cm H2O, 1/12 adult value, chest compliance 260ml/cm H2O (5x aduly value. High risk of barotrauma <br /> Small lung vol rel to body size Small FRC: high RR to maintain the FRC <br /> Under GA anaesthesia FRC declines by 10-25% in health adults and 35-45% in 6-18yo. <br /> Stress: ratio of MV to FRC is doubled, FRC is diminished and desat occurs <br /> PEEP important in kids &lt; 6 months 6, children 6-12 <br /> Higher O2 consumption 6-7ml/kg, adults 3-4 ml / kg <br /> Rapid desatiration <br /> Smaller FRC <br /> Greater VO2 per unit weight than adults <br /> Critical hypoxia rapid after apnoea <br /> Consider 1 month old <br /> no pre-oxygenation = 90% sats in 15 seconds <br /> Pre –oxygenation for 1 min = 90% sats in 90 seconds <br /> <br /> <br /> Patterns of Injury <br /> Size and shape <br /> Smaller body mass - greater force per unit body area <br /> Less protective tissues and close proximity of organs <br /> Frequently multiple organs injured <br /> Skeleton <br /> Pliable skeleton often deforms without fracture allowing significant injury to underlying organs <br /> Presence of rib fractures suggests massive force and high risk multiple organ injury <br /> Psychological <br /> Developmental stages <br /> Language skills – difficult to communicate symptoms; may deny symptoms <br /> Fear – alters normal vital signs making them difficult to interpret <br /> Parents – help and hindrance <br /> Long term effects <br /> Growth and development <br /> Psychological – child and family <br /> <br /> <br /> Size <br /> Proportions <br /> <br /> Breathing <br /> Circulation <br /> <br /> Stress <br /> <br /> Sugar <br /> <br /> Family <br /> <br /> Scared <br /> Lonely <br />
  • What can we do to overcome this rapid desaturation after apnoea? <br /> <br /> Apnoeic oxygenation and PEEP <br /> <br /> Mapleson F, Jackson-Rees modification to the Ayer’s T-piece. <br /> Compact 
 Inexpensive 
 No valves 
 Minimal dead space 
 Minimal resistance to breathing 
 Economical for controlled ventilation <br /> Disadvantages <br />  The bag may get twisted and impede breathing
 High gas flow requirement <br /> Uses <br />  Children under 20 kg weight <br /> <br />
  • Mapleson F, Jackson-Rees modification to the Ayer’s T-piece. Cildren under 20KgCompact 
 Inexpensive 
 No valves 
 Minimal dead space 
 Minimal resistance to breathing 
 Economical for controlled ventilation <br /> Disadvantages <br />  The bag may get twisted and impede breathing
 High gas flow requirement <br /> Uses <br />  Children under 20 kg weight <br /> <br />
  • ABSTRACT <br /> Background: A crossover study was performed in <br /> healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of a selfinflating <br /> bag with the Mapleson C breathing system for <br /> pre-oxygenation. <br /> Method: 20 subjects breathed 100% oxygen for 3 min <br /> using each device, with a 30 min washout period. The <br /> end tidal oxygen concentration and subjective ease of <br /> breathing were compared. <br /> Results: There was a statistically significant difference in <br /> performance between the two devices, with the <br /> Mapleson C providing higher end expiratory oxygen <br /> concentrations at 3 min. The mean (SD) end expiratory <br /> oxygen concentration was 74.2 (3.8)% for the selfinflating <br /> bag (95% CI 72.4% to 75.9%) and 86.2 (3.7)% for <br /> the Mapleson C system (95% CI 84.5 to 88.0); <br /> p,0.0001. The 95% CI of the difference between the <br /> mean values for end expiratory oxygen concentration at <br /> 3 min was 10.0% to 14.2%. There was also a statistically <br /> significant difference in the subjective ease of breathing, <br /> favouring the Mapleson C system. <br /> Conclusion: The Mapleson C breathing system is more <br /> effective and subjectively easier to breathe through than a <br /> self-inflating bag when used for pre-oxygenation. <br /> However, these benefits must be weighed against the <br /> increased level of skill required and possible complications <br /> when using a Mapleson C breathing system. <br /> Pre-oxygenation is an established prerequisite to <br /> rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia and <br /> tracheal intubation.1 It is undertaken to maximise <br /> the oxygen fraction of the functional residual <br /> capacity by displacing nitrogen with oxygen. This <br /> delays the onset of oxygen desaturation of arterial <br /> blood after induction of apnoea. Good pre-oxygenation <br /> is essential in the emergency department <br /> before rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia, <br /> because intubation is often undertaken in patients <br /> with significant acute morbidity who are therefore <br /> prone to early and rapid desaturation.2 3 Preoxygenation <br /> must therefore be optimal in this <br /> environment4 and emphasised during training.5 <br /> Adequate pre-oxygenation is indicated by achieving <br /> an end expiratory oxygen concentration of <br /> .90%.6 7 <br /> Pre-oxygenation in the emergency department is <br /> often achieved using a self-inflating bag with a <br /> valve-mask assembly and a reservoir bag with highflow <br /> supplemental oxygen. In some centres a <br /> Mapleson C breathing system is used for this <br /> purpose (fig 1). The Mapleson C system can also be <br /> used for oxygenation during sedation.8 <br /> Self-inflating bags are universally available in UK <br /> emergency departments because they are easy to <br /> use and will function without an oxygen supply. <br /> They are appropriate for use during assisted <br /> ventilation, but during spontaneous breathing they <br /> may increase the resistance to breathing.9 <br /> Furthermore, a self-inflating bag may deliver a <br /> lower inspired oxygen concentration than an <br /> anaesthetic breathing system.10 <br /> We aimed to determine whether a self-inflating <br /> bag with reservoir and supplemental oxygen <br /> supply provides the same degree of pre-oxygenation <br /> as a Mapleson C anaesthetic breathing system <br /> when both are used correctly. We also compared <br /> the subjective ease of breathing for patients preoxygenated <br /> using these devices. <br /> METHODS
  • Objective: For decades, intraosseous (IO) access has been a standard of care for pediatric emergencies in the absence of conventional intravenous access. After the recent introduction of a battery-powered IO insertion device (EZ-IO; Vidacare Corporation, San Antonio, TX), it was recognized that a clinical study was needed to demonstrate device safety and effectiveness for pediatric patients. <br /> Methods: We measured the insertion success rate, patient pain levels during insertion and infusion, insertion time, types of fluid and drugs administered, device ease of use on a scale of 1 (easy) to 5 (difficult), and complications. <br /> Results: There were 95 eligible patients in the study; 56% were males. Mean patient age was 5.5 ± 6.1 years. Successful insertion and infusion was achieved in 94% of the patients. Insertion time was 10 seconds or less in 77% of the one-attempt successful cases reporting time to insertion. There were 4 minor complications (4%), but none significant. For patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score >8, mean insertion pain score was 2.3 ± 2.8, and mean infusion pain score was 3.2 ± 3.5. The device was rated easy to use 71% of the time (n = 49) and the mean score was 1.4. <br /> Conclusions: The results of this study support the use of the powered IO insertion device for fluid and drug delivery to children in emergency situations. The rare and minor complications suggest that the powered IO device is a safe and effective means of achieving vascular access in the resuscitation and stabilization of pediatric patients.
  • Objective: For decades, intraosseous (IO) access has been a standard of care for pediatric emergencies in the absence of conventional intravenous access. After the recent introduction of a battery-powered IO insertion device (EZ-IO; Vidacare Corporation, San Antonio, TX), it was recognized that a clinical study was needed to demonstrate device safety and effectiveness for pediatric patients. <br /> Methods: We measured the insertion success rate, patient pain levels during insertion and infusion, insertion time, types of fluid and drugs administered, device ease of use on a scale of 1 (easy) to 5 (difficult), and complications. <br /> Results: There were 95 eligible patients in the study; 56% were males. Mean patient age was 5.5 ± 6.1 years. Successful insertion and infusion was achieved in 94% of the patients. Insertion time was 10 seconds or less in 77% of the one-attempt successful cases reporting time to insertion. There were 4 minor complications (4%), but none significant. For patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score >8, mean insertion pain score was 2.3 ± 2.8, and mean infusion pain score was 3.2 ± 3.5. The device was rated easy to use 71% of the time (n = 49) and the mean score was 1.4. <br /> Conclusions: The results of this study support the use of the powered IO insertion device for fluid and drug delivery to children in emergency situations. The rare and minor complications suggest that the powered IO device is a safe and effective means of achieving vascular access in the resuscitation and stabilization of pediatric patients.
  • Solutions: <br /> <br /> Recognise the physiology. <br /> Not rely on concensus based dogma about fixed physiological limits across many ages
  • Solutions: <br /> <br /> Recognise the physiology. <br /> Not rely on concensus based dogma about fixed physiological limits across many ages
  • We Say the physiology never lies: except sometimes it does! <br /> <br /> Don’t intubate Jonny because he’s scared and misses his mum

Big Trouble, Little People: Paeds Retrieval by Lockie Big Trouble, Little People: Paeds Retrieval by Lockie Presentation Transcript

  • BIG problems, little people: lessons learned from paediatric retrieval Dr Fran Lockie franlockie@gmail.com
  • Sydney Based Health practitioner Passion for female weight loss ‘www.hotfatchicks.com’
  • Sydney Based Health practitioner Passion for female weight loss ‘www.hotfatchicks.com’
  • Recurring Themes….. Recurring Themes…. Case Issues Solutions
  • 15 month old male with fever • NVD at term, BW 2.7kg • Previously fit and well • No meds, NKDA • Immunisations UTD • Family all coryzal
  • Country Hospital • At triage – Alert and playful – Temp 39, Hr 160, Rr 40 – Good central perfusion – Mottled peripherally
  • 4hrs later Seen by RMO • Given panadol with resolution of fever, HR never < 170 since triage • Bloods sent • Urine NAD
  • 4 hrs after that… • Given panadol with resolution of fever, HR never < 170 since triage • Bloods • Urine NAD • 2 small vomits in waiting room, then a small area of petechiae
  • 22:00 • A BVM with high flow O2 • B RR 60, marked increased resp effort • C peripheral CRT: absent, central >5 secs • Multiple attempts at iv access unsuccessful • D alert, talking to mum
  • Rapid deterioration – AVPU – Increasing respiratory distress – HR >200, Only femoral pulse palpable – IO sited – Aggressive filling – DA started
  • Courtesy: Stefan Mazur Ketamine, sux, adrenaline bolus
  • PEA Arrest • Filling, filling, filling • Dopamine started at 20mcg/kg/min • Filling, filling, filling – 4% albumin – Blood products (packed cells, plts, FFP, cryo) • Noradrenaline, Adrenaline, infusions commenced • Stat dose hydrocortisone
  • 6hrs later….still PEA / ROSC • Maximal inotropic / pressor support • multiple dextrose, Ca, Mg boluses • Total fluids 180ml/kg • Sustained bradycardia, worsening acidosis • Massive pulmonary haemorrhage
  • Recurring Themes…. • Oxygen delivery • Vascular access • Fluid, antibiotic administration
  • Recurring Themes…. • Oxygen delivery • Vascular access • Fluid, antibiotic administration • Teamwork, leadership and communication • Recognition of paediatric critical illness
  • Recurring Themes…..At audit
  • • Audit of 17 PICU’s • 107 patients with septic shock • 8% received care c/w ACCM guideline – 21% not given >60ml/kg despite ongoing shock – 15% not given dopa/ dobu despite fluid refractory shock – 23% not given catechol for dopa/ dobu refractory shock – 30% not given steroid despite catechol resistant shock Arch Dis Child 2009
  • Early Resuscitation of Children with Moderate to severe TBI Pediatrics 2009 • 299 kids with mod-severe TBI • 39% became hypotensive – Of these only 48% were treated • 44% became hypoxic – Of these 92% were treated
  • Resuscitation 2014
  • Resuscitation 2014
  • Train together daily! • One Base • Adult teams – ED – Intensivists – Anaesthetists • Paediatric and neonatal teams • Special operations paramedics
  • McDonalds approach to ‘out of theatre’ anaesthesia Courtesy: Stefan Mazur
  • PREPARATION PHASE Courtesy: Matt Hooper
  • PREPARATION PHASE ELM
  • PREPARATION PHASE
  • PREPARATION PHASE
  • PREPARATION PHASE
  • PREPARATION PHASE
  • PREPARATION PHASE
  • INTUBATION PHASE
  • POST - INTUBATION PHASE
  • Patients intubated by MedSTAR: Date Location Wt (kg) Indication Ket Sux Prop Roc Fent View ETT size ETT depth ETCO2 ILS Adjuncts Cricoid Comment Seniority 02/01/14 Yorketown Hospital 100 Cardiac 40 200 I 8 24 Calorimetric No None No Adrenaline Infusion + Fluid 1000mL ED Registrar >100 08/01/14 Stansbury 70 Head Injury – threatened airway 100 200 I 8 23 Calorimetric Yes Bougie No Anaesthesia Reg > 100 12/1/14 Whyalla 45 Gastrointestinal 25 100 II 7 22 No None Yes N. Saline 200mL Para > 100 14/1/14 Moonta 120 Combative / Agitated 200 200 II 8 24 Waveform Yes Bougie No Fluid 500mL Anaesthesia Reg >100 16/01/14 Balaklava 80 Neurological 100 100 50 I 7 22 Waveform No Bougie Yes Fluid 1000mL Anaesthesia Reg > 100 17/01/14 115 Head Injury – threatened Airway; Chest trauma 150 200 IV 8 23 Yes Bougie No Anaesthesia Reg >100 17/01/14 Mt. Compass Head injury-threatened 100 100 I 8 24 Waveform Yes Bougie No Anaesthesia Reg > 100 18/01/14 Pt. Broughton 100 Neurological 50 150 10mL / hr III 8 24 Calorimetric No Bougie No Pancuronium + N. Saline 1000mL ICU Reg > 100 18/01/14 Head Injury – Threatened airway I 7 23 Calorimetric Yes Bougie Yes In car – difficult access; no induction meds. Para 10-100 19/01/14 Victor 65 Respiratory 50 100 40 III 7 23 Yes No Nil / Bougie No 2 attempts – nurse then MD, unexpected Gr III Nurse <10 ; Consultant > 100 28/01/14 Berri Combative / Agitated 100 100 30 None then II Waveform Yes Nil / Bougie Yes 2 Attempts – same MD; desat <92% Anaesthesia Reg > 100
  • Ann Emerg Med. 2012
  • Ann Emerg Med. 2012
  • BMJ 2007 • Mapleson circuit – Significantly easier to breath through – More effective
  • Ann Emerg Med. 2012 Kids have smaller FRC Greater VO2 than adults Rapid desaturation (with stress and apnoea)
  • 10 days, pCO2 100, pH 7.00 • He’s Tired Doctor: • Diaphragmatic exhaustion • Lacks type 1 muscle fibres • Decompress the stomach – Often results in dramatic improvement! • Know your vent: wt limits – Generally TV 4-6 ml/kg
  • • 95 patients • Mean age 5.5 • 95% success • 10 seconds or less • Pain score 2.3 Pediatr Ermerg Care 2008
  • • 95 patients • Mean age 5.5 • 95% success • 10 seconds or less • Pain score 2.3 • Fluids, ABx, DA Pediatr Emerg Care 2008
  • Lancet 2011; 377: 1011–18 • Listen to the physiology! • Don’t rely on consensus based dogma with fixed physiological limits a cross many ages
  • Lancet 2011; 377: 1011–18
  • Is lactate really the ‘Holy Grail’ of sepsis biomarkers? I n
  • Is lactate really the ‘Holy Grail’ of sepsis biomarkers? No, but sepsis often masquerades as respiratory disease in kids I n
  • Sugar and temperature • Large SA: body wt (2-2.5 x BW) • Thin skin and subcut fat (less insulation) • No shivering • Immature thermoregulatory center • Sugar ALWAYS goes down in critical illness…
  • Just before Christmas..
  • Just before Christmas..
  • Lessons learned… • Collaborate / cross-pollinate • Drills, teamwork • Evaluate practice • Attention to detail, keep it simple
  • Thanks to: A/Prof Stefan Mazur A/Prof Matt Hooper