Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice

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Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice

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Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice

  1. 1. Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice
  2. 2. Development of Bandura’s Work  Social Learning Theory – Social learning & personality development (Bandura & Walters, 1963) – Principles of behavior modification (1969)  Self Efficacy Theory (1977) – Level, strength & generality – Role in mediating choice, performance, persistence  Social Cognitive Theory – Social foundations of thought & action: A social cognitive theory (1986) – Self efficacy: The exercise of control (1997)
  3. 3. Social Cognitive Career Theory: Origins o Based on Albert Bandura’s empirical/theoretical work over 4+ decades (1969, 1977, 1986, 1997) o Application of Bandura’s social cognitive theory to career behavior (Lent, Brown & Hackett) o Extended earlier work focused on career self-efficacy beliefs and their effect on career choice and achievement (Hackett & Betz) o Strong empirical evidence for core of model; increasing support for full model o Social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, selfregulatory and self-reflective processes in human adaptation and change (i.e., human agency) o Stands in contrast to conceptions of human functioning that overemphasize environmental or biological factors o Theory contains direct implications for intervention
  4. 4. ‘’People’s level of motivation, affective states, and actions are based more on what they believe than on what is objectively the case’’ Albert Bandura
  5. 5. Reciprocal determinants of human functioning Behavior Human Development Personal Factors Cognitive, Affective (including belief’s), And Biological Events Environmental Factors
  6. 6. Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown & Hackett, 1994, 2000, 2002) Contextual Influences Proximal to Choice Behavior Person Inputs - Predispositions - Gender - Race/ethnicity - Disability/ Health status Self-efficacy Expectations Learning Experiences Interests Background Background Contextual Affordances Outcome Expectations Goals Actions
  7. 7. SCCT Model Person Inputs and background context Person Inputs - Predispositions - Gender - Race/ethnicity - Disability/ Health status Background Contextual Affordances Learning Experiences
  8. 8. Distal Influences • Person Inputs – Race/ethnicity, gender – Physical appearance, health, disabilities – Special abilities, e.g., intelligence, musical ability, artistic ability, muscular coordination • Environmental conditions & events – – – – – – – – – – Socioeconomic status Job & training opportunities Social policies & procedures for selecting trainees & workers Rate of return for various occupations (ROI) Labor laws, union rules Physical events (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts, floods) Availability & demand for natural resources Technological developments (e.g., computers, web) Changes is social organizations Family training experiences & resources, neighborhood & community influences (e.g., family religion, values, expectations, women’s roles, availability of models, etc.) – Education system (e.g., post-secondary opportunities affected tremendously by K-12 system)
  9. 9. SCCT Model: Learning effects on efficacy and outcome expectations Self-efficacy Expectations Learning Experiences Outcome Expectations
  10. 10. Key Components of Social Cognitive Theory o Self-Efficacy Expectations: Beliefs in one’s capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations (Bandura, 1986) • • • • Cognitive appraisals of one’s capacity to perform specific behaviors (future directed) Can you do this? How confident are you that you can do this? Efficacy beliefs influence initiation/choice of activities, effort expended, persistence in the face of obstacles, and ultimately success NOT self-esteem or other trait construct o Outcome Expectations: Beliefs about the consequences of given actions • • What will happen if I do this? Consequences of successful performance o Goals: Determination to engage in a particular activity or to produce a particular outcome • • • What do I choose to do? By setting personal goals, people help to organize, guide, and sustain their own behavior
  11. 11. Learning Influences: Sources of Self-Efficacy Information Prior Performance Accomplishment Vicarious Learning Self-Efficacy Social Persuasion Physiological and Affective Reactions
  12. 12. Building Self-efficacy expectations o Performance Accomplishments • Most powerful influence • Attributions of performance important for take-away message o Vicarious Learning • Importance of model similarity along dimensions of importance to the observer • Observation of consequences of model’s behavior o Social Persuasion • Best when source of persuasion is credible • Most commonly used but least powerful source of information • Couple with other informational sources o Physiological States and Affective Reactions • Weak efficacy beliefs can produce anxiety/high levels of anxiety undermine performance • Anxiety reduction can enhance performance & self-efficacy
  13. 13. Attributions of Performance o Attributions of Success – Internal – Due to my own skills, abilities: likely to increase efficacy, performance – External – Easy test, course: likely to undermine or have no effect on efficacy, performance o Attributions of Failure – Internal – Due to my lack of ability: undermining efficacy, performance – External – Due to the Instructor being a hard grader: No effect on efficacy, performance
  14. 14. Observational Learning
  15. 15. Outcome X Efficacy Expectations
  16. 16. SCCT Model: Contextual influences on interests, goals and actions Contextual Influences Proximal to Choice Behavior Self-efficacy Expectations Interests Outcome Expectations Goals Actions
  17. 17. Key Components of Social Cognitive Theory o Self-Efficacy: Beliefs in one’s capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations •OR cognitive appraisals of one’s capacity to perform specific behaviors in the future • Can you do this? How confident are you that you can do this? • Efficacy beliefs determine initiation, choice of activities, effort expended, & persistence in the face of obstacles o Outcome Expectations: Beliefs about the consequences of given actions • What will happen if I do this? • Consequences of successful performance o Goals: Determination to engage in a particular activity or to produce a particular outcome • What do I choose to do? • By setting personal goals, people help to organize, guide, and sustain their own behavior
  18. 18. Contextual Influences on Career and Academic Behavior  Objective and perceived aspects of the environment influence beliefs, intentions, & actions • Environmental barriers can erode efficacy and interests • Conversely, strong efficacy can enable an individual to surmount obstacles and persist in the face of barriers  Three Primary Paths of Contextual Influences – Distal (early) effects on acquisition of SE and OE – Moderators of interest-choice relations – Direct influences on choice
  19. 19. Social Cognitive Career Theory Contextual Influences Proximal to Choice Behavior Person Inputs Self-efficacy Expectations - Predispositions - Gender - Race/ethnicity - Disability/ Health status Learning Experiences Background Contextual Background Affordances Interests Outcome Expectations Goals Actions
  20. 20. Targets for Intervention  Provide opportunities to build competencies  Strengthen self-efficacy beliefs via the four sources of information  Realistic self- appraisal of performance accomplishments • Engage in mastery experiences • Recognize strong performance • Develop accurate attributions of performance (success and failure)  Provide strong and varied models • Diversity of academic, work models along varied dimensions of similarity • Coping vs. mastery modeling  Couple verbal/social persuasion with other information sources  Address undermining anxiety related to performance and choice  Strengthen & expand vocational interests in high aptitude areas  Link education to work/careers via career exploration (from written/visual information thru simulations, modeling, & job shadowing to practica & internships, research & work experience)  Address unrealistic outcome expectations  Minimize barriers & enhance facilitators  Clarify academic & career goals

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