Social Cognitive Career Theory of  Career Choice
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Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice

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Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice

Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice

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Social Cognitive Career Theory of  Career Choice Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice Presentation Transcript

  • Social Cognitive Career Theory of Career Choice
  • Development of Bandura’s Work  Social Learning Theory – Social learning & personality development (Bandura & Walters, 1963) – Principles of behavior modification (1969)  Self Efficacy Theory (1977) – Level, strength & generality – Role in mediating choice, performance, persistence  Social Cognitive Theory – Social foundations of thought & action: A social cognitive theory (1986) – Self efficacy: The exercise of control (1997)
  • Social Cognitive Career Theory: Origins o Based on Albert Bandura’s empirical/theoretical work over 4+ decades (1969, 1977, 1986, 1997) o Application of Bandura’s social cognitive theory to career behavior (Lent, Brown & Hackett) o Extended earlier work focused on career self-efficacy beliefs and their effect on career choice and achievement (Hackett & Betz) o Strong empirical evidence for core of model; increasing support for full model o Social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, selfregulatory and self-reflective processes in human adaptation and change (i.e., human agency) o Stands in contrast to conceptions of human functioning that overemphasize environmental or biological factors o Theory contains direct implications for intervention
  • ‘’People’s level of motivation, affective states, and actions are based more on what they believe than on what is objectively the case’’ Albert Bandura
  • Reciprocal determinants of human functioning Behavior Human Development Personal Factors Cognitive, Affective (including belief’s), And Biological Events Environmental Factors
  • Social Cognitive Career Theory (Lent, Brown & Hackett, 1994, 2000, 2002) Contextual Influences Proximal to Choice Behavior Person Inputs - Predispositions - Gender - Race/ethnicity - Disability/ Health status Self-efficacy Expectations Learning Experiences Interests Background Background Contextual Affordances Outcome Expectations Goals Actions
  • SCCT Model Person Inputs and background context Person Inputs - Predispositions - Gender - Race/ethnicity - Disability/ Health status Background Contextual Affordances Learning Experiences
  • Distal Influences • Person Inputs – Race/ethnicity, gender – Physical appearance, health, disabilities – Special abilities, e.g., intelligence, musical ability, artistic ability, muscular coordination • Environmental conditions & events – – – – – – – – – – Socioeconomic status Job & training opportunities Social policies & procedures for selecting trainees & workers Rate of return for various occupations (ROI) Labor laws, union rules Physical events (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts, floods) Availability & demand for natural resources Technological developments (e.g., computers, web) Changes is social organizations Family training experiences & resources, neighborhood & community influences (e.g., family religion, values, expectations, women’s roles, availability of models, etc.) – Education system (e.g., post-secondary opportunities affected tremendously by K-12 system)
  • SCCT Model: Learning effects on efficacy and outcome expectations Self-efficacy Expectations Learning Experiences Outcome Expectations
  • Key Components of Social Cognitive Theory o Self-Efficacy Expectations: Beliefs in one’s capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations (Bandura, 1986) • • • • Cognitive appraisals of one’s capacity to perform specific behaviors (future directed) Can you do this? How confident are you that you can do this? Efficacy beliefs influence initiation/choice of activities, effort expended, persistence in the face of obstacles, and ultimately success NOT self-esteem or other trait construct o Outcome Expectations: Beliefs about the consequences of given actions • • What will happen if I do this? Consequences of successful performance o Goals: Determination to engage in a particular activity or to produce a particular outcome • • • What do I choose to do? By setting personal goals, people help to organize, guide, and sustain their own behavior
  • Learning Influences: Sources of Self-Efficacy Information Prior Performance Accomplishment Vicarious Learning Self-Efficacy Social Persuasion Physiological and Affective Reactions
  • Building Self-efficacy expectations o Performance Accomplishments • Most powerful influence • Attributions of performance important for take-away message o Vicarious Learning • Importance of model similarity along dimensions of importance to the observer • Observation of consequences of model’s behavior o Social Persuasion • Best when source of persuasion is credible • Most commonly used but least powerful source of information • Couple with other informational sources o Physiological States and Affective Reactions • Weak efficacy beliefs can produce anxiety/high levels of anxiety undermine performance • Anxiety reduction can enhance performance & self-efficacy
  • Attributions of Performance o Attributions of Success – Internal – Due to my own skills, abilities: likely to increase efficacy, performance – External – Easy test, course: likely to undermine or have no effect on efficacy, performance o Attributions of Failure – Internal – Due to my lack of ability: undermining efficacy, performance – External – Due to the Instructor being a hard grader: No effect on efficacy, performance
  • Observational Learning
  • Outcome X Efficacy Expectations
  • SCCT Model: Contextual influences on interests, goals and actions Contextual Influences Proximal to Choice Behavior Self-efficacy Expectations Interests Outcome Expectations Goals Actions
  • Key Components of Social Cognitive Theory o Self-Efficacy: Beliefs in one’s capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations •OR cognitive appraisals of one’s capacity to perform specific behaviors in the future • Can you do this? How confident are you that you can do this? • Efficacy beliefs determine initiation, choice of activities, effort expended, & persistence in the face of obstacles o Outcome Expectations: Beliefs about the consequences of given actions • What will happen if I do this? • Consequences of successful performance o Goals: Determination to engage in a particular activity or to produce a particular outcome • What do I choose to do? • By setting personal goals, people help to organize, guide, and sustain their own behavior
  • Contextual Influences on Career and Academic Behavior  Objective and perceived aspects of the environment influence beliefs, intentions, & actions • Environmental barriers can erode efficacy and interests • Conversely, strong efficacy can enable an individual to surmount obstacles and persist in the face of barriers  Three Primary Paths of Contextual Influences – Distal (early) effects on acquisition of SE and OE – Moderators of interest-choice relations – Direct influences on choice
  • Social Cognitive Career Theory Contextual Influences Proximal to Choice Behavior Person Inputs Self-efficacy Expectations - Predispositions - Gender - Race/ethnicity - Disability/ Health status Learning Experiences Background Contextual Background Affordances Interests Outcome Expectations Goals Actions
  • Targets for Intervention  Provide opportunities to build competencies  Strengthen self-efficacy beliefs via the four sources of information  Realistic self- appraisal of performance accomplishments • Engage in mastery experiences • Recognize strong performance • Develop accurate attributions of performance (success and failure)  Provide strong and varied models • Diversity of academic, work models along varied dimensions of similarity • Coping vs. mastery modeling  Couple verbal/social persuasion with other information sources  Address undermining anxiety related to performance and choice  Strengthen & expand vocational interests in high aptitude areas  Link education to work/careers via career exploration (from written/visual information thru simulations, modeling, & job shadowing to practica & internships, research & work experience)  Address unrealistic outcome expectations  Minimize barriers & enhance facilitators  Clarify academic & career goals