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The structure of the present perfect tense is:subject + auxiliary verb + main verb has / have “past participle”
ExamplesI have playedYou have playedHe has playedWe have playedYou have playedThey have played
PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION For regular verbs in the past participle is formed by adding-ed Englishman play -> played Although we have to take into account some considerations:
Irregular verbsFor irregular verbs must be memorizedits past participle.Past ParticipleGo GoneMake MadeVerbs ending in -eIt adds only one -dverbs in past participleHope usedexcuse excused
Structure:Subject + have / has + not + verb past participleIve not played wellhe has not played wellI have not eaten in two daysShe has not eaten in two days
Question in present perfectInterrogative FormHave / has + subject + verb in past participle?Have I done?Have you done?Has he done?Have we done?Have you done?Have they done?WH QuestionsWhat have you done?What have you done?
The present perfect is used to:Actions that started in the past and have not finished yet in thisI have not slept in the past two daysI have not slept in the last 2 daysActions that began and ended in the past but its effectcontinues in the present.I am not hungry because i have eaten an appleI have not hungry because I ate an appleThe hue of the example is that while we finished eating the apple, thisaction has an impact on the present (not hungry in this for having eatenthe apple)I have bought a car(me) I bought a carThe nuance of this second example is that although the act of buyingfinished, the car still belongs to us in the present (the effect of continuousaction).
Actions that began and ended in the pastbut that has placed intelocutor action ina time interval not finish. This action in atime interval not finished buildingrequires prayer present perfect:Unfinished time interval (PresentPerfect):I have been in USA This YearIve been this year in the U.S.Completed time interval (Past Simple):I was in usa last yearI was last year in the U.S.