World Smart Cities. EURA Conference 2013, Enschede, the Netherlands

3,493 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Real Estate
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,493
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,849
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

World Smart Cities. EURA Conference 2013, Enschede, the Netherlands

  1. 1. Innovations of Governance in Cities and Urban Regions Smart Cities in China, IskandarMalasya, Japan, New York and Tarragona Spain Olga Gil and Carmen Navarro Image: FIFTYMM69 EN FLICKRImage: FIFTYMM69 EN FLICKRImage Olimpic Stadium Beijin by Flash Parker: http://www.flickr.com/photos/shawnparkerphoto EURA CONFERENCE: CITIES AS SHEEDBEDS FOR INNOVATION 4-6 JULY 2013, ENSCHEDE, THE NETHERLANDS
  2. 2. Us Prof. Dr. Olga Gil Department of PoliticalScience, UAM Researchonregulation of technology in comparativeperspective @OlgaG olgagil@olgagil.es Prof. Dr. Carmen Navarro Head of DepartmentPoliticalScience UAM Researchoncomparative local government
  3. 3. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart cities 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis 5. Analysis and findings 3
  4. 4. • “Research” question on Governance: – what are the variations on smart cities initiatives? • Approach/hypothesis: – Exploratory / factors to advance smart plans are key to differentiate models of urban governance 4 Questions and approach @OlgaG
  5. 5. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart cities 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis 5. Analysis and findings 5
  6. 6. • Quality of life, productivity, growth effects of human capital (Jesse Shapiro, 2006) • Metropolitan area with a large share of population with university degrees (Winters 2011) • European tradition: creative class, quality of urban environment, level of education, accesibility of to and use of ICT (Caragliu, 2011) 2. Definition: What makes a city smart? Human capital 6 @OlgaG
  7. 7. Tradition departing from a smart concept constrained to the world of devices: • Theuse of networkedinfrastructures as a meanstoenable social, environmental, economic, and cultural development(Hollands 2008) • Includes two forms of intelligence: human and collective, from skills to social and political institutions articulating cooperation (Komninos 2009). • Emphasizes people and interactions (Allwinkle and Cruicksanks2011) 2. Definition: What makes a city smart? Human capital 7 @OlgaG
  8. 8. Combining e-government, information science, urban studies and public administration Chourabiet al. (2012) identify eight critical factors allowing us to compare: • Management and organization • Technology • Governance • Policy context • People and communities • Economy • Built infrastructure 2. Definition: What makes a city smart? Technology 8
  9. 9. 2. Definition: Framework for analysis Allows: • Explanatory attempt at evaluating factors and success of projects • Different visions of smart design and implementation 9
  10. 10. Smart concept wider than the world of devices: “The most important things about information technology: the possibility to empower and educate citizens… to engage them in a debate about environment and aspirations” “How citizens interact are key to any successful community, enterprise or venture” Howshallweunderstanddigital literacy? Lackingliteraturefromsmartcitytheoreticalperspectives . Findingreferencestoco-creation as processwherepeople and communitymight be part of thedesignprocess 2. Definition: What makes a city smart? Digital Literacy for the XXI century 10 @OlgaG
  11. 11. 2. Definition: Framework for analysis Allows: • Explanatory attempt at evaluating factors and success of projects • Different visions of smart design and implementation 11 Governance
  12. 12. 2. Definition: Hypothesis and cases Hypothesis: Factors to advance smart plans are key to differentiate models of urban governance Choice of cases: Driven by interest (China, Japan, Iskandar (Malaysia), New York, Tarragona (Spain). • To learn from innovation practices in different world institutional settings • Different innovation rates • Attempt to tackle differences and similarities in both OCDE and non OCDE countries • Interested in variations in the universe of cases 12 @OlgaG
  13. 13. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis 5. Analysis and findings 13
  14. 14. 3. Context: Smart cities in the world agenda An interest in China in city development far from the growth model (Lin 2002) OCDE and European Union link the concept of sustainable environment, competition and cohesion with smart cities (2005) City initiatives: Amsterdam, Southamton, Edimburgh, Malta, Philadel phia, Seattle, Quebec, Mexico city… Business initiatives: IBM, Siemens, Oracle, Ferrovial European Union research and policy projects: 14 @OlgaG
  15. 15. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis 5. Analysis and findings 15
  16. 16. 4. Cases for analysis Unit of observation is each smart city initiative However, cities and smart initiatives vary widely in demographics, economy, location, population growth and levels of urban development. Some countries choose metropolitan regions (Japan) 16
  17. 17. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis: China 5. Analysis and findings 17
  18. 18. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis: Iskandar 5. Analysis and findings 18
  19. 19. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis: Japan 5. Analysis and findings 19
  20. 20. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis: New York 5. Analysis and findings 20
  21. 21. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis: Tarragona 5. Analysis and findings 21 @OlgaG
  22. 22. 1. Questions and approach 2. Definitions of smart 3. The context: setting the agenda for smart cities worldwide 4. Cases for analysis 5. Analysis and findings 22 @OlgaG
  23. 23. 5. Analysis and Findings Interesting similarities and differences among cases: • Multi faceted sides of the smart concept are being established locally, by national and/or local governments. • Governance depends on vision • The stress on what smarts entails is very different and open to policy conceptualization --in some cases, open to society engagement. 23 @OlgaG
  24. 24. 5. Analysis and Findings 5.3. Governance Models I: different in the cases explored. • China local governments partner with universities, firms, foreign firms as well as banks. Users are not part of the equation as developers. • In Japan local governments partner with firms in different industry sectors including the university, technological firms, power –including gas- as well as real estate firms • In Iskandargovernance depends on the Regional Authority appointed for the development of the conceived smart city. • In New York we find the leadership of the city government, the university as well as a general call to citizens developers through open technologies. • Tarragonasteering committee is a Foundation. Governance models are affected by the policy context. We find a mayor leap of the central government in the cases of China, Iskandar and Japan, while New York and Tarragona respond to autonomous local policies. Further research: on collaboration, leadership, participation and partnership, communication, data exchange, accountability, transparency and service and application integration 24 @OlgaG
  25. 25. This is a short version of the paper and presentation given at EURA 2013 Thank you! @OlgaG olgagil@olgagil.es

×