Great Britain. Government


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Great Britain. Government

  1. 1. HM Government the British Government Whitehall
  2. 2. Constitution  Unlike most countries, Britain does not have a single document which serves as its constitution  Britain’s constitution is uncodefied, which means it cannot be found in any single document
  3. 3. Basic Structure of Government Monarch (Sovereign) Legislature Executive Judiciary Parliament Prime Minister House of Lords House of Lords MPs House of Commons Civil Service
  4. 4. The British Monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II, is the head of state but not the head of government.
  5. 5. Her rights Her Majesty’s actual rights as a Queen are only three:  the right to be consulted by the Prime Minister,  to encourage certain courses of action,  to warn against others
  6. 6. POWERS  The power to dismiss and appoint a Prime Minister.  The power to dismiss and appoint other ministers. This power is exercised by the Prime Minister alone.  The power to grant or refuse Royal Assent to bills (making them valid and law).  The power to commission officers in the Armed Forces  The power to command the Armed Forces of the United Kingdom. This power is exercised by the Defence Council.  The power to appoint members to the Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council  The power to issue and withdraw passports. This is exercised by the Home Secretary.  The power to grant Prerogative of mercy (though capital punishment is abolished, this power is still used to remedy errors in sentence calculation)  The power to grant honours  The power to create corporations via Royal Charter
  7. 7. Foreign powers  The power to ratify and make treaties.  The power to declare war and Peace  The power to deploy the Armed Forces overseas  The power to recognize states  The power to credit and receive diplomats
  8. 8. Legislature:  Legislative body: Parliament of Britain  Located in Westminster  Parliament consists of the House of Lords & the House of Commons  Government’s policies can become laws only if approved by both Houses.
  9. 9. Main Function of Parliament  to pass laws  to provide - by voting for taxation - the means of carrying out the work of government,  to scrutinise Government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure,  to debate the major issues of the day.
  10. 10. House of Commons  The House of Commons is made up of 646 Members of Parliaments (MPs)  Each MP represents an individual constituency, i.e. each represents a different area of Britain  The primary function of the House of Commons is debate and pass laws
  11. 11. House of Commons Power  Most legislative power rests with it.  The leader of the party which has the most MPs becomes the Prime Minister and selects his Cabinet among MPs.
  12. 12. House of Commons Function  Debating issues of national and international importance.  Supervising Government by questioning.  Controlling Government income and spending  Able to alter or oppose proposed new laws.
  13. 13. House of Lords  There 746 lords  There are three types of lords:  1) Lords Temporal - these are Lords who have been appointed by the government and Hereditary Lords  2) Law Lords - these are lords who are lawyers and judges  3) Lords Spiritual - these are senior members of the Church of England
  14. 14. House of Lords The House of Lords serves a number of functions:  1) To examine legislation passed by the House of Commons and make suggestions for improvements  2) To act as the highest court of appeal in Britain
  15. 15. House of Lords Function  legislative: taking part in the laws making  Judiciary: the highest court of UK, playing important role in judicial part.
  16. 16. Executive  Executive body: the Sovereign, Prime Minister & Cabinet  Dealing with regular national and international affairs  Making decisions of new policies  Supervising departments of the government
  17. 17. Prime Minister PM: the leader of the political party which wins the majority of seats in Parliament. Selecting the cabinet from their own party in the House of Commons Responsible for the conduct of national affairs directly His authority comes from support in the House of Commons.
  18. 18.  The current Prime Minister,  David Cameron,  leader of the Conservative Party,  was appointed by the Queen  on 11 May 2010
  19. 19. Member of • Cabinet • Privy Council • European Council Reports to Parliament Appointer Monarch of the United Kingdom Term length At Her Majesty's pleasure General Election held once every fifth year. Formation Salary 4 April 1721 (292 years ago) £142,000 annual (including £65,000 MP's salary)
  20. 20. Cabinet Members  consists of about 20 ministers chosen by the Prime Minister Selected by the Prime Minister  Members of Commons  Sit on the “front benches” in the House of Commons
  21. 21. Cabinet Function It balances ministers' individual duties with their collective responsibility as members of the Government and takes the final decisions on all government policy. Cabinet Committees include those dealing with defence and overseas policy, economic policy, home and social affairs, the environment, and local government.
  22. 22. Civil Service  Servants of the Crown  Non-political group  Career officials who remain in office despite changes in government  Offering advice about the possible consequences of policy  Responsible for implementing the policies of Government
  23. 23. Judiciary The House of Lords is the ultimate appeal court in the UK The Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs and Lord Chancellor heads the judiciary and sits on the judicial committee of the House of Lords. He also presides over the upper House in its law-making role and, as a senior Cabinet minister, heads the Department of Constitutional Affairs.