Vinnytsia 07.2012eGovernment in Estonia –organization, policies, frameworks Arvo Ott, PhD, email@example.com e-Governance Academy www.ega.ee
eEstonia• 76 % of population are Internet users• 63 % of the households have a computer at home, 82 % of home computers connected to Internet.• over 700 Public Internet Access Points in Estonia, 51 per 100 000 people.• More than 1 100 000 smart-card type ID- cards issued• 94% (citizens) of tax declarations were e- declarations (2011), 97% businesses• 94% of banking transaction on-line. 1 place in Internet Banking – (next are Norway, Nederlands, New Zealand…. Finland in the 6th place)• 24th (all 134, Ukraine 75) place in Network Readiness index 2012.
eEstonia • In August 2000, the Government of Estonia changed its Cabinet meetings to paperless sessions using a web-based document system.
Balanced e-GovernanceCombination of electronic services and participatory services e- GOVERNMENT e-DEMOCRACY Transaction of user-oriented Digitally conveyed information services offered by government (transparency) and the political that are based on information and influence (participation) exerted by communication technologies. citizens and business on the opinion- forming processes of public – state and non-state –institutions
eGovernment example:Parental benefit – best eGov service in 2004(interoperability of 5 information systems from 5goverment institutions)
Questions:• IT policy as the driving force for change?• Centralized vers. decentralized? Coordination vers. direct management?• Implementation of strategies • Organization – Coordination tools: • Regulations • Budget planning • Human resource planning • “soft methods” – training, discussion, awareness building etc.
Driving forces of eGov• Stable and functioning organizational setup for coordination.• Leadership and political will.• Fixed info-political principles.• PPP, good telecom infrastructure and high level of eBanking• Supporting legal and fiscal frameworks.• Interoperable ICT architecture.
Framework C I O Parliament N A A F L O C Government I R T T M A I O I Ministries T I N O O N N A G P R P O E Informatics Council L E L I M C A E Y N N T
Example: Fixed info-political principles in Estonia• Citizen (customer) orientation• Leading role for the private sector• Efficient and transparent public sector. eDemocracy and participation.• Functioning model for protection of personal data• Measures against digital divide (ID-cards example…)• Neutrality concerning technological platforms• etc.
Government County County Local Local Ministries governments governments governments governments Ministries IT managers Representative Managementrepresentatives & IT managers of Subordinate Local government Subordinate IT councils ministries agencies agencies of counties associations IT managers Council Representative representative IT councils of ministries Councils directors Informatics IC secretariat Council ICT work groups ICT work groups IT manager of counties of ministries Department of MINISTRY OF ECONOMIC State Information AFFAIRS AND COMMUNICATIONS Systems (RISO) Informatics Centre
State Chancellery / Ministry ICT work group eGov Center ICT work group of ministries (CIO office) of regional development •Regulation initiatives •eGov budget planning •monitoring of implementation •Interoperability Framework agreements Ministries Ministries Reform initiatives ICT Budget project procurement,CIO-s eGov imple- supervision, menting institution implementation systems maintenance IT Businesses end user training IT Businesses IT Businesses IT Businesses
• Government Committee “Estonian Informatics Council” - advice to the Government on Information Policy matters• All ministries (11 ministries) have CIOs. Ministries are relatively independent. Boards and inspectorates are subordinated to the ministries. There are IT councils of ministries who are coordinating the work in their fields of responsibility.• All County Governments (15) have also CIOs, who manage the work of IT-councils of counties. County Governments are state bodies. There are several municipalities (local governments with independent budgets) in the counties (altogether ca. 220). County IT councils have members from municipalities.
Nature of document Name of Document Nature of regulationPolicy and strategy eGov Strategy, Infopolitical agreement,documents Interoperability strong recommendation FrameworkLaws and sub-acts Databases acts, Compulsory Personal Data Protection Act, Digital Signature Act etc.Framework descriptions Architecture Strong recommendation descriptionsInteroperability Related Documents, digital Advise andStandards signature, security, recommendation message transfer etc.
Budgeting• Separate article of state budget: expenses for IT- subdivided into HW, SW and project work ordered from outside of government structures. For the last 8 years this budget has formed about 1% of the state budget.• All ministries, county governments and boards have independent IT budgets which are planned in cooperation of all CIOs.• For joint actions of several ministries the IT budget is often included in the budget of the ministry that is coordinating the work.
National chip-based Identity CardIssuing authority: Estonian Citizenship and Migration BoardService contractor: TRÜB Switzerland Start of issue:January 1, 2002Conformance with:ICAO Doc. 9303 part 3 Inside 16 Kb RSA crypto chip are : 2 private keys; authentication certificate; digital signature certificate; personal data file
Databases / information systems Banks 5 • Ühispank Population Register Insurance Register Health Insurance Vehicle Register Tallinna Vesi IS Eesti Energia IS National Pension • Hansapank Register • Krediidipank • Sampo Pank • Nordea Pank Security Security Security Security Security Security Security server server server server server server server Internet - X-road SecuritySecurity Popul. ~1,3 mil. server :: … :: Central server Central server I :: E-institution – institution view :: monitoring :: E-county – county view :: National Databases http://www.riik.ee/arr/ :: Governmental Portal – Your Estonia :: Central server II HelpDesk ID – card RegisterInstitutional view of the state Thematic view of the state www.riik.ee www.eesti.ee 1000000 KIT EIT AIT Citizen view Enterpriser view Public servant view X-road certification centerTools centrally developed by the State, X-road center Certification i.e. the State Portal Center
Lessons learned - 1• Cooperation and coordination is the key, technology is the simplest part. Important role of Centre in coordination of the actions.• Training of CIO-s (IT managers) and partners from private sector• Medium push from legal framework• Figuring out what might be the motivation• Procurement procedures and rules can destroy initial project plans• Step-by-step approach, no need to enter to “business” of the “back-office”
Lessons learned - 2• Process from operational technical system to wide implementation takes 2-3 years – “honeymoon period” of the project• Money, spent once for development of basic components of the architecture will give high profit in the phase of development of single e-services… but it will be clear only after several years… and this might not be the motivation for public institutions• Driving force is often not from the top management of public institution but somewhere else – find this person …
Thank you for your attention!Arvo Ott, PhDDirectoreGovernance Academyarvo.firstname.lastname@example.org
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