LID and Green Infrastructure

3,192 views
3,038 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Comment
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,192
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
43
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
221
Comments
1
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

LID and Green Infrastructure

  1. 1. Low Impact Development and Sustainable Infrastructure Watershed Management The Low Impact Development Center, Inc. Balancing Growth and Environmental Integrity
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES Define LID “Issues and Baggage” (apologies to Freud) Use for Resource Protection and Regulations “Going Green”
  3. 3. E.S.
  4. 4. E.S.
  5. 5. Environmental Environmental Interests Interests $ $ Development Development Interests Interests $ New Rules!
  6. 6. Low Impact Development Conservation (Watershed and Site Level ) 1. Minimization (Site Level) 2. Strategic Timing (Watershed and Site Level) 3. Integrated Management Practices (Site 4. Level) Retain / Detain / Filter / Recharge / Use Pollution Prevention Traditional Approaches 5.
  7. 7. Key LID Principles “Volume” and Water Balance to Achieve Objectives Unique Watershed Design Match Initial Abstraction Volume Mimic Water Balance Uniform Distribution of Small-scale Controls Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Systems filter / detain / retain / use / recharge / evaporate Decentralized / Disconnection Multifunctional Multipurpose Landscape & Architecture Pollution Prevention
  8. 8. 1. Conservation Plans / Regulations Local Watershed and Conservation Plans Forest (Contiguous and Interior Habitat) Large and Small Scale Streams (Corridors) Wetlands Habitats Step Slopes Buffers Critical Areas Parks Scenic Areas Trails Shorelines Difficult Soils Ag Lands Minerals
  9. 9. Conserve Natural Areas FUNCTIONAL!! • Conservation of Conservation drainages, trees & vegetation Land use planning • Watershed planning • Habitat conservation • plans Stream & wetland • Typical buffers Subdivision Courtesy CWP
  10. 10. Copyright 2007 82.35 Acres of public street paving that the city owns and maintains forever increasing financial burden by 35% - forever… Increasing environmental impacts by 35% - 53.32 Acres of public forever… street paving that the city Conventional owns and maintains Coved forever…
  11. 11. 2. Minimize Impacts Low Impact Design Multifunctional Use of Landscape and Infrastructure Minimize clearing Minimize grading Save A and B soils Limit lot disturbance Decentralized Controls * Soil Amendments Roofs Parking Lots Alternative Surfaces OpenBarrels Drainage Rain Open Space Reforestation Turf Educational Disconnect components Reduce pipes, curb and gutters Reduce impervious surfaces
  12. 12. 3. Maintain Time of Concentration and Watershed Patterns Open Drainage Use green space Flatten slopes Disperse drainage Lengthen flow paths Save headwater areas Vegetative swales Maintain natural flow paths Increase distance from streams Maximize sheet flow
  13. 13. 4. Storage, Detention & Filtration “LID IMP’s” Uniform Distribution at the Source Open drainage swales Rain Gardens / Bioretention Smaller pipes and culverts Small inlets Depression storage Infiltration Rooftop storage Pipe storage Street storage Rain Water Use Soil Management** Emeryville and UCD
  14. 14. 5. Pollution Prevention 30 - 40% Reduction in N&P Kettering Demonstration Project Maintenance Proper use, handling and disposal Individuals • Lawn / car / hazardous wastes / reporting / recycling Industry • Good house keeping / proper disposal / reuse / spills Business • Alternative products / Product liability
  15. 15. LID is Not A land use or zoning control An either this or that approach Independent of watershed planning “The” Answer LID is A Water Balance Approach to Hydrology A science and unit process based approach Decentralized and Integrated Technology Driven “The” Answer
  16. 16. Hydrologic Cycle From Lake (2004)
  17. 17. Stormwater Drinking Water LID is a Holistic Integrated Approach Wastewater
  18. 18. N2 AIR NH3 DENITRIFICATION RAINFALL Where did it all start? EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ADSORPTION PARTICULATES LID BIOLOGICAL FIXATION PLANT MATERIALS RUNOFF RUNOFF Manual VOLITILIZATION METALS, NUTRIENTS MULCH SANDY SOIL MEDIUM AMMONIFICATION Stormwater NO3 NITROGEN FIXATION Hydrology NH4 Standards DENITRIFICATION NO2 Manual Manual DRAIN INFILTRATION RECHAR GE Landscaping Water DPW Land NITROGEN CYCLE FOR BIORETENTION Conservation Development Manual Manual San Diego LID Manual Village Homes
  19. 19. Issues and Baggage
  20. 20. “Traditional” Stormwater Issues Non-Point Runoff Volume Trash & Debris
  21. 21. Ecological Integrity Protection Species – Fauna / Flora Structure – Spatial / Temp / Distribution Processes – Cycling (Energy / Materials / Nutrients) Minimize Impacts or Restore / Maintain Functions Ecological Factors 1. Hydrology / Hydraulics 2. Habitat Structure 3. Water Quality 4. Energy Sources Small Stream and Living 5. Biotic Interactions Resource Protection
  22. 22. Courtesy Geoanalysis
  23. 23. Canadian TMDL Goose
  24. 24. Traditional Urban Sustainable Urban Drainage Drainage Water Quality Capacity Capacity Amenity The Good Old Days! Stahre, 2006
  25. 25. Imperatives: • Sustain economic growth • Maximize private profit • Expand markets Economic • Externalize costs Development Community Economic Conservationism Development Sustainable Development Community Ecological Development Development Imperatives: Imperatives: • Increase local • Respect carrying capacity self-reliance • Conserve and recycle • Satisfy basic human needs resources • Guarantee participation • Reduce waste Deep Ecology and accountability or Utopianism • Use appropriate technology Courtesy ICLEI, 1999 Sustainable Stormwater Management!!!
  26. 26. The Future of the Urban America
  27. 27. Where are the watershed functions?
  28. 28. TND & LID
  29. 29. Reston Watershed Management Planning
  30. 30. Buttermilk off North Shore Buttermilk off Ring Road
  31. 31. AIR N2 NH3 DENITRIFICATION RAINFALL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ADSORPTION PARTICULATES BIOLOGICAL FIXATION PLANT MATERIALS RUNOFF RUNOFF VOLITILIZATION METALS, NUTRIENTS MULCH SANDY SOIL MEDIUM AMMONIFICATION NO3 NITROGEN FIXATION NH4 DENITRIFICATION NO2 DRAIN INFILTRATION RECHARGE NITROGEN CYCLE FOR BIORETENTION
  32. 32. Builder/Developer/Institution Land Use Economic and Design Requirements Sustainability is not achieved by minimum Localized Industry standards or ratingSustainable Recognized systems!!! Development Standards Performance Local Community Codes/Ordinances and and Watershed Requirements Economics
  33. 33. United States Navy Yard
  34. 34. PICP Open-graded base RAINFALL SM s O G LIGHT HEAT/ (optional) ET
  35. 35. Which office is safer at night?
  36. 36. Bioretention California
  37. 37. UCD
  38. 38. Rain Garden in an office building project along the G.W. Parkway. (Looking East) UCD
  39. 39. Chiropractic Center Appearance after 11 months
  40. 40. Emeryville
  41. 41. LEED™, SPIRIT, Green Globes™, How to Go Green Sustainable Sites, Rating Programs Point not performance systems Not “regional or local” one size fits all No Optimization Not targeted at water quality Can achieve certification without necessarily addressing water
  42. 42. Process vs. Standards Regucopy Agendicizing Minimum Standards Zoning and Building Codes Mass Production not Profession Contract Process “Per Unit” LEED is not necessarily LEED “No Builder Left tm Behind” Site Design Performance vs. BMP Efficiency No One Reads
  43. 43. Moving Environmental Regulations (Restrictions) to an Economic and Asset and Adaptable Management Approach Regulations should even the playing field for economic/environmental development instead of being a minimum standard! Do those minimum standards really protect the watershed? Sustainability/ LEED may not be a good example, Economics and Capacity are! What are the true costs/value to the installation for stormwater?
  44. 44. Courtesy E Takata
  45. 45. Courtesy SVR
  46. 46. City of Albuquerque Best Residential Project 2004 New Mexico National Association of Industrial and Office Properties Photo: Paseo de Estrella – Albuquerque, New Mexico (DR Horton Homes)
  47. 47. Conventional non-functional site design
  48. 48. Olive Garden Redesign
  49. 49. Rain garden in commercial parking lot
  50. 50. Hydrologic Benefits 11% less impervious area than standard street improvement and disconnectivity 98% Reduction in Volume
  51. 51. Fat Street
  52. 52. Skinny Street with Horizontally Challenged Person
  53. 53. Incorporating Bioretention in Hamlet Courtesy NC State
  54. 54. Building “Hamlet” Rain Garden reduces size of pond from 7900 sf to 5900 sf Courtesy NC State
  55. 55. A new 2300 sf home on an 11,000 sf lot Courtesy NC State
  56. 56. Chicago, Illinois More than 80 green roofs totaling over 1 million square feet. Another 1 – 2 million square feet planned. A 2003 study found green roof runoff volume was less than half that of conventional roofs. Subsidized rain barrel program used to reduce basement flooding and CSO volume. Chicago City Hall Green Roof. Photo courtesy of Roofscapes, Inc. Downspout disconnection projected to reduce CSO peak flow in target area by 20%.
  57. 57. Portland, Oregon (cont.) Green Roofs Zoning bonus allows additional building square footage for buildings with a green roof. Two years of monitoring demonstrated that 58% of rainfall was retained. Nearly 100% retention of warm season rainfall. Hamilton Apartments Ecoroof. Photo courtesy of the Portland Bureau of Environmental Services.
  58. 58. Seattle Green Factor Requires 30% of a parcel in the Neighborhood Commercial Zone to be vegetated or the functional equivalent as determined by the Green Factor. For example, the Green Factor for green roofs is 0.7, permeable paving is 0.6, and lawn is 0.2. Bonuses provided for rainwater harvesting or planting low water-use vegetation. Encourages the planting of layers of vegetation on the property and in public right-of-ways adjacent to the property. In effect as of January 2007.
  59. 59. Toronto, Ontario (cont.) More than 100 green roofs have been installed in the city, which reduce roof runoff by more than 50%. Ryerson University study modeled impacts of installing green roofs on all city roofs >3,750 ft2. Would result in 12,000 acres of green roofs – 8% of total city land area. Estimated nearly $270 million in municipal capital cost Source: Report on the Environmental Benefits and Costs of savings and more Green Roof Technology for the City of Toronto than $30 million of annual savings.
  60. 60. Battery Park City, New York Environmental Guidelines Stormwater Standards: Require that the first 2.4 inches of rainwater falling on all building roofs and setbacks be collected, treated, and stored on-site for reuse (i.e., cooling tower, irrigation, and building and sidewalk maintenance, and laundry). The Solaire. The first green U.S. residential high rise.
  61. 61. Washington, D.C. – Casey Trees study (released in April 2007) Green roofs of 103 million sq. ft., tree coverage of 57% of the city, and tree boxes of at least 6 X 20 ft. together would: Reduce annual CSO discharges by more than 500 million gallons (22%) and the frequency of discharges 6.7%. Reduce annual MS4 Photo courtesy of Casey Trees, Washington, D.C. discharges by nearly 600 million gallons (6.6%).
  62. 62. Emeryville
  63. 63. Green Infrastructure Evolution Green Infrastructure is the community open space and infrastructure assets (e.g. parks, roads, vacant land) Functional Environmental Assett (stormwater, energy, air) Integrated functions with the watershed (e.g. hydrology, habitat, circulation)
  64. 64. Green Infrastructure An ecosystem , watershed based network approach to managing growth and creating sustainable environments in a variety of development densities Economically cost effective approach to solving various issues (water quality, habitat, urban heat island, CSO reductions, NPDES compliance, TMDL, safe communities) when compared to other approaches
  65. 65. Links and Hubs An organizing form idea for planning green infrastructure Creates an interdependent network of green Fits a watershed model of planning Can be implemented and maintained in sections Is an opportunity for public-private partnerships
  66. 66. Coyote Creek Green Infrastructure Principles Start upstream Connect the Dots Use Nature as a Guide All Fronts/No backs Manage for the Long Term Multiple Objectives
  67. 67. Courtesy E. Takata
  68. 68. Courtesy E Takata
  69. 69. Courtesy E. Takata
  70. 70. Courtesy E. Takata
  71. 71. Green Highways
  72. 72. Theme Areas Watershed Driven Stormwater Recyclables and Reuse Conservation and Ecosystems
  73. 73. 2005 Great American Main Street Award™ Winner Barracks Row Washington, District of Columbia Environmental Infrastructure is Community Development
  74. 74. SHA Mt. Ranier Gutter Filters Sierra Club Community Award Program
  75. 75. Green Highways Initiative
  76. 76. AWI Great Streets: Nannie Helen Burroughs
  77. 77. Sustainable Economic Communities: Development •Green Complement d Gray…. Environmental Community n Development Development •Bridge Infrastructure Gap a •etc ss el ICLI, 1999 ga Sustainable Communities ao kG in n Programs Lo Programs Green te m Green Linkable and Highways Infrastructure Expandable am re o Theme Areas CC •Conservation Approach •Stormwater •Structural Approach •Recycling •Non-Structural Approach •Ecosystem

×