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Appendix 7   learner guide

Appendix 7 learner guide






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    Appendix 7   learner guide Appendix 7 learner guide Document Transcript

    • FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Department of Food Technology Our Vision To be at the heart of Food Technology Education and Innovation in Africa. Our MissionTo create and sustain an empowering environment for developingtechnologically skilled and socially responsive graduates using innovativeteaching and research and a work integrated learning approach fosteringactive partnerships with industry and community in order to be a centre ofexcellence for the training of Food Technologists. A LEARNING GUIDE FOR STUDENTS FOLLOWING THE B. TECH. FOOD TECHNOLOGY FOOD ANALYSIS 4 (FNA400S) NQF 7 Credits: 20 Valid For: Semester 1 (2012)Version 1Revision No. 3.1 Approved: Last updated: 24 January 2012
    • 2TABLE OF CONTENTSHow to use this Learning Guide 3Subject lecturer/s details 3Qualification name 3Purpose of the Qualification 3Institutional Bodies/Centres that offer assistance 3Departmental assistance to students 5General rules and procedures 5Promotion to the Next Level of Study 5Rules and procedures for academic exclusions and appeals 5Policy with respect to (wrt) Class Attendance 5Policy wrt Practical Attendance and Practical Reports 5Policy wrt Exemption from Practical Attendance (Repeat students) 5Continuous Assessment 5Policy wrt Punctuality for Written Assessments 6Policy wrt Missed Assessments (Postponed Assessments) 6Assessments: further information 6Policy concerning plagiarism 8Exit level outcomes 8Critical cross-field outcomes 8Critical outcomes 8Subject overview 9Requirements 9Schedule of learning 10Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 3 FOOD ANALYSIS 4 – 2009 1. HOW TO USE THIS LEARNING GUIDEThis Learning Guide supplies information about the lecturer/s of this subject, thesubject content, assessment criteria, assessment dates and deadlines for submissionof assignments and practicals, the various policies of the Department of FoodTechnology, as well as other significant information that can support the student.2. SUBJECT LECTURER DETAILSName: Mr A ObilanaRoom No: Food Technology BuildingContact Details:Telephone: 021-9538748Fax: 021-9596095Cellular telephone:E-mail: obilanaa@cput.ac.zaConsultation: Open DoorVenues: Theory classes: Classroom 2 Practicals: Chemistry & Research lab3. QUALIFICATION NAMEB. TECH. FOOD TECHNOLOGY (BTECFT) at NQF Level 7 (120 credits at NQF 7;360 credits at NQF 6)4. PURPOSE OF THE QUALIFICATIONThe qualifying learner will be able to apply and integrate advanced knowledge andskills of Food Technology in the food manufacturing and associated industries,including the environments of food production, food quality assurance and foodproduct development for safe, cost-efficient and cost-effective food industry. They willalso integrate laboratory tests and knowledge of foods to conduct research.Management skills are developed with a view to encourage entrepreneurialdevelopment and business management. Compliance with statutory requirements forquality, ethics and safety underpin all exit levels.5. INSTITUTIONAL BODIES/CENTRES THAT OFFER ASSISTANCE5.1 HIV/AIDS AssistanceIn the interests of your own health and safety, you need to be aware of the dangersassociated with HIV/AIDS. As much as you may say “It will not happen to me” or “Icannot become infected with HIV/AIDS whilst executing my normal workresponsibilities”, the potential for this happening always exists. The truth of the matteris that YOU CAN BECOME INFECTED WITH THE VIRUS WHILST AT THEWORKPLACE. Your workplace is either during your studies at the University orduring your Work-integrated Learning period.Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 4In order to understand this statement we need to look at the mode of transmission ofthe virus and relate it to encounters in the workplace. The main modes oftransmission are:  Unprotected sexual contact;  Shared or second-hand hypodermic needles;  Contamination of open wounds or sores with infected body fluids such as blood.Situations at the workplace possibly leading to infection with the virus:  During the execution of duties at work you could encounter accidents that involve bleeding or contact with other body fluids. Should you rush to the assistance of a fellow colleague that was injured, your safety is of utmost importance and you have to protect yourself from becoming infected. This can be achieved by using the proper protective attire (latex gloves for example) to protect yourself from direct contact with body fluids (blood).  On the other hand, accidental contact with a possible source of the virus is another concern. You (or your colleague) may inadvertently puncture your skin with an instrument that has been in contact with infected body fluid (blood). This type of event must be reported to your manager/supervisor/lecturer immediately in order for speedy and appropriate action to be taken.What do you do if you suspect that you have been in contact with fluids containingthe virus?  Inform your manager/supervisor/lecturer or company nurse/doctor immediately;  If you are doing in-service training, inform the University monitor assigned to you;  Attend the necessary HIV/AIDS counselling provided by the employer or the University.5.2 Language/Writing CentreWorkshops on writing skills are offered by the Fundani Centre of Higher EducationDevelopment at CPUT:Contact persons:Prof. Terry Volbrecht Dr. James Garrawayvolbrechtt@cput.ac.za garrawayj@cput.ac.za021 460 3378 021 959 65575.3 Other important numbers for assistance Clinic – Dr Jardine X6403  Arts & Culture – Mr. Eugene Malan HIV/AIDS Unit – Mr. Ashraf X6041 Mohammed X4252/3  Student Housing – Ms. Eveleen Fundani – Ms. Denise February Cloete X6443Sports Administrator – X6214 Mr. Sakkie Booysen X6319Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 5 International Office – Ms. Merle  Financial Aid – Mr. Neels Claasen Hodges / Ms. Thandi Sokanyile X6253 X6504  Security / Transport – Mr. Shabir Student Counselling – Ms. Peggy Laing / Ms. Alterena Fraser Nxopo X6182 X6301/6219 Subject Librarian – Mr. Brian Radloff  Co-operative Education – Ms. Lilian X6624 vd Schyff X61666. DEPARTMENTAL ASSISTANCE TO STUDENTS6.1 First Aid officerMs. Donna-Leah ThomasFood Technology Building – First Floor021 959 67757. GENERAL RULES AND PROCEDURESPlease see Student Guide, p. 6.8. PROMOTION TO THE NEXT LEVEL OF STUDYSince all of the B.Tech. subjects are at the same level, there are no prerequisitesubjects. All six subjects have the same status.9. RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR ACADEMIC EXCLUSIONS AND APPEALSPlease see Student Guide, p. 1010. POLICY WITH RESPECT TO CLASS ATTENDANCEPlease see Student Guide, p. 811. POLICY WITH RESPECT TO PRACTICAL ATTENDANCE AND PRACTICAL REPORTSPlease see Student Guide, p. 812. POLICY WITH RESPECT TO EXEMPTION FROM PRACTICAL ATTENDANCE (REPEAT STUDENTS)Please see Student Guide, p. 813. POLICY WITH RESPECT TO CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENTPlease see Student Guide, p. 8Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 614. POLICY WITH RESPECT TO PUNCTUALITY FOR WRITTEN ASSESSMENTSPlease see Student Guide, p. 1015. POLICY WITH RESPECT TO MISSED ASSESSMENTS - POSTPONED ASSESSMENTSWhere a student missed an assessment for a valid reason (see point 7 under Policywith respect to Continuous Assessment), a special assessment (a.k.a. aPostponed Assessment) will be offered at a date and time suitable to both thelecturer and student, asap after the original assessment. In the case of personalillness or injury, a valid medical certificate needs to be submitted to the subjectlecturer who will verify the validity of this document. The postponed assessment forthe Final assessment (FISA) will be scheduled on the first day of the week after allthe FISAs. If a student missed two FISAs due to illness/death in the immediatefamily, they may have to write two postponed assessments on the same day. Thefour reassessments will then start on the day following the last pair of postponedassessments. Students who wrote the postponed assessment for the FISA have tosign an indemnity form stating that they understand that their mark for thatassessment will not be available to inform the decision of whether they do or do notqualify for the re-assessment. The onus is, therefore, on them to decide whether ornot to write the re-assessment. Should the student pass or not qualify, the re-assessment script would be considered cancelled and not marked.16. ASSESSMENTS: FURTHER INFORMATION16. 1 Contribution of assessments towards final markALL assessments (written tests, assignments, practicals, participation, project, etc.)WILL count towards a final mark. You must obtain a final mark of 50% to pass thesubject.16. 2 Final assessmentThe FINAL ASSESSMENT is open to anyone and no minimum performance mark isrequired to be permitted to write this assessment.You will be writing a 3 hour/180 mark question paper for both your Finalassessment (compulsory) and Re-assessment (conditions stipulated in 16.3below). These assessments will cover a minimum of 75% of the work coveredduring the semester. The lecturer may exclude up to 25% of previouslyassessed work, or work assessed during the practical assessment.16. 3 Re-AssessmentThere will be no re-assessments for candidates who have obtained therequired 50% to pass the course.The RE-ASSESSMENT will only be offered to you if you failed to obtain an averageof 50% when the marks of all your assessments and assignments and/or practicalshave been computed based on a pre-determined formula that is published in thisLearning Guide (see Assessment dates and weights); However, you will only beallowed to write the RE-ASSESSMENT if you obtained a minimum of 45%OVERALL. PLEASE NOTE: if you wrote the RE-ASSESSMENT, the maximumVersion 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 7marks that will be allocated for this assessment will be that score that givesyou a final total (or pass mark) of 50%. The FINAL and RE-ASSESSMENTS will cover all of the theory (and somepractical work as may be indicated by your lecturer) covered during the semester. Itwill count approximately 180 marks and the duration will be 3 hours. Please note that, should you "be allowed" to write the RE-ASSESSMENT, themark obtained will REPLACE the mark of your FINAL assessment. In other words, itwill then be factored into the calculation of your final mark (as explained in theexample below) - it will not be a "blanket" mark replacing the final mark computedafter writing the FINAL ASSESSMENT.16.4 Assessment dates and weights (contribution to final mark)For Food Analysis, you will be evaluated according to the following protocol:Assessment 1 = 20%; Assessment 2 = 20%; Assessment 3 = 40%; PracticalAttendance and Reports = 10%; Assignments (one) = 10%.Table 1 Dates and allocation of weights for written assessments, practicals andassignmentsAssessment Type Date Contribution to Final Mark (%)Written assessment 1 See assessment timetable 20Written assessment 2 See assessment timetable 20Written assessment 3 (FINAL) See assessment timetable 40Written assessment 4 (Re- To be announced naassessment / PosponedAssessment)Assignment To be announced 10Practical reports To be announced 10Assignments or reports handed in after the due date will incur a penalty of 10%per week or part thereof. The pass mark for all assessments is 50%. The marksobtained for all the above assessments will be combined to obtain the finalmark. The final mark must be a minimum of 50%. An overall pass mark of 75%and above will be awarded a Distinction.16.5 Assessment managementMarked (graded) assessments or answer scripts will be handed back to students forrevision and feedback. Students must then sign the marked assessment and hand itback to the lecturer for moderation. A percentage of 60% off all written assessmentsmust be moderated. All assessments or answer scripts are kept on file for a periodof 3 years for audit purposes, and therefore students are not allowed to keep theiranswer scripts. Assessment marks will be publicly posted on the notice boards forthe student to evaluate his/her progress.Assessment results will be given to you not more than 7 days after the assessmentdate. Practical reports and assignments will be marked within 7 days after the date ofsubmission. If the responsible lecturer/tutor defaults in this regard, you must discussthe matter with them first. If the issue is not resolved, you may report it to the HoD.Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 817. POLICY CONCERNING PLAGIARISMCopying during a written assessment, or copying verbatim directly from a text book orJournal or the Internet (in the case of assignments and reports), is not allowed. Stiffpenalties will be applied where students are found guilty of this type of misconduct:1. All reports and assignments must be submitted electronically. These will be scrutinised using Turnitin® which is software designed to discover plagiarism2. Written assessments: The University Disciplinary Committee, under the Judicial Officer, will consider cases of this nature at the discretion of the head of department;3. Assignments and reports: Copying from texts and journals, or copying amongst fellow students in the case of assignments and reports, will not be tolerated. Penalties in this regard will be determined at the discretion of the head of department. Generally, this will be 20% for verbatim copying and, where group duplication and copying has occurred, the total mark will be distributed equally among offenders.18. EXIT LEVEL OUTCOMES (SAQA)1. The learner will be competent to supervise or manage unit processes and operations in accordance with basic engineering principles in food manufacturing and associated industries and recognise changes in food characteristics during and after processing.2. To supervise, implement and monitor Quality Assurance programmes.3. Research and develop foods using appropriate technologies.4. To investigate the interaction of food components / ingredients and their effects.5. Supervise and specify packaging, handling and storage of foods.6. Communicate, manage and plan effectively.7. Apply relevant procedures of labour legislation as applied to the Food Industry.8. Product initiation and marketing.19. CRITICAL CROSS-FIELD OUTCOMES1. Communicate effectively2. Identify and solve problems3. Collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information4. Work in teams5. Maintain effective working relationships6. Use of Science and Technology20. CRITICAL OUTCOMESIdentifying and solving problems in which responses display thatresponsible decisions using critical and creative thinking have beenmade in food processing and product development at a supervisoryor managerial level1. Working effectively with others as a member of the team, group, organisation, community in a food production and food development environment, ensuring appropriate safety levels are applied2. Organising, analysing and critically evaluating information in food production and product developmentVersion 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 93. Communicating and leading effectively using visual, mathematical and/or language skills in the modes of oral and/or written persuasion in food production and product development at a supervisory or managerial level21. SUBJECT OVERVIEWFood Analysis 4 covers aspects of analysis in three different areas. The first sectionlooks at traceability, sample plans, sampling and sample preparation. The secondcovers an overall view of analytical techniques i.e. official methods prescribed for thefood industry as well as other techniques associated with general biological analyses.The intention of this is to ensure that the analyst has a good working knowledge ofthese methods, their specific uses and how to employ them in specific situations. Thethird section covers specific techniques such as chromatography, polymerase chainreaction, electrophoresis, electrochemical techniques, near-infrared spectroscopyand scanning electron microscopy.22. REQUIREMENTS Item Description Cost AvailabilityPrescribed text Food Analysis (3rd ed) by S. Nielsen. R1200.00 Library Kluwer AcademicRecommended Food Analysis: Theory and Practice by Librarytexts Y. Pomeranz and C. Meloan. AVI Publishing. Analytical chemistry of foods /C.S. Library James. Gaithersburg, Md. : Aspen Publishers, 1999 Quality Control for the Food Industry: Library Volume 1 by A. Kramer and B. Twigg. AVI Publishing A biologists guide to principles and Library techniques of practical biochemistry by Williams and Wilson (1981) Vogel’s Textbook of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis by Bassett et al (latest edition) Food Chemistry by Bielitz & Grosch (2000). Food Chemistry by De ManEquipment White coat R90.00 Safety shoes R300.00Supplied Miscellaneous notes, Ppt presentations and practical materialhttp://www.ebooksx.com/Official-Methods-Of-Analysis-in-title.htmlhttp://www.general-search.com/fileinfo/gs8b30fc0h82i0Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 1023. SCHEDULE OF LEARNINGThe learning process, under the banner of Outcomes-based Education (OBE), will beguided by the lecturer concerned. The lecturer must be seen as a “facilitator oflearning” rather than a conveyor of information. This guide aims to assist the learningprocess to be student centred i.e. the guide will allow you to study on your own to alarge extent. Preparation in advance for classes is also made possible. The guidewill: Pace you through the learning material (see schedule below); Point you to good resource material (see Requirements above as well as table below); Allow you to check whether you have completed the work satisfactorily (see Assessment Criteria in table below as well as tutorials and past question papers).THIS DOES NOT MEAN THAT YOU DO NOT NEED TO ATTEND CLASSES ANDPRACTICALS!! On the contrary, you MUST attend classes and practicals forguidance regarding depth of content as well as case studies with respect to content.In addition, you must also use this guide to prepare for appropriate classes andpracticals. As mentioned previously, a good attendance record will determine yoursuccess in this subject.To use: Carry out the tasks as listed for each section and then test yourself with theassessment criteria and tutorials. If you have any queries, please refer to yourlecturer during class time.Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 11Content Scope/Tasks Associated Assessment criteria Learning out-comes Exit Level Critical out-comes outcomes (P. 8) (P.8)Weeks 1-2 2. & 3. 1, 2, & 3(24/01/12 –04/02/12)6 notional hoursIntroduction to  Reasons for and Importance of food  Reasons for and importance of food An understanding offood analysis analysis analyses are identified. the importance of food  Food analysis “Theory and Practice”  Theory and practice of the “process” analyses in the food  Properties of foods typically analysed of food analyses are outlined. industry as well as the  Analysis as a process  Properties of food that are analysed ability to select  Criteria for selecting analytical are identified appropriate analytical techniques  The process of selecting appropriate techniques when analytical techniques are outlined needed.Traceability  Importance of traceability in the food  Implementation of a traceability An understanding of industry system is outlined. traceability systems;  Contextualise the issue of “analysis”  Advantages to a food company of their implementation, with quality, safety and traceability; having a traceability system in place advantages and  Develop a general understanding of are identified stumbling blocks. the issues associated with traceability  Drawbacks to the implementation of and its implementation; the a traceability system identifiedSampling Plans  Identify different types of sampling  Different types of sampling plans and Application of theSampling and plans and calculations useful in techniques are identified. appropriate samplingsample statistical process control;  Application of the different and samplepreparation  Use real examples to differentiate techniques are outlined. preparation methods between different types of sampling  Subsequent handling of prepped as dictated by the plans and sampling techniques; sample discussed. purpose of data to be  Identify general sample collected, type of preparation and storage sample and techniques. subsequent storage.Miscellaneous  Additional sample preparation orbiochemical modification techniques that can beVersion 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 12techniques. utilized (Range: homogenizing, centrifuging, dialyzing, salting- in/salting-out; solvent extraction; freeze-drying).Week 3 2 ,3 1, 2, 307/02/20123 notional hours(Th)8 notional hours(P)Method  Why develop and validate your  Identify the elements of method  Understanding anddevelopment and methods? development and validation; application of thevalidation;  The process of method development  Apply these elements to theoretical process of method and validation analytical situations; development and  Standards and calibration of validation. standards;   Laboratory, method and personnel  A knowledge of the accreditation (SANAS and AOAC); accreditation  The accreditation process and process and accrediting bodies different relevant accreditation bodiesWeek 4 3. & 4. 1,3.14/02/20123 notional hours(Th)Biosensors and  Definition, design and structure of a  Biosensors are defined, and their Understanding of theenzymes biosensor. design and structure discussed design process of a  Desirable characteristics of a biosensor  Desirable characteristics of an ideal biosensor and  Classes and applications of biosensors; biosensor are identified application thereof. Tiger biosensor as an example.  The different classes and applications of biosensors are Knowledge of the discussed with examples. desirable characteristics of an ideal biosensor. Knowledge andVersion 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 13 understanding of the different classes of biosensrsWeeks 5-10 2, 3 & 4 1, 2, 3 and21/02/12 – 4.31/03/201215 notional hours(Th)notional hours (P)AnalyticalTechniquesProteins, DNA Definition o Identify general techniques and Knowledge andand Process principles for purification and understanding ofElectrophoresis Instrumentation separation of proteins; Electrophoresis. Factors affecting separation  Revise protein and DNA structure Agarose gel electrophoresis and the effect of pH on these; Application of either SDS PAGE  Determine the behavior of charged Agarose or SDS particles in an electric field; PAGE under any given  List the equipment required to run circumstance that calls DNA and protein in an electric field; for the use of  Differentiate between the media Electrophoresis. used as a stationary phase;  Differentiate between capillary and flat-bed electrophoresis;  Explain how macromolecules separate in this field. o Identify general techniques and principles for purification and separation of DNA;  Revise DNA structure with respectDNA and RNA; Overview to genes and heredity;Polymerase Chain Primer design Knowledge and  Determine the theoretical basis ofReaction PCR process understanding of PCR. PCR;Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 14 Applications  Indicate how PCR may contribute to food microbiology and rapid techniques. o Identify hardware associated withChromatography o Definitions HPLC’s (Range: autosampler; Knowledge and o Major Components pumps; columns; detectors; understanding of o Terminology recorder; Chemstation software) chromatography. o Applications / Uses  Identify chemicals and equipment o Methods of Classification needed for HPLC (Range: Selection and o Solvents solvents; sample preparation application of the o Schematics materials; SPE; vacuum pumps); appropriate o Chromatogram  Differentiate between types of chromatographic o Types of Chromatography separation techniques (Range: technique under any o Instrumentation normal phase; reverse phase; ion- given circumstance exchange, etc.); that calls for the use of  Relate all this to a number of chromatogrphy practical examples using journal articles. o Identify hardware associated with GC’s (Range: autosampler; pumps; columns; detectors; recorder; Chemstation software)  Identify chemicals and equipment needed for GC (Range: solvents; sample preparation materials; SPE; vacuum pumps);  Differentiate between types of separation techniques (Range: capillary versus normal columns, etc.);  Relate all this to a number of practical examples using journal articles. o Mass selective detection;  Fluorescence detection;Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 15  Others. Week 11 2, 3 & 4 1, 2, 3 and04/04/2012 4.3 notional hours(Th)8 notional hours(P)Glycaemic index  Use FCDA to source method for  Outline methods for determination of Understanding andand food fibre determination of glycaemic index GI application of GI and different fibre fractions;  Identify and discuss the different GL for nutritional  Understand the physiology and ethics factors that affect GI ranking of purposes attached to the process; foods  Compare method to that of ILSI  Differentiate between GI and GL (2005).  Use GI and GL ranking of foods to  Factors affecting glycemic ranking develop a nutritionally balanced diet  Difference between glycemic load and or otherwise (weight gain, weight glycemic index. loss, muscle building etc)  Determination of glycemic load.  Application of GI and GL to create nutritional guidelinesWeek 12 3. & 4. 1., 2., 3.11/04/2012 and 4.3 notional hours(Th)4 notional hours(P) Enzyme kinetics  Revise structure of proteins related to  Findings on a specific research topic Application ofand enzyme activity; to be researched and communicated appropriate analyticalspectrophotometr  Relate enzyme kinetics to factors  technique correctlyy affecting protein structure; and understand as  Classify different types of kinetics of well as interpret dataOPTIONAL enzymes and other biological reactions;  Revise the principles of spectrophotometry (Beer-LambertsVersion 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 16 Law, etc.);  Use relevant applied examples to explain the uses of spectrophotometry in measuring food enzyme kinetics;  Use enzyme kinetic curves to diagnose a food system.3 notional hours  Definitions  Mineral chelating compounds are Application of(Th)  Major Components identified knowledge to differing4 notional hours  Terminology  Sample treatments to release chelated scenarios involving minerals in foods are identified(P)  Applications / Uses quantification of  Principles of ICP-AES and ICP-MS are minerals in food  Schematics understoodICP AES and ICP  Instrumentation materialsMS – Mineral  Principles of treatment of complex food  Revise the differing forms in which matrices identifieddeterminations in minerals can present in food systems food samples  Identify sample preparation methods to isolate mineralsOptional  Different methods of identifying individual minerals  Overview of ICP-AES and ICP-MS  USES / applications of ICPWeek 13 & 15 This section is integrated with all of  Findings on a specific research topic to Apply knowledge to 3 & 4. 1., 3.18/04/12- the preceding sections of sampling, be researched and communicated ensure appropriate06/05/2012 sample handling and techniques  Food stabilizers and thickeners are food analyses6 notional hours identified. techniques are utilized(Th) Summarise main methods used in food safety testing is analysis (specific to local companies)  The sensory properties of foods are performed correctly.Experimental identified Summarise sampling procedures requireddesign and for aboveplanning Summarise sample preparation  Preservatives are identified procedures Draw a flow diagram of the experimental  The stability of food mixtures is evaluated. design  Use journal articles to design experiments  Chemical, physical and sensory interactions of food components should  Case studies of past and present be analysed food contamination used for design of experiments..Version 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011
    • 17  Food products are modified to improve qualityVersion 1Revision No. 2.1 Approved: Last updated: 18 January 2011