L21 Games


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The first computer games go back to the 50s when a nought and crosses game was created using an EDSAC computer. An effort at MIT ten years later led to a the multiplayer Spacewar game developed in a PDP-1. Even though these games were primitive, a game industry was born with the first games available in special locations – arcades. Today’s games are produced with modest Hollywood budgets and some are selling more than box-office hits.

he Internet is becoming a practical platform for the games. The growth is in both on-line games and connectivity of games. A new genre of games has appeared – casual games. These are simple and short games that people can play for short sessions.

In this lecture we look at computer games and the gaming market. Also we cover the impact of gaming and the trends.

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L21 Games

  1. 1. Lecture L21 GAMES
  2. 2. Games are the one of the most powerful
 force in the world
  3. 3. Games are universal
  4. 4. Games are everywhere
  5. 5. Games are played by anyone
  6. 6. Games are part of growing up
  7. 7. Computer Game History
  8. 8. Early Games Cathode ray tube amusement device, 1947 Analog game, purely electromechanical Controlled by control knobs which influences the 
 trajectory of the CRT's light beam Player controls a reticle and aligns it to an airplane to shoot down
  9. 9. Early Games Noughts And Crosses, 1952 ! A Tic-Tac-Toe game 
 Ran on EDSAC ! Used the tank display CRT as 35 x 16 pixel screen for displaying his game ! Game did not get well known
  10. 10. Early Games Spaceware! 1961
  11. 11. Early Games Spaceware! 1961 Programmed on PDP-1 in MIT in 1960 ! One of the first time-sharing computers ! Space game where two players try to 
 shoot each others without being drawn 
 to the sun in the center !
  12. 12. Arcades Special purpose machines ! Most popular game was PONG ! Arcades became popular amongst
 young in 1971-1974 ! 2-D boards and movement
 of objects ! Special controls and buttons
  13. 13. Pong 1974 Atari VCS 2600 1977 Game Consoles In 1974 game consoles start to appear ! Computer games market emerges ! Atari became the industry leader
 VCS – Video Computer System 1974 – 1984 Discontinued in 1991
  14. 14. The Video Game Crash In 1983 the computer game market crashed ! Throughout the 1984 and 1985, the home video game industry was nearly dead Too much supply of similar games Low quality The public lost interest ! Atari did not want to credit developers
  15. 15. Game Consoles Come Back Nintendo Entertainment System, 1986! ! Started the second computer console revolution ! Changed the way games were marketed Strict control of what games were produced and sold Instituted quality standards Instituted content standards
  16. 16. Enter the Personal Computer In the 80s Personal computers become more wide spread Games slowly appear in the PCs
  17. 17. Interactive fiction In the 80s Interactive fiction games became popular! ! Role-playing game in which the player moves around in imaginative adventure world and solves mysteries ! Early games where text games with simple commands ! Slowly graphics was added
  18. 18. Enter CD-ROM With CD-ROM new types of games became possible! ! More graphic ! The 7th guest from 1992 ! Myst from 1993 became an 
 unexpected huge success
  19. 19. Multiplayer and 3-D Games Early games were multiplayer games! ! Pong and Spacewar! were multiplayer ! Most games after that were single player games where player plays against the computer or players take turn ! In the late 80s and early 90s networks start to appear Ethernet LANs, then the Internet
  20. 20. DOOM introduced 3-D graphics and multiplayer capabilities in 1993 ! 3D game where the player moves around in a 3-D world ! Breakthrough graphics Multiplayer capability on a LAN Multiplayer and 3-D Games
  21. 21. Timeline
  22. 22. Addiction! ! Some games are highly addictive ! ! Role playing games, MUD (Multiple User Dialog) Example: EverQuest ! Games with progression, construction and commands Examples: WarCraft, CounterStrike, Sims Impact of Computer Games
  23. 23. Really simple game, but highly addictive Released on May 24, 2013, discontinued Feb 8, 2014
  24. 24. Violence! ! Some games are violent, made for mature
 adult audience ! Most games are not violent ! ! Impact of Computer Games
  25. 25. “In twenty years, games will have taken over the world and everything will be virtual reality.” -- Ray Kurzwiel The Gaming Market
  26. 26. Who plays computer and video games? 51% of US households have a dedicated game console
 Source: ESA Essential facts, US data
  27. 27. Average Game Player Age 30
  28. 28. The  Gaming  Market
  29. 29. The  Gaming  Market
  30. 30. The  Gaming  Market
  31. 31. The  Gaming  Market
  32. 32. The  Gaming  Market
  33. 33. 1990 $10 bn 2000 2010 $20 bn $50 bn Games
  34. 34. 2014
  35. 35. The Market PlayStation 2 is still on top
  36. 36. The  Market
  37. 37. Nintendo • Products   – GameCube   – GameBoy   – Wii   – DS   • Appeal  to  families   – Apply  strict  standards   • Do  most  of  the  games  themselves   – Difficult  for  others  to  enter   – Wii  got  a  very  good  start   – Wii  Remote
  38. 38. Sony ▪ Products   – PlayStation,  PlayStation2   – PlayStation  Portable   ▪ Have  the  broadest  market   – Has  most  of  the  games   ▪ PlayStation3   – With  IBM’s  Cell  and  Blue-­‐ray  Optical  Disk   – Movie  and  TV  show  downloads
  39. 39. XBox • Products   – XBox,  XBox  360,  XBox  720   • Appeal  to  hard-­‐core  games   – Most  powerful  console   – Xbox  Live  –  online  game
 service   – Microsoft  is  promoting
 xbox  as  entertainment  
  40. 40.            Games  Drive  Technology
  41. 41. Source:  Economist:  Play  to  Win Graphics
  42. 42. Bjarni  Þór  Árnason:  Evolution  of  Physics  in  Video  Games Physics Processor
  43. 43. Source:  When  looks  are  no  longer  enough,  Play  to  win Hannes  Högni  Vilhjálmsson Artificial Intelligence Virtual Worlds Characters that 
 behave human