What is the 4G
Features & Advantages of 4G
Applications of 4G
3G Vs. 4G
Technologies used in 4G
4G standards(LTE .. WiMAX)
What is the 4G ?
It is 4th generation wireless technology.
It will provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice,
data and multimedia can be given to user on “any time ,
It includes several types of broadband wireless
communication system access including cellular
It will provide seamless mobility and internet access at a
rate of 100 Mbps.
What is the 4G ?
The aim is to achieve ultra broad band speed to be
counted in gigabits per seconds
ITU designed the 4G in 2002 with the official name 3g
long term evolution or 3.9 G
4G is adoption of packet switching instead of circuit
switching in voice and video calls
With packet switching resources are only used when
there is information to be sent across 4G uses spiral
• WLAN, WMAN, WWAN, and cellular wireless networks will be
integrated over IP based networks in the coming 4G system
Features & Advantages of 4G
• Support for multimedia services like teleconferencing and
• Wider bandwidths and higher bit rates.
• Entirely packet-switched network.
• Global mobility and service portability.
• Support for previous wireless technologies.
• High internet speed.
• Tight network security.
• Better response time. 10 times better than 3G
• Less time to build 4G because it uses the same tower and
fiber cable as 3G- they only have to upgrade the tower with
• Provide high flexibility as compared to already existing
Applications of 4G
Sensors in public vehicle.
Cameras in traffic light .
Traffic control during disasters.
Multimedia – video services
4G data rate facts
Transmission at 20Mbps to 100Mbps, suitable for
high resolution movies and television
2000 times faster than mobile data rates
10 times faster than top transmission rates
planned in final build out 3G broadband mobile
10-20 times faster than standard ADSL services
Technologies used in 4G
o LTE(Long-Term Evolution), A-LTE(Advance)
o Smart Antennas and Multiple-input and multiple-
o IPv6 (Internet protocol version 6)
o VoIP (Voice Over IP)
o Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB)
o Millimeter Wireless
o QOS(quality of service)
o SDR(Software Defined Ratio)
• Transmission technique
based on FDM
• In FDM
– Multiple signals are sent
out at the same time, but
on different frequencies
• In OFDMA
– A single transmitter
transmits on many
(typically dozens to
– Frequencies closely
– Each only has room for
• It captures entire energy because of capability to absorb high no. of
OFDM signal subcarriers. In OFDM, as long as guard interval is long
enough, And Multipath self-interference does not affect OFDM, only a
few tones are affected or lost in OFDM while compared to CDMA in 3G.
Implementation of equalization, interference cancellation, and adaptive
antenna array algorithms is simpler in OFDM.
• The access schemes different between the uplink and downlink, OFDMA
used in the downlink; while SC-FDMA(Single Carrier - Frequency Division
Multiple Access) is used in the uplink.
Advantage of OFDM
• High spectrum efficiency
• Resistance against
• Ease of filtering out noise
• Combining OFDM
technique with other
techniques (possible to
achieve more advantages
Disadvantage of OFDM
• Suffers from time-variations in
the channel : severely degrades
• Circuitry must be very linear
• In the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in
order to support a large number of wireless-enabled
• By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6
removes the need for Network Address Translation
• IPv6 also enables a number of applications with
better multicast, security, and route optimization
• Mobile IPv6 have been proposed to reduce the
handoff Mobile latency and the number of lost
• To improve the communication
performance between sender and
receiver, the multiple antennas are
used at both transmitter and
receiver end. The signal transmitted
by m antennas and signal received
by n antennas and the processing
of the received signal may produce
improvement such as range, quality
of received signal and spectrum
Two main types of : (MIMO)
Transmit Diversity (also
• Transmitting & receiving antennas
• Resolve problem of diminishing spectrum availability
• Doesn’t require increase power or additional
• Fix number of beams that can be selected to follow
devices as it moves about
– Increased capacity
– Increased range
– Less power use for transmission
– Reductions in handoff rate
– New services
– Increase security
There are two types of smart antennas-
switched beam antenna:- It has fixed beams of transmission, and switch
from predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves
throughout the sector.
Adaptive array antenna :- It represents the most advanced smart antenna
approach to data using a variety of new signal It represent the most
advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal
processing algorithms to locate and track the user, minimize interference,
and maximize intended signal reception.
Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB)
An advanced transmission hardware technology that
can be used in the implementation of a 4G network.
It is typically detected as noise.
It can use any part of the frequency spectrum, which
means that it can use frequencies that are currently in
use by other radio frequency devices .
It uses a frequency of 3.1 to 10.6 Hz.
It uses less power , since it transmits pulse instead of
Special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal
• LTE is a standard for wireless data communications
technology and an evolution of the GSM/UMTS standard.
• The main goals of LTE is to
increase the capacity and data rates of wireless data networks.
improve spectrum efficiency.
reduced latency and packet-optimized system that support
multiple Radio Access.
Low operating cost.
• It can used in 3G and also used LTE-A in 4G
• Peak download rates up to 299.6 Mbit/s and upload rates up to 75.4 Mbit/s
depending on the user equipment category (with 4x4 antennas using
20 MHz of spectrum). Five different terminal classes have been defined
from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak
data rates. All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth.
• Improved support for mobility, exemplified by support for terminals
moving at up to 350 km/h (220 mph) or 500 km/h (310 mph) depending on
the frequency band.
• OFDMA for the downlink, SC-OFDMA for the uplink to conserve power
• Support for both FDD and TDD communication systems as well as half-
duplex FDD with the same radio access technology
• Support for all Frequency band currently used by IMT systems by ITU-R
• Supports at least 200 active data clients in every 5 MHz cell.
• Packet switch radio interface.
• Support for cell sizes from tens of meters radius (Femto and Pico cell)
up to 100 km (62 miles) radius Macro cells. In the lower frequency
bands to be used in rural areas, 5 km (3.1 miles) is the optimal cell
size, 30 km (19 miles) having reasonable performance, and up to
100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance. In city and
urban areas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) are used
to support high speed mobile broadband. In this case, cell sizes may be
1 km (0.62 miles) or even less.
• Support for MBSFN (Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network).
This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE
• Supply Bandwidths from 1.25-20 MHz
• Subcarriers spacing 15kHz.
• Bit rate up to 100Mbps, and by using MIMO the speed should reach
Architecture of LTE
Node B eNodeB
RNC functions moved to eNodeB.
• No central radio controller node
• OFDM radio, no soft handover
• Operator demand to simplify
Mobility Management EntityMME(not user plane
Control plane/user plane split for better
• MME control plane only
• Typically centralized and pooled
• Deployed according to traffic demand
• Only 2 user plane nodes (non-roaming
• Gateway GPRS support node; responsible
for the interworking between the GPRS
network and external packet switched
networks, like the
• Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access – should be
capable of around 40 megabits per second with a range of 30 miles.
• It is one of the closest technologies to meet the standards of true 4G
and as it develop should surpass the 100MB/second which is the 4G
• Mobile WiMAX allows the use of high speed data transfers
and is the main competition for the 4G LTE services provided
by cellular carriers.
• Application of wimax :
o WiMAX Backhaul.
o Nomadic Broadband
o Broadband for Developing Countries
o Private Networks
Disadvantages of 4G
• New frequencies means new components in cell
• Higher data prices for consumers
• Consumer is forced to buy a new device to support
• It is impossible to make your current equipment
compatible with the 4G network
• 4G is only currently available in certain cities within
the United States.