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4G technology in wireless communications and it's standards. …

4G technology in wireless communications and it's standards.
Prepared by : Ola Mashaqi ,, Suhad Malayshe
(A telecomm. Engineering Students)
Annajah National University

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  • 1. Ola Mashaqi Suhad Malayshe
  • 2. Contents  What is the 4G  4G Architecture  Features & Advantages of 4G  Applications of 4G  3G Vs. 4G  Technologies used in 4G  4G standards(LTE .. WiMAX)  4G Disadvantages
  • 3. What is the 4G ?  It is 4th generation wireless technology.  It will provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice, data and multimedia can be given to user on “any time , anywhere” basis.  It includes several types of broadband wireless communication system access including cellular telephone system.  It will provide seamless mobility and internet access at a rate of 100 Mbps.
  • 4. What is the 4G ?  The aim is to achieve ultra broad band speed to be counted in gigabits per seconds  ITU designed the 4G in 2002 with the official name 3g long term evolution or 3.9 G  4G is adoption of packet switching instead of circuit switching in voice and video calls  With packet switching resources are only used when there is information to be sent across 4G uses spiral multiplexing
  • 5. 4G Architecture • WLAN, WMAN, WWAN, and cellular wireless networks will be integrated over IP based networks in the coming 4G system
  • 6. Features & Advantages of 4G • Support for multimedia services like teleconferencing and wireless internet. • Wider bandwidths and higher bit rates. • Entirely packet-switched network. • Global mobility and service portability. • Support for previous wireless technologies. • High internet speed. • Tight network security. • Better response time. 10 times better than 3G • Less time to build 4G because it uses the same tower and fiber cable as 3G- they only have to upgrade the tower with 4G • Provide high flexibility as compared to already existing technologies .
  • 7. Applications of 4G public safety.  Sensors in public vehicle.  Cameras in traffic light . Traffic control during disasters. Multimedia – video services
  • 8. 3G Vs. 4G
  • 9. 4G data rate facts Transmission at 20Mbps to 100Mbps, suitable for high resolution movies and television 2000 times faster than mobile data rates 10 times faster than top transmission rates planned in final build out 3G broadband mobile 10-20 times faster than standard ADSL services
  • 10. Technologies used in 4G o OFDM o LTE(Long-Term Evolution), A-LTE(Advance) o Smart Antennas and Multiple-input and multiple- output (MIMO) o IPv6 (Internet protocol version 6) o VoIP (Voice Over IP) o Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB) o Millimeter Wireless o QOS(quality of service) o SDR(Software Defined Ratio)
  • 11. OFDM • Transmission technique based on FDM • In FDM – Multiple signals are sent out at the same time, but on different frequencies • In OFDMA – A single transmitter transmits on many different orthogonal (independent) frequencies (typically dozens to thousands) – Frequencies closely spaced – Each only has room for narrowband signal
  • 12. OFDM • It captures entire energy because of capability to absorb high no. of OFDM signal subcarriers. In OFDM, as long as guard interval is long enough, And Multipath self-interference does not affect OFDM, only a few tones are affected or lost in OFDM while compared to CDMA in 3G. Implementation of equalization, interference cancellation, and adaptive antenna array algorithms is simpler in OFDM. • The access schemes different between the uplink and downlink, OFDMA used in the downlink; while SC-FDMA(Single Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access) is used in the uplink.
  • 13. OFDM Advantage of OFDM • High spectrum efficiency • Resistance against multipath interference • Ease of filtering out noise • Combining OFDM technique with other techniques (possible to achieve more advantages e.g. MC-CDMA) Disadvantage of OFDM • Suffers from time-variations in the channel : severely degrades performance • Circuitry must be very linear
  • 14. IPV6 • In the context of 4G, IPv6 support is essential in order to support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. • By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation (NAT). • IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better multicast, security, and route optimization capabilities. • Mobile IPv6 have been proposed to reduce the handoff Mobile latency and the number of lost packets.
  • 15. MIMO • To improve the communication performance between sender and receiver, the multiple antennas are used at both transmitter and receiver end. The signal transmitted by m antennas and signal received by n antennas and the processing of the received signal may produce significant performance improvement such as range, quality of received signal and spectrum efficiency. Two main types of : (MIMO)  Transmit Diversity (also called Altamonte)  Spatial Multiplexing
  • 16. Smart Antennas • Transmitting & receiving antennas • Resolve problem of diminishing spectrum availability • Doesn’t require increase power or additional frequency • Fix number of beams that can be selected to follow devices as it moves about • Advantages: – Increased capacity – Increased range – Less power use for transmission – Reductions in handoff rate – New services – Increase security
  • 17. Smart Antennas There are two types of smart antennas-  switched beam antenna:- It has fixed beams of transmission, and switch from predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector.  Adaptive array antenna :- It represents the most advanced smart antenna approach to data using a variety of new signal It represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user, minimize interference, and maximize intended signal reception.
  • 18. Ultra Wide Radio Band (UWB) An advanced transmission hardware technology that can be used in the implementation of a 4G network. It is typically detected as noise.  It can use any part of the frequency spectrum, which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices . It uses a frequency of 3.1 to 10.6 Hz. It uses less power , since it transmits pulse instead of continuous signal. Special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal
  • 19. Two competing 4G standards
  • 20. LTE • LTE is a standard for wireless data communications technology and an evolution of the GSM/UMTS standard. • The main goals of LTE is to  increase the capacity and data rates of wireless data networks.  improve spectrum efficiency.  improve coverage.  reduced latency and packet-optimized system that support multiple Radio Access.  Low operating cost. • It can used in 3G and also used LTE-A in 4G
  • 21. LTE Features • Peak download rates up to 299.6 Mbit/s and upload rates up to 75.4 Mbit/s depending on the user equipment category (with 4x4 antennas using 20 MHz of spectrum). Five different terminal classes have been defined from a voice centric class up to a high end terminal that supports the peak data rates. All terminals will be able to process 20 MHz bandwidth. • Improved support for mobility, exemplified by support for terminals moving at up to 350 km/h (220 mph) or 500 km/h (310 mph) depending on the frequency band. • OFDMA for the downlink, SC-OFDMA for the uplink to conserve power • Support for both FDD and TDD communication systems as well as half- duplex FDD with the same radio access technology • Support for all Frequency band currently used by IMT systems by ITU-R • Supports at least 200 active data clients in every 5 MHz cell. • Packet switch radio interface.
  • 22. LTE Features • Support for cell sizes from tens of meters radius (Femto and Pico cell) up to 100 km (62 miles) radius Macro cells. In the lower frequency bands to be used in rural areas, 5 km (3.1 miles) is the optimal cell size, 30 km (19 miles) having reasonable performance, and up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance. In city and urban areas, higher frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) are used to support high speed mobile broadband. In this case, cell sizes may be 1 km (0.62 miles) or even less. • Support for MBSFN (Multicast-Broadcast Single Frequency Network). This feature can deliver services such as Mobile TV using the LTE infrastructure. • Supply Bandwidths from 1.25-20 MHz • Subcarriers spacing 15kHz. • Bit rate up to 100Mbps, and by using MIMO the speed should reach 350Mbps
  • 23. Architecture of LTE GGSN SGSN RNC Node B eNodeB RNC functions moved to eNodeB. • No central radio controller node • OFDM radio, no soft handover • Operator demand to simplify Mobility Management EntityMME(not user plane functions) Control plane/user plane split for better scalability • MME control plane only • Typically centralized and pooled PGW SGW PDN GateWay Serving GateWay PGW/SGW • Deployed according to traffic demand • Only 2 user plane nodes (non-roaming case) • Gateway GPRS support node; responsible for the interworking between the GPRS network and external packet switched networks, like the • Internet
  • 24. LTE Vs. LTE-A
  • 25. WiMAX • Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access – should be capable of around 40 megabits per second with a range of 30 miles. • It is one of the closest technologies to meet the standards of true 4G and as it develop should surpass the 100MB/second which is the 4G standard. • Mobile WiMAX allows the use of high speed data transfers and is the main competition for the 4G LTE services provided by cellular carriers. • Application of wimax : o WiMAX Backhaul. o Nomadic Broadband o Broadband for Developing Countries o Private Networks
  • 26. WiMAX
  • 27. Disadvantages of 4G • New frequencies means new components in cell towers. • Higher data prices for consumers • Consumer is forced to buy a new device to support the 4G • It is impossible to make your current equipment compatible with the 4G network • 4G is only currently available in certain cities within the United States.
  • 28. • Thank you so so much 