THE ENERGY MªOlalla Espada and Fernando Pachón.
INDEXDefinition of energy Types of power sationsUnits of energy Definition of powerTypes of energy Units of measurement of powerEnergy sources Definition of efficiencyNon-renewable energy sources Wind turbinesRenewable energy sourcesDefiniton of power stations
The EnergyThe energy is the capacity of an object for doing a work .
Units of energyThe International System (IS) measured energy in joules (J) . Kilojoules (KJ) are used to express larger quantities of energy : 1000 J = 1 KJHeat is measured in calories (cal). Kilocalories (Kcal) are used for lager quantities of heat .Calories and joules measure different units of heat: 1cal = 4.18J
Types of energy.Mechanical energy : Radiant energy.Thermal energy : Luminous energy.Chemical energy : Nuclear energy.Electric energy : Sound energy.
Mechanical energy.It is the energy associated with the motion and position of an object . So there are two types of mechanical energy : KINETIC ENERGY and POTENTIAL ENERGY. Kinetic energy Potential energy
Kinetic energyThe Kinetic energy is the energy that objects have when they are in motion. There are many forms of kinetic energy : vibrational (the energy due to vibrational motion),rotational (the energy due to rotational motion),and translational ( the energy due to motion from one location to another.
Potential energyThe potential energy is the energy that objects have when they are moved from their stable position of equilibrium. In other words , It is the stored energy of position possessed by an object .
Thermal energyThermal energy is generated and measured by heat of any kind. It is caused by the increased activity or velocity of molecules in a substance.
Chemical energyThe chemical energy is the energy that is stored in substances which can be released or absorbed during chemical processes.It is produced through reactions that occur in chemical compounds.
Electrical energyIt refers to the flow of power or the flow of charges along a conductor to create energy.In other words , electrical energy is the energy associated with an electric current.
Radiant energyRadiant energy is the energy of the electromagnetic waves . The term is used particularly when radiation is emitted by a source into the surrounding enviroment.Radiant energy may be visible or invisible to the human eye.
Luminous energy.Luminous energy is a type of radiant energy generated by the sun or artificial lights.
Nuclear energyNuclear energy is the energy of an atomic nucleus , which can be released by fusion or fission or radioactive decay . NUCLEAR FUSION NUCLEAR FISSION
Nuclear fusion Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus.Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together to form a sigle and heavier nucleus.
Nuclear fissionNuclear fission is the process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons, and releasing a very large amount of energy.
Sound energySound energy is the energy produced by sound vibrations. These sound vibrations cause waves of pressures.
Energy sourcesEnergy sources are natural resources that provide different forms of energy. This energy is transformed for specific uses.
Energy sources :Types:Non-renewable energy sourcesRenewable energy sources
Non-renewable energy sourcesCharacteristics:Non-renewable energy sources come from natural resources that are limited.They will disappear.It causes enviromental problems that are difficult to solve.
Non-renewable energy sources.Types : Nuclear energy → Coal → Petroleum → Natural gas →
Non-renewable energy sourcesNuclear energy :Nuclear energy is the energy of an atomic nucleus , which ca be released by fusion or fission or radioactive decay.Nuclear energy is transformed in nuclear power stations by using fission energy.
Non-renewable energy sourcesThe coal:It is formed by the remains of plants that were buried and transformed (fossilised) in the absence of oxygen. It is classified into four types : anthracite , bituminous coal , lignite and peat .The coal is used to generated energy .
Non-renewable energy sourcesExtraction of coal :12Open-cast mines : when the coal is close to108 the surface .Underground mines : when the mineral is6 Columna 1 Columna 2 Columna 34 buried deep below the surface.20 Fila 1 Fila 2 Fila 3 Fila 4
Non-renewable energy sourcesTransport of the coal :By sea : in big shipsBy land : usually by train.By road : usually by local transport
Non-renewable energy sourcesThe petroleum :It is formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that have decomposed because of bacterial action . Petroleum is expensive and difficult to extract because it is usually deep underground .To use the petroleum , it must sufered the Fractional distillation.
Non-renewable energy sourcesPetroleum (storage and transport)The purified crude oil is stored in containersThen it is transported by oil tankers or oil pipelines.Containers Oil tankers
Non-renewable energy sourcesNatural gas :Natural gas is a mixture of gases formed from descomposed plants and animals . It contains more than 70% methane .Natural gas is found in underground gas fieldsand and in porous rocks.It is transported by gas pipelines and It is used to produce thermal and electrical energy. Natural gas is extracted by drilling Gas pipelines
Non-renewable energies and the environmentMost of the energy consumed in industrialised countries comes from non-renewable energy sources .This causes some enviromental problems :Increased greenhouse effectAcid rainOil spillsNuclear wasteRising water temperatureAtmospheric pollution
Renewable energy sources Renewable energy comes from unlimited natural resources. Renewable energy sources include hydraulic energy, solar energy, wind energy, marine energy, geothermal energy, biomass energy and municipal solid waste.
Renewable energy sources.Hydraulic energy :This is the mechanical energy produced by the movement of water .There are different forms to produce hydraulic energy :by currents in the sea , by rivers etc.Hydraulic energy is transformed into electricity in hydroelectric power stations .
Renewable energy sources Advantages of hydraulic energy :It is a clean energy source , withoutwaste products and it is easy to storeand, It is also cheap.
Renewable energy sources. Disadvantages of hydraulic energy :The construction of hydroelectric plants is expensive . Reservoirs also means the loss of productive soil and fauna due to the flooding of their habitat.
Renewable energy sourcesSolar energy :Solar energy means using the energy of sunlight to provide electricity .It can be used in various ways :To produce hot waterTo generate electrical energy using solar panelsTo produce electrical energy in heliostat fields .
Renewable energy sources Advantages of solar energy :It is cleanBig power stations are not needed.It is unlimited .
Renewable energy sources Disadvantages of solar energy :It is a variable source of energy .Solar pannels are expensive .
Renewable energy sources.Wind energy :It is the the energy from the wind used to produced electricity. The wind energy is produced by the effect of radiation on the atmosphere .Electricity is produced when the wind energy causes the blades of a wind turbine to move .
Renewable energy sources . Advantages of wind energy :It is unlimited .It is non-pollutingThe coast of a wind farm is low .
Renewable energy sources Disadvantages of wind energy :It is a variable source of energyWind turbines are hazard for birdsWind turbines produce noise pollution .
Renewable energy sources . Marine energy :Marine energy refers to the energy carried by ocean waves (waves energy), tides (tidal energy) and ocean temperature differences (ocean thermal energy) .
Renewable energy sources.Geothermal energy :This energy comes from the heat stored in the earth´s crust . Sometimes it appears naturally , for examples in geysers and volcanic eruptions .
Renewable energy sources .Biomass :This is produced from plant remains , forest and agricultural waste . Biomass is used in two ways :To produce electricityFor the transformation into fuels.
Renewable energy sources .Municipal solid waste :It comes from the waste of domestic activities , public buildings etc .Electrical or thermal energy can be generated from the incineration of these wastes .
Power stationsDefinition : 12A power station is an industrial facility for 10 the generation of electric power . 8 Columna 1 6 Columna 2 Columna 3 4 2 0 Fila 1 Fila 2 Fila 3 Fila 4
Power stationsTypes of power stations : 12Hydraulic power station. 10Solar power stations. 8Nuclear power station. Columna 1 6 Columna 2 Columna 3Thermal power station . 4Eolic power station. 2 0 Fila 1 Fila 2 Fila 3 Fila 4
Hydraulic power stationA hydraulic power station generates electricity by exploting the potencial energy of water stored in a reservoir at a higher altitude than the power station .
Solar power station .Solar energy is one of the most abundant natural resouces . It is a clean and unlimited form of energy .In solar power plants the rays of the Sun are concentrated into a single beam using lenses and mirrors. So sun energy is transformed into electricity .
Nuclear power stationsNuclear power stations are a special kind of thermoelectric plants , but they produce heat thruogh the fission of uranium atoms . Some power plants also use plutonium , but these are less common
Thermal power stationsThese power plants generate electrical energy from thermal energy .Heat is generated by buring fossil fuels like coal , petroleum , or natural gas .The heat generated by burning the fossil fuels is used to turn a steam turbine converts the mechanical energy of the rotating turbine into electrical energy .
Eolic power stationsEolic power station converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy . Then , mechanical energy is convert into electrical energy .Eolic power stations use wind turbines which t are designed to exploit the wind energy that exist at a location
The powerThe power of a machine is the quantity of work it can do in a unit of timePower is expressed in this formula : P = w t
Units of measurementP is power , measured in watts (W)W is work , expressed in joules (J)t is time , measured in seconds (s)
EfficiencyThe real power of a machine is less than its `theorical´ power . This is because friction and vibration exist between the parts of the machine, so it loses energy in form of heat .Efficiency measures this loss of powerefficiency (%) = real power/theorical power ·100
Wind turbienesDo you think wind turbine can produce fresh water?A French engineering firm has discovered another eco-purpose for the wind turbines: To produce water from humid air.This is very important ,because this technology could enable rural areas to become self- sufficient in terms of water supply.