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My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System
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My Final Year Project - Individual Control Home Automation System

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This project involves the design and construction of an individual control home …

This project involves the design and construction of an individual control home
automation system using RS232, GSM technology and a microcontroller.

Home automation is the automatic or semi-automatic control and monitoring of
household appliances and residential house features like doors, gate and even the windows.

This project is a demonstration of how to design and build a multi purpose remotely
controlled system that can switch OFF and ON any electrical household appliance (including the security light), by dialling a phone already interfaced via RS232 to a microcontroller that controls a relay for the automatic switching on and off of the appliance and the phone will send a feedback short message service text indicating the new state of the appliance, whether switched ON or OFF.

The results of this project show that a microcontroller is a very powerful device for
building smart electronic devices that can automatically control electrical appliances, with little circuitry complexities and components.

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  • 1. INDIVIDUAL CONTROL HOMEAUTOMATION SYSTEMBYOLAFUSI MICHAEL OLALEKANEEE/04/2995SUBMITTED TOTHE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICSENGINEERING,FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE.IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THEAWARD OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING.OCTOBER, 2009
  • 2. CERTIFICATIONThis is to certify that this project, the entire design and construction of the home automationsystem was carried out and submitted as true work of OLAFUSI MICHAEL OLALEKAN ofmatriculation number EEE/04/2995 under the supervision of Engineer O. E. Bejide of theDepartment of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Federal University of Technology,Akure in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Engineering inElectrical Electronics Engineering._____________________ _____________________Engineer O. E. Bejide Date(Project Supervisor)______________________ ______________________Dr. A. O. Melodi Date(Head of Department)_______________________ _____________________External Supervisor Dateii
  • 3. DEDICATIONTo God Almighty for His provision and graceTo my parents for their constant vital supportTo my siblings for their care and placeDo I dedicate this reportiii
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI cannot but acknowledge the unquantifiable help God gave me throughout thisproject work, always showing up whenever I got to the end of my line and felt like changingthe project to a simpler one. Most remarkable was the breakthrough He gave me when I wasstuck at one PIC C code function for a month!I am deeply indebted to my parents and siblings for their constant support especiallyin circumstances where I find it hard to even convince myself that my request for help is fairand reasonable. I am equally indebted my very understanding, fatherly and enviable projectsupervisor, Engineer O. E. Bejide who is always willing to go above and beyond incounselling and supervising me.I could not have been able to understand how to go about the vital aspect of theproject work if not for the supervisory assistance of my friend and colleague, AyoadeAdewole (really, all aspect of my project work was vital). I must also acknowledge mycolleagues who over the four years we have been together, in ways they themselves do notunderstand, have been the vital components of my educational and personal growth whichalso greatly rubbed on my successful completion of this project work.I greatly appreciate the tripartite support and nourishment I enjoyed from the entirefamily of the Chapel of Faith, especially through Uncle Victor Omololu, Aunt PatienceOmololu and their ministry. I must also acknowledge the spiritual oversight of the twochaplains whom I have been under throughout my five year undergraduate study, RevGbenga Olagunju and Rev. Timothy Abi-Abiola.iv
  • 5. ABSTRACTThis project involves the design and construction of an individual control homeautomation system using RS232, GSM technology and a microcontroller.Home automation is the automatic or semi-automatic control and monitoring ofhousehold appliances and residential house features like doors, gate and even the windows.This project is a demonstration of how to design and build a multi purpose remotelycontrolled system that can switch OFF and ON any electrical household appliance (includingthe security light), by dialling a phone already interfaced via RS232 to a microcontroller thatcontrols a relay for the automatic switching on and off of the appliance and the phone willsend a feedback short message service text indicating the new state of the appliance, whetherswitched ON or OFF.The results of this project show that a microcontroller is a very powerful device forbuilding smart electronic devices that can automatically control electrical appliances, withlittle circuitry complexities and components.v
  • 6. TABLE OF CONTENTSPROJECT REPORT....................................................................................................................iCERTIFICATION......................................................................................................................iiDEDICATION..........................................................................................................................iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT........................................................................................................ivABSTRACT...............................................................................................................................vTABLE OF CONTENTS..........................................................................................................viTABLE OF FIGURES............................................................................................................viiiLIST OF TABLES....................................................................................................................ixCHAPTER ONE........................................................................................................................1INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................11.1 AUTOMATION ..........................................................................................................21.1.1 Office automation...............................................................................................31.1.2 Building automation...........................................................................................31.1.3 Power automation...............................................................................................41.1.4 Home automation................................................................................................41.2 PROJECT AIM...........................................................................................................41.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVE.............................................................................................51.4 PROJECT SCOPE AND LIMITATION.....................................................................51.5 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION......................................................................................51.6 REPORT LAYOUT.....................................................................................................6CHAPTER TWO.......................................................................................................................7LITERATURE REVIEW...........................................................................................................72.1 HISTORY OF HOME AUTOMATION.....................................................................72.2 HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEMS..........................................................................72.3 HOME AUTOMATION STANDARDS....................................................................92.3.1 INSTEON standard...........................................................................................102.3.2 European Home Systems (EHS) protocol........................................................112.3.3 ZigBee standard................................................................................................122.3.4 KNX .................................................................................................................132.3.5 Z-Wave standard...............................................................................................152.3.6 X10 standard.....................................................................................................182.3.7 LonWorks .........................................................................................................202.3.8 ONE-NET standard...........................................................................................202.3.9 Universal Powerline Bus...................................................................................222.4 HOME AUTOMATION IMPLEMENTATION PLATFORMS.................................242.4.1 Powerline communication..................................................................................242.4.2 RS232.................................................................................................................252.4.3 Ethernet...............................................................................................................292.4.4 Bluetooth.............................................................................................................302.4.5 Infrared...............................................................................................................312.4.6 GSM....................................................................................................................312.4.7 Microcontroller...................................................................................................322.3.7.1 Von-Neumann architecture.........................................................................332.3.7.2 Harvard architecture...................................................................................33vi
  • 7. CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................................35METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................353.1 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS......................................................................353.1.1 Selection of implementation platform................................................................353.1.2 Selection of hardware components.....................................................................363.2 SYSTEM DESIGN......................................................................................................363.2.1 PIC18F4455.........................................................................................................373.2.1.1 Central Processing Unit (CPU)..................................................................383.2.1.2 Random Access Memory (RAM)..............................................................393.2.1.3 Read Only Memory (ROM).......................................................................393.2.1.4 Input and Output ports (I/O)......................................................................393.2.2 PIC18F4455 architecture...................................................................................403.2.3 PIC18F4455 programming................................................................................433.2.4 Nokia 6021.........................................................................................................443.2.5 HIN232..............................................................................................................453.2.6 Relay..................................................................................................................47CHAPTER FOUR....................................................................................................................49DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION......................................................................................494.1 BUILDING THE POWER SUPPLY AND INTERFACING THE RELAY.............504.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE MICROCONTROLLER ANDNOKIA 6021............................................................................................................514.3 PROGRAMMING THE MICROCONTROLLER...................................................524.4 TESTING THE COMPLETE DESIGN AND CASING...........................................53CHAPTER FIVE......................................................................................................................57CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION........................................................................575.1 CONCLUSION..........................................................................................................575.2 RECOMMENDATION..............................................................................................57REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................59APPENDIX I: Bill of components...........................................................................................61APPENDIX II: The PIC C code for programming the PIC4455 in CCS C compiler..............62vii
  • 8. TABLE OF FIGURESFigure 2.1: Straight cable connection between RS232 DB9 DTE and RS232 DB9 DCE.......26Figure 2.2: Straight cable connection between RS232 DB25 DTE and RS232 DB25 DCE...26Figure 2.3: Straight cable connection between RS232 DB9 DTE and RS232 DB25 DCE.....27Figure 2.4: Crossover cable connection between DB9 DTE and DB9 DCE...........................27Figure 2.5: Crossover cable connection between DB25 DCE and DB25 DCE.......................28Figure 2.6: Crossover cable connection between DB9 DCE and DB9 DCE...........................28Figure 3.1: Block diagram of the home automation system....................................................37Figure 3.2: Interactions between the main microcontroller parts............................................38Figure 3.3: 40-Pin PIC18F4455 microcontroller.....................................................................40Figure 3.4: PIC18F4455 block diagram...................................................................................42Figure 3.5: CCS C compiler IDE interface..............................................................................43Figure 3.6: MikroElectronika programmer interface...............................................................44Figure 3.7: Nokia 6021 mobile phone......................................................................................45Figure 3.8: HIN232 pinout.......................................................................................................46Figure 4.1: Flow chart of the design........................................................................................49Figure 4.2: The power supply...................................................................................................50Figure 4.3: The RS232 to microcontroller portion of the design.............................................52Figure 4.4: The complete home automation system circuit (controlling lighting fixture).......55Figure 4.5: The individual control home automation system..................................................56viii
  • 9. LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1: List of X10 four bit commands...............................................................................19Table 3.1: HIN232 pin descriptions.........................................................................................46ix
  • 10. CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONImagine how helpful it will be to be able to switch on your air conditioningsystem ten minutes before you get home on a hot afternoon in January. How abouthaving a security system that will detect smoke, excessive electrical power usage,burglar attempts and unauthorized movements in your house and alert you? This iswhat home automation is about and there is no end to its application. In fact,sophisticated home automation systems are now being developed that can maintain aninventory of household items, record their usage through an RFID (Radio FrequencyIdentification) tag, and prepare a shopping list or automatically order replacements.Home automation has made it possible to have what is often referred to as asmart home, a home that can detect and identify you, automatically adjust thelighting to your predefined taste, open doors automatically, play your favourite music,water your flowers in the morning, switch on the security lights at night and switchthem off in the morning, heat water for bathe and tea, stream to you anywhere in theworld via the internet a live video of what is happening in and around your house. Itmakes it possible to link lighting, entertainment, security, telecommunications,heating, and air conditioning into one centrally controlled system. This allows you tomake your house an active partner in managing your busy life.Nowadays, you can hardly find a house without a home automation systemwhich can range from the remote for the television, burglar alarm and hi-tech securitygates, to an automated air conditioning system that maintains the temperature at apredefined value.1
  • 11. 1.1 AUTOMATIONAutomation is the use of control systems and information technology tocontrol equipment, industrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for humanintervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyondmechanization. Mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assistthem with the physical requirements of work while automation greatly reduces theneed for human sensory and mental requirements as well (Wikipedia, 2009).Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economyand in daily experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices withmathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidlyexpanding range of applications and human activities. Many roles for humans inindustrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-levelpattern recognition, language recognition, and language production ability are wellbeyond the capabilities of modern mechanical and computer systems. Tasks requiringsubjective assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents andsounds, as well as high-level tasks such as strategic planning, currently require humanexpertise.Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of highly visibleindustries beyond manufacturing. Once ubiquitous telephone operators have beenreplaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines.Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiograph or radiographyand laboratory analysis of human genes, blood plasmas, cells, and tissues are carriedout at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller2
  • 12. machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry outtransactions. In general, automation has been responsible for the shift in the worldeconomy from agrarian to industrial in the 19thcentury and from industrial to servicesin the 20thcentury.1.1.1 Office automationOffice automation refers to the varied computer machinery and softwareused to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate, and relay office information neededfor accomplishing basic tasks and goals. Raw data storage, electronic transfer, and themanagement of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of anoffice automation system, office automation helps in optimizing or automatingexisting office procedures.1.1.2 Building automationBuilding automation describes the functionality provided by the control ofa building. The control system is a computerized, intelligent network of electronicdevices, designed to monitor and control the mechanical and lighting systems of abuilding. A building automation system is an example of a distributed control system.The building automation system (BAS) core functionality keeps the building climatewithin a specific range, provides lighting based on an occupancy schedule, andmonitors system performance and device failures and provides email and/or textnotifications to building engineering staff. The BAS functionality reduces buildingenergy and maintenance costs when compared to a non-controlled building.3
  • 13. 1.1.3 Power automationPower automation is the automated control and monitoring of powerplants, substations and transformers for effectiveness, efficiency and fault detection. Ithas made it possible to have a reliable municipal or national electricity system, whichoften comprises remote and hard-to-reach transformers and power sub-system units. Itmakes it possible to monitor different power units, relay their status and healthinformation, and even carry out fault detection and correction without humaninterference.Example of power automation system is the Supervisory Control and DataAcquisition (SCADA) system.1.1.4 Home automationHome automation may designate an emerging practice of increasedautomation of household appliances and features in residential dwellings, particularlythrough electronic means that allow for things impracticable, overly expensive orsimply not possible in recent decades. Home automation includes all that a buildingautomation provides like climate controls, door and window controls, and in additioncontrol of multimedia home theatres, pet feeding, plant watering and so on. But thereexists a difference in that home automation emphasizes more on comforts throughergonomics and ease of operation.1.2 PROJECT AIMThe aim of this project is to design and construct a home automation4
  • 14. system that will remotely switch on or off any household appliance connected to it,using a microcontroller, voice dial on phone, and short message service for feedback.1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVEThe objective of this project is to implement a low cost, reliable andscalable home automation system that can be used to remotely switch on or off anyhousehold appliance, using a microcontroller to achieve hardware simplicity, low costshort message service (SMS) for feedback and voice dial from any phone to togglethe switch state.1.4 PROJECT SCOPE AND LIMITATIONThis project work is complete on its own in remotely and automaticallyswitching on and off of any electrical appliance not limited to household appliances,and sends a feedback message indicating the new present state of the appliance. Itdoes not implement control of multiple appliances or automatic detection of faults inthe controlled appliance.1.5 PROJECT JUSTIFICATIONThis project is of contributory knowledge to the development andimplementation of home automation systems in Nigeria using low cost, locallyavailable components like microcontroller, free voice dial service (popularly referredto as flashing) and very cheap short message service (SMS) text.5
  • 15. 1.6 REPORT LAYOUTThe entire project is composed of five chapters, each covering a section ofthe work as summarized below:• Chapter one gives an introduction to automation as a whole and thedifferent types of automation.• Chapter two covers an extensive literature review of previous works onhome automation systems, the different established standards andprotocols, and the platforms over which home automation can beimplemented.• Chapter three highlights the project methodology, giving reasons for choiceof specific platforms and components, and also, comprehensive details onboth hardware components and communication services used.• Chapter four is on the project design and implementation with clearpractical details of the project design, construction, testing, microcontrollercoding and debugging. Special emphasis is also made on the flexibility andscalability of the project work with real life illustration.• Chapter five is on the conclusion and recommendations based on theproject work with emphasis on the reliability, maintainability andflexibility of the design. Also, recommendations based on the challengesencountered and further possible development of the project work areenumerated.6
  • 16. CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 HISTORY OF HOME AUTOMATIONHome automation has been around since the world war 1 (1914), in fact,the television remote (a simple home automation system) was patented in 1893(Wikipedia, 2009). Since then different home automation systems have evolved with asharp rise after the second World War. Its growth has been through various informalresearch and designs by technology enthusiasts who want a better way of gettingthings done at home without much effort on their part. The systems evolved from onethat can automatically do routine chores like switch on and off security lights, to moresophisticated ones that can adjust lighting, put the television channel to favouritestation and control doors.2.2 HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEMSHome automation systems may designate electronic systems in homes andresidential buildings that make possible the automation of household appliances. Thenew stream of home automation systems has developed into a vast one and the currentmarket is flooded with a flurry of home automation systems and devicemanufacturers.The types of home automation systems based on their control systems are:1. Individual Control Systems7
  • 17. These types were the first to hit the market in the early years, here eachdevice like the heater or the air conditioner will have an independent controldedicated to it.2. Distributed Control SystemsThe main feature of these type of systems is emergency shut-down. Withthis system you can preset or change the control parameters of severalsimilar devices, for example, the thermostat of several air conditioners andtheir ON/OFF timings.3. Central Control SystemsThese are computerized systems programmed to handle all functions ofmultiple utilities like air conditioning system, home entertainments, doors,windows, refrigerators and cooking systems, all at the same time regardlessof whether you are at home or away. You can connect to the control systemthrough telephone or internet from anywhere in the world.The types of home automation systems based on the carrier mode are:1. Powerline carrier SystemsThe least expensive type of home automation system operates over thehomes existing wiring, or powerline carrier. These can range from X10-based lamp timers, to more sophisticated systems that require installation bya trained professional.8
  • 18. 2. Wireless systemsAlso available are wireless home automation systems that utilize radio-frequency technology. They are often used to operate lights, sometimes inconjunction with a hardwired lighting control system.3. Hardwired systemsWired, or “hardwired” home control systems are the most reliable andexpensive. These systems can operate over high-grade communicationscable such as Category 5 or 5e, or their own proprietary “bus” cable. That iswhy it is best to plan for them when a house is being constructed. Hardwiredsystems can perform more tasks at a time and do them quickly and reliably,making them ideal for larger homes. They can also integrate more systemsin the home, effectively tying together indoor and outdoor lighting, audioand video equipment, security system, even the heating and cooling systeminto one control package that will be easy and intuitive to operate.4. Internet Protocol control systemInternet Protocol (IP) control automation system uses the internet, giveseach device under its control an Internet Protocol address, and creates alocal area network (LAN) in the home. Hence, the home can be interactedwith over the internet with possibility of live video streaming and real-timecontrol.2.3 HOME AUTOMATION STANDARDS9
  • 19. There are many established industry standards for home automationsystems and are implemented over the various carrier modes ranging from powerlineto wireless. The popular and major standards are INSTEON, European HomeSystems (EHS), ZigBee, KNX, Z-Wave, X10, LonWorks, ONE-NET and UniveraslPowerline Bus (UPB).2.3.1 INSTEON standardINSTEON standard is a dual-band mesh topology employing ac-powerlines and a radio frequency (RF) protocol to communicate with and automate homeelectronic devices and appliances, which normally work independently. It is a homeautomation networking technology invented by SmartLabs Inc. INSTEON wasdeveloped, based on the X10 model, for control and sensing applications in the home(Wikipedia, 2009).INSTEON is designed to enable simple devices to be networked togetherusing the powerline and/or radio frequency (RF). All INSTEON devices are peers,meaning each device can transmit, receive, and repeat any message of the INSTEONprotocol, without requiring a master controller or complex routing software.INSTEON is not only an effective system for connecting lighting switches and loadswithout extra wiring, but it also forms the basis for a more sophisticated homeautomation network.The following are the possible applications of INSTEON:• Scene and remote control lighting,10
  • 20. • Security alarm interfaces and sensors,• Home sensors (e.g. water, humidity, temperature),• Access control (e.g. door locks),• Heating, ventilating and air cooling (HVAC) control,• Audio-video control, and• Appliance management.2.3.2 European Home Systems (EHS) protocolThe European home systems (EHS) protocol was aimed at homeappliances control and communication using power line communication (PLC).Developed by EHSA (European Home Systems Association) it was merged with twoother protocols to form the KNX protocol, which complies with CENELEC norm EN50090 standard and had a chance to be a basis for the first open standard for homeand building control (Wikipedia, 2009).The areas of application of EHS are:• Heating, ventilating and air cooling (HVAC) control,• Scene and remote control lighting, and• Appliance management.11
  • 21. 2.3.3 ZigBee standardZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocolsusing small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard forwireless personal area networks (WPANs), such as wireless headphones connectingwith cell phones via short-range radio. The technology defined by the ZigBeespecification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs such asBluetooth. ZigBee is targeted at radio frequency (RF) applications that require a lowdata rate, long battery life, and secure networking (Wikipedia, 2009).ZigBee is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh networking standard. Thelow cost allows the technology to be widely deployed in wireless control andmonitoring applications, the low power-usage allows longer life with smallerbatteries, and the mesh networking provides high reliability and larger range.ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radiobands; 868 MHz in Europe, 915 MHz in the USA and Australia, and 2.4 GHz in mostjurisdictions worldwide. ZigBee chip vendors typically sell integrated radios andmicrocontrollers with between 60K and 128K flash memory, such as the FreescaleMC13213, the Ember EM250 and the Texas Instruments CC2430. Radios are alsoavailable as stand-alone to be used with any processor or microcontroller. Generally,the chip vendors also offer the ZigBee software stack, although independent ones arealso available. The ZigBee Alliance is a group of companies that maintain and publishthe ZigBee standard.Typical areas of application of ZigBee are:12
  • 22. • Home Entertainment and Control — Smart lighting, advancedtemperature control, safety and security, movies and music,• Home Awareness — Water sensors, power sensors, smoke and firedetectors, smart appliances and access sensors,• Mobile Services — m-payment, m-monitoring and control, m-security and access control, m-healthcare and tele-assist,• Commercial Building — Energy monitoring, HVAC, lighting,access control, and• Industrial Plant — Process control, asset management,environmental management, energy management, industrial devicecontrol.2.3.4 KNXKNX is a standardised (EN 50090,ISO/IEC 14543), OSI-based networkcommunications protocol for intelligent buildings. KNX is the successor to, andconvergence of, three previous standards: the European Home Systems Protocol(EHS), BatiBUS, and the European Installation Bus (EIB). The KNX standard isadministered by the Konnex Association (Wikipedia, 2009).This standard is based on the communication stack of EIB but enlargedwith the physical layers, configuration modes and application experience of BatiBUSand EHS.13
  • 23. KNX defines several physical communication media:• Twisted pair wiring• Powerline networking• Radio• Infrared• Ethernet (also known as EIBnet/IP or KNXnet/IP)KNX is designed to be independent of any particular hardware platform. AKNX Device Network can be controlled by anything from an 8-bit microcontroller toa PC, according to the needs of a particular implementation. The most common formof installation is over twisted pair medium.KNX is approved as an open standard to International standard (ISO/IEC14543-3) European Standard (CENELEC EN 50090 and CEN EN 13321-1) andChina Guo Biao(GB/Z 20965).KNX has more than 100 members/manufacturers including ABB, Bosch,Miele & Cie KG, ON Semiconductor, Schneider Electric Industries S.A., Siemens,Uponor Corporation and Jung.There are three categories of KNX device:1. A-mode or "Automatic mode" devices automatically configurethemselves, and are intended to be sold to and installed by the end user.14
  • 24. 2. E-mode or "Easy mode" devices require basic training to install. Theirbehaviour is pre-programmed, but has configuration parameters that needto be tailored to the users requirements.3. S-mode or "System mode" devices are used in the creation of bespokebuilding automation systems. S-mode devices have no default behaviour,and must be programmed and installed by specialist technicians.2.3.5 Z-Wave standardThe Z-wave is a wireless communications proprietary standard designedfor home automation, specifically to remote control applications in residential andlight commercial environments. This technology, which is developed by Sigmadesigns Zensys, uses a low power RF radio embedded or retrofitted into homeelectronics devices and systems, such as lighting, home access control, entertainmentsystems and household appliances. The technology has been standardized by the Z-Wave Alliance, an international consortium of manufacturers that overseesinteroperability between Z-Wave products and enabled devices (Wikipedia, 2009).Z-Wave is a mesh networking technology where each node or device onthe network is capable of sending and receiving control commands through walls orfloors and around household obstacles or radio dead spots that might occur in thehome. Z-Wave devices can work singly or in groups, and can be programmed intoscenes or events that trigger multiple devices, either automatically or via remotecontrol.Z-Wave is a low-power wireless technology designed specifically for15
  • 25. remote control applications. Unlike Wi-Fi and other IEEE 802.11-based wirelessLAN systems that are designed primarily for high-bandwidth data flow, the Z-WaveRF system operates in the sub Gigahertz frequency range and is optimized for low-overhead commands such as on-off (as in a light switch or an appliance) and raise-lower (as in a thermostat or volume control), with the ability to include devicemetadata in the communications. Because Z-Wave operates apart from the 2.4 GHzfrequency of 802.11 based wireless systems, it is largely impervious to interferencefrom common household wireless electronics, such as Wi-Fi routers, cordlesstelephones and Bluetooth devices that work in the same frequency range. Thisfreedom from household interference allows for a standardized low-bandwidthcontrol medium that can be reliable alongside common wireless devices. On otherhand, 2.4 GHz frequency usage allows unlicensed devices usage in most countries;this is convenient to customers and allows wider technology adoption and reduceddeployment costs. This could be not true for other frequencies and could easily turninto a strong drawback if licensing is required or frequency is occupied. Thats one ofreason why competing 2.4 GHz technologies became so popular.As a result of its low power consumption and low cost of manufacture, Z-Wave is easily embedded in consumer electronics products, including batteryoperated devices such as remote controls, smoke alarms and security sensors. Z-Waveis currently supported by over 200 manufacturers worldwide and appears in a broadrange of consumer products in the U.S. and Europe.Some common applications for Z-Wave include:• Remote Home Control And Management – By adding Z-Wave to16
  • 26. home electronics such as lighting, climate and security systems, it ispossible to control and monitor these household functions via remotecontrol, based on manual or automated decisions. The control can beapplied to a single device or group of devices, in a single room or zone orthroughout the entire home. One of the benefits of Z-Wave over powerline communication technologies is the ability to function in older houseslacking a neutral wire. Z-Wave devices can also be monitored andcontrolled from outside of the home by way of a gateway that combinesZ-Wave with broadband Internet access.• Energy Conservation – Z-Wave is envisioned as a key enablingtechnology for energy management in the green home. As an example, Z-Wave-enabled thermostats are able to raise or lower automatically, basedon commands from Z-Wave enabled daylight sensors. Grouped scenecontrols can ensure that unnecessary energy consumption is minimized byvarious all-off states for systems throughout the home, such as lighting,appliances and home entertainment systems.• Home Safety And Security Systems – Because Z-Wave cantransceive commands based on real time conditions, and is able to controldevices in intelligent groupings, it allows novel extensions of traditionalhome security concepts. As an example, the opening of a Z-Wave enableddoor lock can de-activate a security system and turn on lights whenchildren arrive home from school, and send a notification to a parents PCor cell phone via the Internet. Opening a Z-Wave enabled garage door can17
  • 27. trigger exterior and interior home lights, while a Z-Wave motion detectorcan trigger an outdoor security light and a webcam, which would allowthe end user to monitor the home while away.• Home Entertainment – Z-Waves ability to command multipledevices as a unified event makes it well suited for home audio and videoapplications. For example, a simple "Play DVD" command on the remotecontrol could turn on the needed components, set them to the correctinputs and even lower motorized shades and dim the room lights. Z-Waves RF technology is also well suited as an evolution of conventionalInfrared (IR) based remote controls for home electronics, as it is notconstrained by IRs line of sight and distance limitations. In January of2008, Zensys announced a single-chip solution that pairs Z-Wave with IRcontrol, positioning the technology as an all encompassing solution forhome remote controls.2.3.6 X10 standardX10 is an international and open industry standard for communicationamong electronic devices used for home automation. It primarily uses power linewiring for signalling and control, where the signals involve brief radio frequencybursts representing digital information. X10 was developed in 1975 by PicoElectronics of Glenrothes, Scotland, in order to allow remote control of home devicesand appliances. It was the first general purpose home automation network technologyand remains the most widely available. Although a number of higher bandwidthalternatives exist including KNX, INSTEON, BACnet, and LonWorks, X10 remains18
  • 28. popular in the home environment with millions of units in use worldwide, andinexpensive availability of new components (Wikipedia, 2009).Packets transmitted using X10 control protocol consist of a four bit housecode followed by one or more four bit unit code, finally followed by a four bitcommand.Table 2.1 : List of X10 four bit commandsCode Function Description0 0 0 0 All Units OffSwitch off all devices with the house code indicated in themessage0 0 0 1 All Lights OnSwitches on all lighting devices (with the ability to controlbrightness)0 0 1 0 On Switches on a device0 0 1 1 Off Switches off a device0 1 0 0 Dim Reduces the light intensity0 1 0 1 Bright Increases the light intensity0 1 1 1 Extended Code Extension code1 0 0 0 Hail RequestRequests a response from the device(s) with the house codeindicated in the message1 0 0 1HailAcknowledgeResponse to the previous command1 0 1 x Preset Dim Allows the selection of two predefined levels of light intensity1 1 0 1 Status is OnResponse to the Status Request indicating that the device isswitched on1 1 1 0 Status is Off Response indicating that the device is switched off1 1 1 1 Status Request Request requiring the status of a device19
  • 29. 2.3.7 LonWorksLonWorks is a networking platform specifically created to address theneeds of control applications. The platform is built on a protocol created by EchelonCorporation for networking devices over media such as twisted pair, power lines,fibre optics, and radio frequency. It is used for the automation of various functionswithin buildings such as lighting and HVAC (Heating, ventilating and airconditioning).This technology has its origins with chip designs, power line and twistedpair, signalling technology, routers, network management software, and otherproducts from Echelon Corporation. Two physical layer signalling technologies,twisted pair and power line carrier, are typically included in each of the standardscreated around the LonWorks technology. The two-wire layer operates at 78 kbit/susing differential manchester encoding, while the power line achieves either 5.4 or3.6 kbit/s, depending on frequency. Additionally, the LonWorks platform uses anaffiliated Internet protocol (IP) tunnelling standard – ANSI/CEA-852 – in use by anumber of manufacturers to connect the devices on previously deployed and newLonWorks-based networks to IP-aware applications or remote network managementtools. Most LonWorks-based control applications are being implemented with somesort of IP integration, either at the user interface, application level or in the controlinfrastructure. This is accomplished with web services or IP-routing productsavailable on the market (Wikipedia, 2009).2.3.8 ONE-NET standard20
  • 30. ONE-NET is an open-source standard for wireless network designed forlow-cost, low-power (battery operated) control networks for applications such ashome automation, security and monitoring, device control, and sensor networks.ONE-NET is not tied to any proprietary hardware or software, and can beimplemented with a variety of low-cost off-the-shelf radio transceivers andmicrocontrollers from a number of different manufacturers (Wikipedia, 2009).ONE-NET uses UHF ISM radio transceivers and currently operates in the868 MHz and 915 MHz frequencies. The ONE-NET standard allows forimplementation on other frequencies, and some work is being done to implement it inthe 400 MHz and 2.4 GHz frequency ranges. It utilizes Wideband FSK (Frequency-shift keying) to encode data for transmission and it features a dynamic data rateprotocol with a base data rate of 38.4 kbit/s. The specification allows per-nodedynamic data rate configuration for data rates up to 230 kbit/s.ONE-NET supports star, peer-to-peer, and mesh networking topologies.Star network topology can be used for lower complexity and cost of peripherals, andalso simplifies encryption key management. In peer-to-peer mode, a master deviceconfigures and authorizes peer-to-peer transactions. The wireless mesh network modeallows for repeating to cover larger areas or route around dead areas. Outdoor peer-to-peer range has been measured to over 500 m, indoor peer-to-peer range has beendemonstrated from 60 m to over 100 m, and mesh mode can extend operational rangeto several kilometers. Simple, block, and streaming transactions are supported.Simple transactions typically use message types as defined by the ONE-NET protocolto exchange sensor data such as temperature or energy consumption, and control data21
  • 31. such as on/off messages. Simple transactions use encryption techniques to avoidsusceptibility to replay attacks. Block transactions can be used to transmit largerblocks of data than simple messages. Block transactions consist of multiple packetscontaining up to 58 bytes per packet. Blocks transactions can transfer up to 65,535bytes per block. Streaming transactions are similar in format to block transactions butdo not require retransmission of lost data packets.ONE-NET is optimized for low power consumption such as battery-powered peripherals. Low-duty-cycle battery-powered ONE-NET devices such aswindow sensors, moisture detectors, etc. can achieve a three to five year battery lifewith “AA” or "AAA" alkaline cells. Dynamic power adjustment allows signalstrength info to be used to scale back transmit power to conserve battery power. Highdata rates and short packet sizes minimize transceiver on time. Further powerefficiency can be gained utilizing deterministic sleep periods for client devices.2.3.9 Universal Powerline BusThe Universal Powerline Bus (UPB) is an industry emerging standard forcommunication among devices used for home automation. It uses powerline wiringfor signalling and control.Household electrical wiring is used to send digital data between UPBdevices. While in the X10 protocol this digital data is encoded onto a 120 KHz carrierwhich is transmitted as bursts during the relatively quiet zero crossings of the 50 or 60Hz AC alternating current waveform, the UPB protocol works differently. The UPBcommunication method consists of a series of precisely timed electrical pulses (called22
  • 32. UPB Pulses) that are superimposed on top of the normal AC power waveform (sinewave). Receiving UPB devices can easily detect and analyse these UPB Pulses andpull out the encoded digital information from them. UPB Pulses are generated bycharging a capacitor to a high voltage and then discharging that capacitor’s voltageinto the powerline at a precise time. This quick discharging of the capacitor creates alarge “spike” (or pulse) on the powerline that is easily detectable by receiving UPBdevices wired large distances away on the same powerline.UPB controllers range from extremely simple plug-in modules to verysophisticated whole house home automation controllers. The simplest controllers areplug-in controllers that are recommended for a moderate amount of switches anddevices as it becomes cumbersome to control a wide range of devices. Moresophisticated controllers can control more units and/or incorporate timers thatperform pre-programmed functions at specific times each day. Units are also availablethat use passive infrared motion detectors or photocells to turn lights on and off basedon external conditions. Finally, whole house home automation controllers can be fullyprogrammed. These systems can execute many different timed events, respond toexternal sensors, and execute, with the press of a single button, an entire scene,turning lights on, establishing brightness levels, and so on.UPB was developed by PCS Powerline Systems of Northridge, Californiaand released in 1999. Based on the concept of the ubiquitous X10 standard, UPB hasan improved transmission rate and higher reliability. While X10 without specialisedfirewalls has a reported reliability of 70-80%, UPB reportedly has a reliability ofmore than 99% (Wikipedia, 2009).23
  • 33. 2.4 HOME AUTOMATION IMPLEMENTATION PLATFORMSHome automation can be implemented over a number of platformsnamely, Powerline, RS232 serial communication, Ethernet, Bluetooth, Infrared andGSM. Each platform having its own peculiarity and area of application.2.4.1 Powerline communicationPowerline communication is a system for carrying data on a conductoralso used for electrical power transmission. Though electrical power is transmittedover high voltage transmission lines, distributed over medium voltage and used insidebuildings at lower voltages, powerline communication can be applied at each stage.All powerline communication systems operate by impressing a modulatedcarrier signal on the wiring system. Different types of powerline communications usedifferent frequency bands, depending on the signal transmission characteristics of thepower wiring used. Since the power wiring system was originally intended fortransmission of alternating current (AC) power, in conventional use, the power wirecircuits have only a limited ability to carry higher frequencies. The propagationproblem is a limiting factor for each type of powerline communications. Data ratesover a powerline communications system vary widely. Low-frequency (about 100 –200 Khz) carriers impressed on high-voltage transmission lines may carry one or twoanalog voice circuits, or telemetry and control circuits with an equivalent data rate ofa few hundred bits per second; however, these circuits may be many miles long.24
  • 34. 2.4.2 RS232The RS232 stands for recommended standard number 232. The serial portson most computers use a subset of the RS232 standard. The full RS232 standardspecifies a 25-pin "D" connector of which 22 pins are used. Most of these pins are notneeded for normal PC communications, and indeed, most new PCs are equipped withmale D type connectors having only 9 pins, trading off compatibility with the standardagainst the use of less costly and more compact connectors.In RS232, the communicating devices are referred to as Data TerminalEquipment (DTE) and Data Communication Equipment (DCE). The DTE is an endinstrument that converts user information into signals or reconverts received signalsand uses the male connector. The DTE is the functional unit of a data station thatserves as a data source or a data sink and provides for the data communication controlfunction to be performed in accordance with link protocol. While the DCE iscommunication link control device that provides the clock signal and uses the femaleconnector. The DTE ends the communication line, whereas the DCE provides a pathfor communication. In connecting a DTE device to a DCE a straight pin-for-pinconnection is used. However, to connect two DCEs or DTEs the transmit and receivelines must be crossed. The DTE is usually a computer or a terminal device and theDCE is usually a modem.Figures 2.1 – 2.3 shows the straight connections while figures 2.4 – 2.6illustrate the cross-over cable connections.25
  • 35. Figure 2.1 : Straight cable connection between RS232 DB9 DTE and RS232 DB9 DCEFigure 2.2 : Straight cable connection between RS232 DB25 DTE and RS232 DB25 DCE26
  • 36. Figure 2.3 : Straight cable connection between RS232 DB9 DTE and RS232 DB25 DCEFigure 2.4 : Crossover cable connection between DB9 DCE and DB9 DCE27
  • 37. Figure 2.5 : Crossover cable connection between DB25 DCE and DB25 DCEFigure 2.6 : Crossover cable connection between DB9 DCE and DB9 DCE28
  • 38. 2.4.3 EthernetEthernet defines a number of wiring and signalling standards for thephysical connection of two or more devices together. Ethernet was originally based onthe idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as abroadcast transmission medium. The methods used show some similarities to radiosystems, although there are fundamental differences, such as the fact that it is mucheasier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast. Thecommon cable providing the communication channel was likened to the ether and itwas from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived (Wikipedia, 2009).From this early and comparatively simple concept, Ethernet evolved into the complexnetworking technology that today underlies most local area networks. The coaxialcable was replaced with point-to-point links connected by Ethernet hubs and/orswitches to reduce installation costs, increase reliability, and enable point-to-pointmanagement and troubleshooting. StarLAN was the first step in the evolution ofEthernet from a coaxial cable bus to a hub-managed, twisted-pair network. Theadvent of twisted-pair wiring dramatically lowered installation costs relative tocompeting technologies, including the older Ethernet technologies. Through thephysical connection, Ethernet stations communicate by sending each other datapackets, blocks of data that are individually sent and delivered.Despite the significant changes in Ethernet from a thick coaxial cable busrunning at 10 Mbits/s to point-to-point links running at 1 Gbit/s and above, allgenerations of Ethernet (excluding early experimental versions) share the same frameformats (and hence the same interface for higher layers), and can be readily29
  • 39. interconnected. And due to the ubiquity of Ethernet, the ever-decreasing cost of thehardware needed to support it, and the reduced panel space needed by twisted pairEthernet, most manufacturers now build the functionality of an Ethernet card directlyinto computer and laptop motherboards, eliminating the need for installation of aseparate network card.2.4.4 BluetoothBluetooth is an open wireless protocol for exchanging data over shortdistances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs). Itwas originally conceived as a wireless alternative to RS232 data cables. It can connectseveral devices, overcoming problems of synchronization. It is a standard and acommunications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a shortrange (power-class-dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters) based on low-costtransceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth makes it possible for devices tocommunicate with each other when they are in range. Because the devices use a radio(broadcast) communications system, they do not have to be in line of sight of eachother.Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spreadspectrum, which chops up the data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79frequencies. In its basic mode, the modulation is Gaussian frequency-shift keying(GFSK). It can achieve a gross data rate of 1 Mb/s. Bluetooth provides a way toconnect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones,telephones, laptops, personal computers, printers, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)receivers, digital cameras, and video game consoles through a secure, globally30
  • 40. unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) 2.4 GHz short-range radiofrequency band. The Bluetooth specifications are developed and licensed by theBluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG). The Bluetooth SIG consists of companies inthe areas of telecommunication, computing, networking, and consumer electronics(Wikipedia, 2009).2.4.5 InfraredInfrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength islonger than that of visible light (400 – 700 nm), but shorter than that of microwaveradiation . Its wavelength spans between 750nm and 100 µm and is employed inshort-range communication among devices that conform to the standards publishedby the Infrared Data Association (IrDA).Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes(LEDs) to emit infrared radiation which is focused by a plastic lens into a narrowbeam. The beam is modulated, i.e. switched on and off, to encode the data. Thereceiver uses a silicon photodiode to convert the infrared radiation to an electriccurrent. It responds only to the rapidly pulsing signal created by the transmitter, andfilters out slowly changing infrared radiation from ambient light. Infraredcommunications are useful for indoor use in areas of high population density. IR doesnot penetrate walls and so does not interfere with other devices in adjoining rooms.Infrared is the most common way for remote controls to command appliances.2.4.6 GSMGSM which stands for Global System for Mobile Communication, is the31
  • 41. most popular standard for mobile phone communication in the world. It is used byover three billion people across more than 212 countries and territories (Wikipedia,2009).GSM basically provides voice call and short message service (SMS). Itoperates as a cellular network that mobile phones connect to by trying to search forcells in their immediate vicinity. The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. In GMSK,the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-passfilter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces theinterference to neighbouring channels (adjacent channel interference). GSM networksoperate in the 900 MHz or 1800MHz frequency bands in most countries of the worldexcept in few countries like USA and Canada where 850 and 1900 MHz bands areused as the 900 and 1800 MHz bands were already allocated. The GSM technologyuses a 200 Khz radio frequency channels that are time division multiplexed to enableup to eight users to access each carrier.2.4.7 MicrocontrollerA microcontroller is an inexpensive single-chip computer. Single-chipcomputer means that the entire computer system lies within the confines of theintegrated circuit chip (Byte, 2002). The microcontroller on the encapsulated silver ofsilicon has features similar to those of our standard personal computer. Its ability tostore and run unique programs makes it extremely versatile, and its ability to performmaths and logic functions allows it to mimic sophisticated logic and electroniccircuits. Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices,32
  • 42. such as automobile engine control systems, remote controls, office machines,appliances, power tools and toys. Hence, microcontrollers due not function inisolation, they accept input from one or more devices and provide output to otherdevices within a given system. In fact, they are responsible for the intelligence in mostsmart devices in the consumer market.The microcontroller has two general architecture types that define its modeof operation and design.2.3.7.1 Von-Neumann architectureThis architecture has a single, common memory space where both programinstructions and data are stored. There is a single data bus which fetches bothinstructions and data. And each time the CPU fetches a program instruction it mayhave to perform one or more read/write operations to data memory space. It must waituntil these subsequent operations are complete before it can fetch and decode the nextprogram instruction. The advantage to this architecture lies in its simplicity andeconomy. On some Von Neumann machines the program can read from and write toCPU registers, including the program counter. This can be dangerous as you can pointthe processor to memory blocks outside program memory space and carelessprocessor manipulation can cause errors which require a hard reset.2.3.7.2 Harvard architectureThis architecture implements separate memory areas for programinstructions and data. There are two or more internal data buses which allowsimultaneous access to both instructions and data. The CPU fetches instructions on33
  • 43. the program memory bus. If the fetched instruction requires an operation on datamemory, the CPU can fetch the next program instruction while it uses the data bus forits data operation. This speeds up execution time at the cost of more hardwarecomplexity. Most modern microcontrollers have the harvard architecture.34
  • 44. CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGYIn designing a home automation system, one or more suitable platforms areused in order to build a reliable and flexible system that can be easily operated andadapted for a new household appliance. Therefore, for the purpose of this projectsome specific deliberate choices were made on the type of platforms, hardwarecomponents and mode of operation of the home automation system.3.1 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONSBefore the actual design of the project work, specific deliberate choices inselection of appropriate implementation platforms and hardware components weremade. Priority was given to low cost availability, reliability, flexibility and simplicityin all these selections.3.1.1 Selection of implementation platformAs already explained in the previous chapter, there are many platformsover which a home automation system can be implemented. Of the currently availableplatforms – Powerline, RS232, Ethernet, Bluetooth, Infrared, GSM andMicrocontroller; RS232, GSM and Microcontroller were found most appropriate dueto their low cost availability, reliability and simplicity when used for an individualcontrol home automation system which my project work is on. Powerline andEthernet is too expensive and complex for this kind of home automation system,while Bluetooth and Infrared are unreliable.35
  • 45. 3.1.2 Selection of hardware componentsEach platform has a set of hardware components over which it isimplemented. For RS232, there are DB-9 and DB-25 connection cables, but DB-9cable was found most appropriate because it is cheaper, more readily available, lessbulky and just sufficient for the designed system when compared with DB-25. ForGSM, there are GSM modems and phone brands, but Nokia 6021 was chosen due toits low cost availability, ability to understand AT commands and availability of itsRS232 DB-9 cable. Finally, for Microcontroller, the popular ones are those producedby Microchip, ATMEL, Motorola and Texas Instruments, of all these Microchipmanufactured PIC microcontroller was found most suitable due to its low costavailability, and readily available programmers, compilers and flexibility.3.2 SYSTEM DESIGNThe designed home automation system uses PIC18F4455 microcontroller,Nokia 6021 mobile phone, RS232 standard for communication between themicrocontroller and mobile phone, HIN232 for interfacing the microcontroller, a relayand a driver for interfacing the relay.As illustrated in the block diagram shown in figure 3.1, when the Nokia6021 receives the required signal, it communicates via the RS232 and HIN232 to thePIC18F4455, the PIC18F4455 controls the relay state via a driver and this in turndetermines the state of the connected appliance, whether switched on or off.36
  • 46. Figure 3.1 : Block diagram of the home automation system3.2.1 PIC18F4455PIC18F4455 is manufactured by Microchip Incorporation based in UnitedStates of America, and is one of their harvard architecture based microcontrollerseries called PIC. PIC is generally assumed to mean “programmable interfacecontroller”. The PIC microcontroller contains a CPU (central processing unit), RAM(random access memory), ROM (read-only memory), I/O (input/output) lines, serial37HIN232PIC18F4455SERIALRELAYDRIVERRS232HOMEAPPLIANCEAC LINE
  • 47. and parallel ports, timers and sometimes other built in peripherals such as A/D(analogue-to-digital) and D/A (digital-to-analogue) converters.Figure 3.2 shows the interactions (data flow) between the mainmicrocontroller parts.Figure 3.2 : Interactions between the main microcontroller parts3.2.1.1 Central Processing Unit (CPU)The CPU is responsible for all the computing, it fetches, decodes andexecutes program instructions and directs the flow of data to and from memory. Itperforms the calculations required by program instructions and places the results ofthese calculations, if required, into memory space. Most CPUs are synchronous,meaning that they depend on the cycles of a processor clock, this clock generates ahigh-frequency square wave usually driven by a crystal, a RC (resistor capacitor) oran external source. The clock is sometimes referred to as an oscillator. The clockspeed, or oscillation rate, is measured in megahertz (MHz) which represents onemillion cycles/second.38
  • 48. 3.2.1.2 Random Access Memory (RAM)The RAM, random access memory, is used to write and read data values asa program runs. RAM is volatile meaning that if the power supply to themicrocontroller is removed, its contents are lost. All variables used in a program areallocated from the RAM. The time to retrieve information from RAM does notdepend upon the location of the information because RAM is not sequential, hence theterm random access. Most small PIC microcontrollers provide very little RAM whichforces you to write applications that use RAM wisely. Manipulating large datastructures and using pointers, re-entrant or recursive functions use large amounts ofRAM and are techniques which are generally avoided on microcontrollers3.2.1.3 Read Only Memory (ROM)The ROM, read only memory, is non-volatile memory used for programinformation and permanent data. The microcontroller uses ROM memory space to storeprogram instructions it will execute when it is started or reset. Program instructions must besaved in non-volatile memory so that they are not affected by loss of power, themicrocontroller usually cannot write data to program memory space.3.2.1.4 Input and Output ports (I/O)Without some means of getting information and signals in and out, themicrocontroller will have little or no use. Hence, the input and output ports are used topass data in and out of the microcontroller in a controlled manner, often according toa standard protocol. The PIC microcontroller ports are of two types namely, serial andparallel ports. They can operate in two main modes namely, synchronous and39
  • 49. asynchronous modes. The parallel I/O ports require a data line for each bit in a byte,while the serial I/O uses a single data line for all the bits in the data stream bytransferring the bits in sequence. The synchronous mode involves synchronizing thedata transfer with a clock while the asynchronous mode does not. PICmicrocontrollers most often have parallel I/O capability built in and the serial I/O as aperipheral feature.3.2.2 PIC18F4455 architectureAs shown in figure 3.3 is a typical PIC18F4455, a 40-pin high performancenano watt technology microcontroller, was used in the actual design (Microchip,2007).Figure 3.3 : 40-Pin PIC18F4455 microcontrollerThe features of PIC18F4455 are:40
  • 50. • 24576 Bytes flash program memory,• Capable of 12288 instruction set,• 2048 Bytes of Data memory,• 256 Bytes of Data EEPROM memory,• 18 interrupt sources,• USB V.20 compliant,• 100,000 erase/write cycle,• Programmable code protection,• Data retention of over 40 years,• Self-programmable under software control,• Enhanced USART module, and• C compiler optimized architecture.41
  • 51. Figure 3.4 : PIC18F4455 block diagram42
  • 52. 3.2.3 PIC18F4455 programmingFigure 3.4 is a detailed block diagram of the PIC4455. In programming it,a complier and a programmer were used. There are many available compilers forPIC18F4455 such as MikroC, Hi-Tech, MikroBasic, MikroPascal, CCS C andMPLAB, but CCS C (whose interface is shown in figure 3.5) was used. Also, thereare many programmers available but MikroElectronika development board (itscontrol interface is shown in figure 3.6) was used.Figure 3.5 : CCS C compiler IDE interfaceThe CCS C compiler has an Integrated Development Environment (IDE)through which programs written can be compiled into Hexadecimal codes. The IDEinterface is shown above.43
  • 53. Figure 3.6 : MikroElectronika programmer interface3.2.4 Nokia 6021Nokia 6021, shown in figure 3.7, is an EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates forGSM Evolution) enabled mobile phone. It is built on the GSM technology standardand has both Infrared and Bluetooth transceivers, these features make it suitable foruse in building an home automation system. It can serve as an extremely long rangeremote (one that can be controlled from anywhere in the world) via a combination oftwo or more of its Infrared or Bluetooth functionality, voice and data call capabilities,44
  • 54. short and multimedia message service (SMS/MMS) and wireless application protocol(WAP). It also has an RS232 data cable called DKU-5 cable with which the phone canbe connected to any RS232 serial communication capable device.Figure 3.7 : Nokia 6021 mobile phoneIn remote communication with the Nokia 6021, Hayes command set (alsoknown as AT command) is used. This command set is a specific command languageconsisting of series of short text strings which combine together to produce completecommands for operations such as dialling, hanging up, sending/reading text messages,and changing the parameters of the connection.3.2.5 HIN232HIN232, shown in figure 3.8, is an RS232 transmitter/receiver interfacechip, used for making serial communication possible between a device that uses TTL(transistor-transistor logic) signal levels and another device that uses RS232 signallevels (Intersil, 2008).45
  • 55. Figure 3.8 : HIN232 pinoutIt requires a single +5V power supply and feature onboard charge pumpvoltage converters which generate +10V and -10V supplies from the 5V supply. Itsdrivers feature true TTL input compatibility, slew-rate limited output, and 300Ωpower-off source impedance. The receivers can handle up to +30V, and have a 3kΩ to7kΩ input impedance, and they feature hysteresis to greatly improve noise rejection.Table 3.1 : HIN232 pin descriptionsTable 3.1 gives a detailed working description of each pin.46
  • 56. 3.2.6 RelayRelay is a small electrical switch consisting of an electromagnet (coil), aswitch and a spring, that opens and closes under the control of another electricalcircuit. The spring holds the switch in one position, until a current is passed throughthe coil, the coil generates a magnetic field which moves the switch. Because the relayis able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it is oftenused to automatically switch large electrical power devices (Wikipedia, 2009).There are many types of relay, namely;• Latching relay – This relay has two relaxed states (bistable) and it isoften referred to as impulse, keep or stay relay. When the current isswitched off, the relay remains in its last state. This is possible due to asolenoid operating a ratchet and cam mechanism, or by having twoopposing coils with an over-center spring or permanent magnet to hold thearmature and contacts in position while the coil is relaxed. Hence, the firstpulse of current to the coil turns the relay on and the second pulse turns itoff.• Reed relay – This relay has a set of contacts inside a vacuum or inertgas-filled glass tube, which protects the contacts against atmosphericcorrosion. The contacts are closed by a magnetic field generated whencurrent passes through a coil around the glass tube. Reed relays are capableof faster switching speeds than most other relay types, but have a lowswitch current and voltage ratings.47
  • 57. • Contactor relay – This is a very heavy-duty relay used for switchingelectric motors and lighting loads. High current contacts are made withalloys containing silver. Though there is an unavoidable arcing and thecontacts oxidize, the silver oxide formed is still a good conductor.Contactor relays are often used for motor starters and they generate a lot ofnoise when switching.• Solid-state relay – This relay type is a solid state electroniccomponent that provides the same function as the electromagnetic relay. Itis just that it does not have any moving part which increases its long-termreliability.48
  • 58. CHAPTER FOURDESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATIONThe design of this project involved coupling several hardware componentsand testing at the different stages of the implementation.Firstly, a flow chart as shown in figure 4.1 was developed for the designindicating the processes involved.Figure 4.1 : Flow chart of the design49Phone ringsSwitch applianceoffStartSwitch applianceonAppliance alreadyswitched onSend messageSend messageNo YesYes
  • 59. 4.1 BUILDING THE POWER SUPPLY AND INTERFACING THE RELAYIn building the power supply, as illustrated in figure 4.2 the followingcomponents were used;• 220/9V 500mA 50Hz transformer,• 4700µF, 35V capacitor,• bridge rectifier, and• 5V voltage regulator.Figure 4.2 : The power supply50Voltage regulatorCapacitorTransformerBridge rectifier
  • 60. The primary side of the transformer was connected to a 220V AC mainswhile the 9V secondary side was connected to the alternating voltage input pins of thebridge rectifier. The DC output of the bridge rectifier was sent to the 5V voltageregulator which supplies the constant 5V voltage supply needed by the PIC4455 andHIN232.4.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE MICROCONTROLLERAND NOKIA 6021In making possible the serial communication between the PIC4455microcontroller and the Nokia 6021 mobile phone, the voltage level signals from theRS232 DB-9 data cable of the phone had to be converted to the correspondingTTL/CMOS voltage level signals that the microcontroller understands. In doing this,HIN232 which is an RS232 line driver/receiver was used to convert the RS232 signalsto their corresponding TTL/CMOS signals. The microcontroller transmit pin C6 andreceive pin C7 were connected to the TTL/CMOS input and output pins 9 and 10, indoing this connection it was necessary to connect the transmit pin (C6) of themicrocontroller to the input receive pin of the HIN232 and the receive pin (C7) of themicrocontroller to the output transmit pin of the HIN232. This ensured the crossconnection required for serial communication between two DCEs (DataCommunication Equipment) for both the microcontroller and the Nokia 6021 areDCEs. For the DB-9 cable, the transmit pin 2 is connected to the RS232 output pin 7and the receive pin 3 is connected to the RS232 input pin 8.Finally, the DTR (data terminal ready) pin 4 and RTS (request to send) pin7 of the DB-9 cable were connected to the +5V terminal while the signal ground pin 551
  • 61. was connected to the ground terminal. The complete connection is shown in figure4.3.Figure 4.3 : The RS232 to microcontroller portion of the design4.3 PROGRAMMING THE MICROCONTROLLERIn programming the microcontroller, CCS C compiler was used to write thePIC C code that was built into an hexadecimal code to be programmed into thePIC4455.The PIC C program code implemented for the PIC4455 microcontrollerwas developed stepwise as –• Include the required header files which are 18f4455.h and string.hheader files.• Include the required class file which is input.c.52HIN232PIC4455microcontrollerRS232 DB-9connector
  • 62. • Set the communication parameters like the clock rate (20 MHz), thebaud rate (9600 bits/s), the transmit pin (PIN C6) and the receive pin(PIN C7).#use rs232(baud=9600, xmit=PIN_C6, rcv=PIN_C7)• Initialize the PIC4455 ports to be used. Pin C7 was set as an input pinsince it was the receive pin, the port D was initialized to low since D4pin would be used to control the relay.• Send the AT commands that will put the phone in text mode(at+cmgf=1) and notification mode (at+cnmi=2,3,2,2,1). This wasrequired for the phone to notify the microcontroller of an incoming call.printf(“at+cmgf=1;+cnmi=2,3,2,2,1r”);• Put the microcontroller in a waiting mode such that if it detects data onits receive pin, it will execute the main functional codes that willcompare the incoming data with some predetermined data to determineif the phone is ringing and the course of action to take before goingback to the waiting mode.if(kbhit()){...}4.4 TESTING THE COMPLETE DESIGN AND CASING53
  • 63. After the completion of the hardware coupling, several tests were done onthe design. Some observations and corrections were made as follows:1. The system would not work when the phone is connected afterpowering it, even after a reset. This was due to the fact that the signalssent at first by the system to the phone do not die of the line immediatelyand affects subsequent signals sent even after connecting and resetting thesystem. This can be prevented by connecting the phone first beforepowering the system. Much concern was not given to this shortcomingbecause the system was designed to have a permanently connected phone,making it impossible for this shortcoming to arise.2. It was also observed that the system would not respond after aboutfour loop cycles (this corresponds to four concurrent switch toggle). Thiswas due to buffer overflow on the microcontroller which makes it notprocess new data sent it by the phone after those cycles. The attemptedsolution was to find a way of flushing the buffer after each cycle, but dueto little help found from books, internet and fellow PIC programmers, itssolution could not be implemented.Other than in the above stated situations, the system worked very well andreliably.In designing the case for the system, utmost concern was given to guardingthe system from physical strain and stress during carriage and project presentation. Atransparent plastic material was used for the casing as against glass material which54
  • 64. may easily break, a paper material which may give in to strain and stress, or even ametallic material which will make the project work quite uneconomical, clumsy andheavy. The casing was made in a manner that permits the whole circuit board to bedetached from the system.The complete home automation system circuit controlling a lightingfixture, and the designed system are shown in figure 4.4 and 4.5.Figure 4.4: The complete home automation system circuit (controllinglighting fixture)55
  • 65. Figure 4.5: The individual control home automation system56
  • 66. CHAPTER FIVECONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION5.1 CONCLUSIONIt is evident from this project work that an individual control homeautomation system can be cheaply made from low-cost locally available componentsand can be used to control multifarious home appliances ranging from the securitylamps, the television to the air conditioning system and even the entire house lightingsystem. And better still, the components required are so small and few that they canbe packaged into a small inconspicuous container.The designed home automation system was tested a number of times andcertified to control different home appliances used in the lighting system, airconditioning system, heating system, home entertainment system and many more(this is as long as the maximum power and current rating of the appliance does notexceed that of the used relay).Finally, this home automation system can be also implemented overBluetooth, Infrared and WAP connectivity without much change to the design and yetstill be able to control a variety of home appliances. Hence, this system is scalableand flexible.5.2 RECOMMENDATIONIn consonance with the project work and in view of the researched methodsand undertakings in the project design, the following are recommended:57
  • 67. • The department should help the students in getting components thatare not locally available.• Students should be taught how to make embedded systems as the useof computer software in most project work makes it uneconomical, andthe use of the conventional integrated circuits and logic gates makes theproject work clumsy.• Finally, this project can be further developed to control more thanone home appliance at once through the use of short message service textsrather than voice dial though it will be more expensive and will requiremore relay circuits, making it a distributed control home automationsystem. Also, to cut the cost of mobile phone, the project may beimplemented using standalone GSM modems that only performspecialised functions like text messaging and/or phone calls. This GSMmodems often are cheaper and more reliable than GSM mobile phones.58
  • 68. REFERENCESByte Craft (2002). First Steps with Embedded Systems. Byte Craft Limited, Canada.B & B Electronics (2003) RS-232 connections that work! DTE & DCE FAQ. Fromhttp://www.bb-elec.com Retrieved on 29/03/2003Collins, T. J. (2008). A project report on the design and construction of a low voltagepower line communication system. Project Report, FUTAAkure.Intersil (2008). HIN232 datasheet. Intersil Inc, USA.Martin Bates (2006). Interfacing PIC Microcontrollers Embedded Design byInteractive Simulation. Newnes, London.Microchip (2007). PIC 18F2455/2550/4455/4550 Data Sheet. Microchip Technology.Inc, USANigel Gardner (1998). An Introduction to programming the Microchip PIC in C.Character Press, UK.Wikipedia (2009). Automation. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation.Retrieved on 7/30/2009Wikipedia (2009). Bluetooth. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth. Retrievedon 7/30/2009Wikipedia (2009). Building Automation. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_automation. Retrieved on 7/30/2009Wikipedia (2009). Ethernet. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethernet. Retrieved on8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). European Home Systems Protocol. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Home_Systems_Protocol. Retrievedon 8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). GSM. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GSM. Retrieved on8/7/2009Wikipedia (2009). Home Automation. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_automation. Retrieved on 7/6/2009Wikipedia (2009). INSTEON. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INSTEON. Retrievedon 8/3/200959
  • 69. Wikipedia (2009). KNX (standard). Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KNX_(standard). Retrieved on 8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). LonWorks. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LonWorks. Retrievedon 8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). Microcontroller. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcontroller. Retrieved on 8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). ONE.NET. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ONE.NET. Retrievedon 8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). RS232. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS232. Retrieved on7/21/2009Wikipedia (2009). X10 (Industry Standard). Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X10_(industry standard). Retrieved on 8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). ZigBee. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZigBee. Retrieved on8/3/2009Wikipedia (2009). Z-Wave. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z-Wave. Retrieved on8/3/200960
  • 70. APPENDIX I: Bill of componentsITEM SYMBOL VALUE COST (N)1 B1 Bridge Rectifier 502 C1 1.0 µF 103 C2 1.0 µF 104 C3 1.0 µF 105 C4 1.0 µF 106 C5 1.0 µF 107 C6 4700 µF 108 C7 22 pF 109 C8 22 pF 1010 D1 DB-9 RS232 Cable 80011 F1 Board 10012 F2 Board 10013 H1 HIN232 7014 L1 LED 515 NI NOKIA 6021 650016 P1 PIC4455 200017 R1 10 kΩ 518 R2 330 Ω 519 R3 200 Ω 520 S1 6V 10A Relay 5021 T1 Transformer 30022 U1 TIP41C 5023 U2 TIP41C 5024 V1 LM7805 5025 V2 LM7806 5026 X1 Crystal Oscillator 7027 Z1 Reset Button 20TOTAL 1036061
  • 71. APPENDIX II: The PIC C code for programming the PIC4455 in CCS Ccompiler#include <18f4455.h>#use delay(clock=12000000)#use rs232(baud=9600, xmit=PIN_C6,rcv=PIN_C7)#fuses HS,NOWRT,NOWDT,NOPUT,NOPROTECT,NOBROWNOUT,NOLVP,NOCPD,NODEBUG#use fast_io(A)// enhances self i/o settings#use fast_io(B)#use fast_io(C)#include <string.h>// header file#include <input.c>int i,u,a,b,counter=1,toggle;char data[20],data1[20],data2[20],data3[20],test[12],mem[12],req[12];void main(){set_tris_c(128);set_tris_b(0);output_b(255);set_tris_d(0);output_d(0);delay_ms(500);printf("at+cmgf=1;+cnmi=2,3,2,2,1r"); /* This puts the phone in textmode and enables notification sending */i=getch(); // u=getch(); // gets(data); // // |-Extract and silent the initial sent instructioni=getch(); // /u=getch(); // /gets(data1);// /back:if(kbhit()) //Run the subsequent codes when there is a new data{welcome:if(counter==200) // _ Re-initialise the countercounter=0; // /gets(data2);62
  • 72. gets(data3);b=0;for(a=1;a<=6;a++){req[b]=data3[a];b++;}strncpy(mem,req,4);strcpy(test,"RING"); /* The control string which the phone sends whenthere is a phone call */if(strncmp(mem,test,4)==0) //check if the notification is for phoneringing{counter++; //Increment the countertoggle=counter%10;if(toggle==5){output_high(PIN_D4); //put 5V on the D4 pinprintf("at+cmgs="08064702218"r");printf("appliance is switched on");putc(26);}if(toggle==0){output_low(PIN_D4); //set pin D4 to 0V//delay_ms(5);printf("at+cmgs="08064702218"r");//delay_ms(50);printf("appliance is switched off");putc(26);//delay_ms(10);}}goto welcome;}goto back;}63

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