Escaping the temptations of Drub abuse
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Escaping the temptations of Drub abuse

on

  • 644 views

A public presentation to young adults of the National Youth Service Corp, Nasarawa state Nigeria

A public presentation to young adults of the National Youth Service Corp, Nasarawa state Nigeria

Statistics

Views

Total Views
644
Views on SlideShare
644
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
32
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • *Akinboye, J.O.(2000). Parenting success. A seminar paper presented at the Department of guidance and counseling. University of Ilorin. Pgs 7-11.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gateway_drug_theory
  • 3.National Drug Intelligence Center (2011). The Economic Impact of Il-licit Drug Use on American Society. Washington D.C.: United States De-partment of Justice. Available at: http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs44/44731/44731p.pdf(PDF, 2.4MB)4.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a3.htm (PDF 1.4MB).5. Rehm, J., Mathers, C., Popova, S., Thavorncharoensap, M., Teerawattananon Y., Patra, J. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet, 373(9682):2223–2233, 2009.

Escaping the temptations of Drub abuse Escaping the temptations of Drub abuse Presentation Transcript

  • DR. SITU OLADELE mb;bs (Ib) NYSC corper SUMMIT, NSUK, 10/12/ 2012
  •   Introduction  Definitions  Patterns of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria  Effects of drug abuse  Mechanism of drug addiction  Escaping the addition contents
  •   Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods neither approved nor supervised by medical professionals  Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around him or her definition
  •   Drug and substance abuse poses a significant hazard to the health and development of young people and cuts across age and social class.  The quest for new experiences and the rebellious nature of the young predisposes them to drug abuse. Introduction
  •   age at first use of drug has been found to be as early as eleven years (NDLEA 1999).  The illicit drug most commonly abused by young people in Nigeria is cannabis (marajuana). It is illegally cultivated in different parts of Nigeria and is relatively cheap.  As one study showed, almost a tenth (8.2%) of young people between the ages of 10-19 years have used cannabis at some time in their lives. Introduction
  •   They often have family problems and a circle of friends among whom drug use is widespread. Often their parents are themselves dependent on substances such as alcohol or tranquillizers. Introduction
  •  CANNABIS Illegal platation sites have been found in Ekiti, Oyo States, south western Nigeria (NDLEA)
  •   Outright illicit drugs  Socially ―acceptable‖ drugs  Over the-counter-drugs  Prescribed medications  unconventional substances not yet under international control Drugs commonly abused
  •   Cannabis  highly addictive hard drugs such as cocaine and heroine Illicit drugs  Cannabis  highly addictive hard drugs such as cocaine and heroine
  •   Alcohol  Cigarettes  LSD (―ecstasy‖)  tobacco Socially ―acceptable‖ drugs/hallucinogens
  •  LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
  •  MDMA (sometimes called ecstasy) Psychostimulant
  •   high incidence of non-medical or self-medicated use of benzodiazepines and psychotropic substances (amphetamines and barbiturates)  Opioids and Morphine-like drugs  result of the ineffective enforcement of laws on their sale and distribution. Over-the-counter drugs
  •   Paracetamol  Aspirin  Sleeping pills  Tramadol  antibiotics Prescribed drugs
  •   volatile organic solvents, such as petrol and glue  unconventional substances not yet under international control e.g. pawpaw leaves, zakami, haukatayaro Unconventional substances
  •   Alcohol and tobacco constitute a major threat to the health of young people. They are referred to as ―gate way drugs‖ as most young people who abuse drugs and other dangerous substances started with alcohol and cigarettes. ―gate way drugs‖
  •   predisposition to experimentation,  rebellion and desire for independence;  peer pressure;  defects in personality such as low self-esteem;  notion of ‗machismo‘ characterized by independent risk-taking behaviour;  engagement of older siblings in drug taking; Why do drugs?
  •   frustrations caused by tension between improved levels of education and shrinking employment opportunities;  parental deprivation as a result of separation, divorce, death of a spouse or persistent discord between spouses in the home;  advertisement such as those associating smoking with success, glamour, popularity, youthful vigor and good health; Why do drugs?
  •   rapid urbanizations (social change) with the breakdown of the family‘s effective cultural and social controls;  exposure to high risk jobs (such as tobacco company) and environments that encourage drug use (such as bars)  employment outside the home such as teenagers who drop out-of- school to take up menial jobs in market places and motor parks Why do drugs?
  •   Estimates of the total overall costs of substance abuse in the United States, including productivity and health- and crime-related costs, exceed $600 billion annually.  This includes approximately $193 billion for illicit drugs, $193 billion for tobacco, and $235 billion for alcohol. EFFECTS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  •   Drug taking has a close inter-relationship with crime  because of their cost and highly addictive nature, drugs drive their users to robbery or prostitution as a means of maintaining their habit.  use of drugs in tertiary educational institutions has been linked to the upsurge of violent cult activities.  It is believed that armed robbers, vigilante militants, as well as cult members use drugs as a means of stimulating boldness. Effects of drug abuse
  •   Pedestrian MVA  Social/marital violence including rape  Psychiatric manifestations like schizophrenia  Pregnancy complications like fetal alcohol sydrome  HIV/AIDS, Cancers, STDs Effects of drug abuse
  •  Marajuana Cocaine Lowers testosterone level seizure Impairs sperm production Raised and irregular heart rate Menstrual irregularities hallucination Memory loss Stroke Depression Hear failure lack of sleep Respiratory failure anxiety Cerebral hemorrhages Long term effects of some drugs
  •   dependence, overdose accidents  premature death  alienated from their families, not attending school and living away from home  failed relationships and family disintegaration  loss off job Effects of drug abuse
  •  What happens to the brain when you take drugs?
  •   often mistakenly assumed that drug abusers lack moral principles or willpower and that they could stop using drugs simply by choosing to change their behaviour  The rapidly adapting ―reward pathway‖ system in the brain  brain changes that occur over time challenge an addicted person‘s self control and hamper his or her ability to resist intense impulses to take drugs. Mechanism of addiction
  •   marijuana and heroin ≈ brain neurotransmitters≈ ―fool‖ the brain‘s receptors → activate nerve cells to send abnormal messages.  cocaine or methamphetamine → abnormally large amounts of natural neurotransmitters (mainly dopamine) → a brain awash in dopamine in brain regions that control movement, emotion, motivation, and feelings of pleasure → overstimulation of this reward system, Mechanism of addiction
  •   The biological make up of individuals (including gender and race)  The environmental factors  Age of commencement of drugs Why do some addicted and others don‘t?
  •  Prevention is key  Public awareness about the effects of drug abuse  Established anti-illicit drug use policies and effective law enforcement to back up  Strong family/social ties  Influence of religion  Effective regulation of health policies and prescribed drug use  Seek professional help  Developed improved stress coping strategies Escaping drug abuse
  •   Direct medical intervention I. Antipsychotics II. Alternative drug substance ―replacement‖ & detoxifiers (e.g. disulfiram, naloxone) III. Psychobehavioural therapies (e.g. Cognitive- behavioural therapy, motivational interviewing and incentives)  Midway homes (group behaviour therapy) Escaping drug abuse
  •   ―…long period of incarceration ranging from 15 to 25 years and sometimes, life imprisonment for producers and traffickers. Additionally, any organisation that colludes with offenders to perpetrate a drug offence or to conceal proceeds from the illicit drug trade is also liable on conviction to a term of 25 years imprisonment or two million Naira fine.‖ NDLEA NATIONAL DRUG LAW ENORCEMENT AGENCY, 1989
  •  THANK YOU
  •   Akinboye, J.O.(2000). Parenting success. A seminar paper presented at the Department of guidance and counseling. University of Ilorin. Pgs 7-11.  National Drug Intelligence Center (2011). The Economic Impact of Il-licit Drug Use on American Society. Washington D.C.: United States De- partment of Justice. Available at: http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs44/4473 1/44731p.pdf(PDF, 2.4MB) references
  •   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses—United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ mm5745a3.htm (PDF 1.4MB). references
  •   Rehm, J., Mathers, C., Popova, S., Thavorncharoensap, M., Teerawattananon Y., Patra, J. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet, 373(9682):2223–2233, 2009.  National Drug and Law enforcement Agency (www.NDLEA.ng)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gateway_drug_theor y references