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Cooperation implicature
 

Cooperation implicature

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    Cooperation implicature Cooperation implicature Presentation Transcript

    • the concept and the function of cooperation and implicature are fundamentally linked This sense of cooperation is simply one in which people having a conversation are not normally assumed to be trying to confuce, trick or with hold relevant information from each other
    • Cooperation can be understood as an essential factor when speakers and listeners are interacting, in order word, it is the expectation that the listener has towards the speaker.The speaker is supposed to convey true statements and say nothing more than what is required.
    • Implicatures are inferred based on the assumption that the speaker observer or flouts some principles of cooperation ( different author have indentified different principles )
    •  Quantity : make your contribution as informative as is required  Quality : try to make your contribution one that is true do not say what you believe to be false  Relation : be revelant  Manner : - be perpicuous - avoid ambiquity - avoid obscurity of expression
    • Cautious notes to indicate that a speaker is aware of maxim but, not to them completely. Speakers are aware of the maxim and show that they are trying to observe them ex :  As far as I know, they are married  I may be mistaken, but I thought I saw a wedding ring on her finger.  I ‘m not sure if this right, but I heard it as a secret ceremony in hawaii  the could not live without her, I guess.
    • in real communication, the intention of the speaker is often not the literal meaning of what he or she says.The real intention implied in the words is called conversational implicature. Ex: A: Can you tell me the time? B:Well, the milkman has come.
    • communicated by choosing a word expressing a value from a scale (quantity, frequency, etc.) Lexical (and logical) scales: all, most, many, some Numbers Ex : There will be five of us for dinner tonight
    • inferred only due to a special context between particular speaker and hearer. Example : Rick: Hey, coming to the wild party tonight? Tom: My parents are visiting.
    • All the implicature taken into consideration are part of what is communicated and not said. Thus, speakers can always deny that they intended to communicate such meanings. Conversational implicatures are deniable. They can be explicitly denied in different ways. Example : You have won only five dollars! (+> ONLY five)
    • implicature is part of the meaning of a word or construction but not part of its truth- conditions. Example : Joe is poor but happy Assertion : Joe is poor. The implicature is that not all of poor people are happy.