ICT in the arctic– Two Elements for consideration


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ICT in the arctic– Two Elements for consideration

  1. 1. ICT in the Arctic– Two elements for consideration Oliver Krone University of Lapland Department of Research Methodology
  2. 2. FUNET – a topology of ruralness
  3. 3. Implications of privatisation <ul><li>Equipment manufacturers and carriers can become partners in alliances, which foster the development of “quasi-Oligopolies” </li></ul><ul><li>International negotiations for standardisation of services and technical features are subject to commercialisation </li></ul><ul><li>States are still having stakes in the telecoms and IP market due to supra-national regimes (ITU, IMF, and World Bank), and they are subject to lobbying to vote for systems provided by “alliances” </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are packaged solutions by which different equipment manufacturers cooperate to push their respective technical and commercial solution on a global scale </li></ul>
  4. 4. Technical issues in respect to ICT in the Arctic <ul><li>Telemedicine is the primary customer for broadband satellite based Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High demand for capacity because of the very activity (full-motion, high-resolution video, large file transfer etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration required to all regional and national wireless and wired communication systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of episodic character not commercially viable without government subsidies, but can be shared with commercial settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>=> Private and public internet utilisation are kind of set into competition </li></ul>
  5. 5. Are ICT alien to and destroying indigenous cultural traits? I <ul><li>Characteristics of “primary oral cultures” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to be communicated by oral means only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the essence/content of the story told matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the utterance is finite=> no option for rehearsal or repition as sound has vanished, rarely stories are noted down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>story told about a societal/cultural fact allows for variation, or modernisation in respect to circumstances (cp. Ong, 1991 3 ; Moar, 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Are ICT alien to and destroying indigenous cultural traits? II <ul><li>Literate cultures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fix speech to place (noted on paper or which ever means) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for abstractions, reflection about speech, sciences and history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resting on fixed grammars, with theoretical bodies on how to articulate sentences and content, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=> Grammar and words are derived from the observation of oral performances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ong, 1991) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ICT and knowledge – why together? I <ul><li>ICT represent results of knowledge activities </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge used in ICT is mostly of western technical-scientific nature </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs’ utilisation to their full potential is bound to the understanding of the language, and knowledge embodied in them </li></ul><ul><li>Western-rationalistic knowledge has other epistemological and ontological qualities then T(E)K </li></ul>
  8. 8. Knowledge Integration I <ul><li>Essential premises on which KI rests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People know different things if they are engaged in project work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different disciplines take different views, and perceive different components if looking onto the same problem (!!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Academic) Socialisation proliferates domain specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role models and “Norms” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive styles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sets of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard approaches to Problem solution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Knowledge Integration II <ul><li>KI is concerned with knowledge differences, understood as perceptional challenges, it presupposes that „scientific“ methods as such are agreed </li></ul><ul><li>oral and literate cultures differ in their modes of knowledge generation, and what „true knowledge“ is </li></ul><ul><li>While in principle both sets of knowledge rely on „story telling“, and thus have similarities, </li></ul><ul><li>the stories embodied in ICT can not be distinguished and opened for discourse as those that are prevalent in “oral cultures” </li></ul>