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Chapter 08

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Written Communications
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Chapter 08

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 1CHAPTER 8 Written Communication 1 Effective Written Communication 2 Writing Effective Messages 3 Guides for E-Mail, Letters, Memos, and Reports© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  2. 2. CHAPTER 8“C” Characteristics of SLIDE 2Effective Communication Complete Clear Correct Concise AVAVA/Shutterstock.com Courteous Considerate© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  3. 3. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 3The W Questions Why is the message being written? What information is needed? Who needs to receive the message? When is the action taking place? Where is the action taking place?© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  4. 4. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 4Checklist for Conciseness Short sentences and paragraphs Simple, easy-to-understand words Bulleted and numbered lists Avoidance of ● Unnecessary repetition ● Excessive information ● Wordy phrases© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  5. 5. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 5Writing Effective Messages Determine the goal or purpose. Analyze the reader/audience. Consider the tone. Gather the appropriate information. Organize the content. Compose and edit the document. Prepare the final document.© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  6. 6. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 6Determine the Goal orPurpose What is my purpose in writing? What do I hope to accomplish? You may want to ● Inform the reader ● Provide information ● Establish a record of facts ● Promote goodwill ● Persuade the reader to take or forego an action© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  7. 7. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 7Analyze the Reader/Audience Identify needs and interests. Write to address them. Consider level of formality and language. ● General audience ● Professional audience ● International audience© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  8. 8. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 8Consider the Tone and GatherInformation The you approach Sources of information ● The organization’s files ● Employer or colleagues ● The Internet, periodicals, or books© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  9. 9. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 9Organize the Content Read through your notes and group like ideas together. Choose an approach. ● Direct—good news or routine request ● Indirect—negative news ● Persuasive—convince or convert negative or indifferent readers Choose the message format.© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  10. 10. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 10Compose the Document Write everything you want to say in rough- draft form. Do not spend time agonizing over each word and punctuation mark. Typical business message structure ● Opening paragraph ● Developmental paragraphs ● Closing paragraph© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  11. 11. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 11Edit the Document Keep the “C” characteristics in mind. Check paragraphs for ● Unity ● Coherence ● Parallel structure Eliminate the passive voice.© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  12. 12. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 12E-Mail Guidelines Be appropriately formal. Write a descriptive subject line. Limit your message to one screen. Edit and proofread carefully. Include your name and title (if appropriate). Be wary of humor or sarcasm.© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  13. 13. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 13E-Mail© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  14. 14. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 14E-Mail Ethics Do not send personal e-mail. Be professional toward others. Do not forward ● Junk mail or chain letters ● Messages without the senders’ permission Do not include personal information.© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  15. 15. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 15Memorandum Guidelines Use a memorandum ● For longer messages ● When a signature is needed ● For confidential or sensitive messages Slightly more formal than e-mail but less formal than letters© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  16. 16. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 16Memorandum© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  17. 17. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 17Letter Guidelines Represent the company to the public More formal than e-mail and memos Preferred for current and prospective clients and customers May use ● Block or modified block style ● Open or mixed punctuation© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  18. 18. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 18Letter Using Direct Approach© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  19. 19. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 19Letter Using Indirect Approach© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  20. 20. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 20Letter Using Persuasive Approach© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  21. 21. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 21Guidelines for Reports Purpose of business reports ● Provide information ● Describe a problem and suggest a solution Informal or formal ● Informal: progress reports, monthly sales reports, team or task force reports ● Formal: business proposals or research reports© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  22. 22. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 22Guidelines for Reports Conducting research ● Primary research ● Secondary research Evaluating information Documenting sources Diego Cervo/Shutterstock.com© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  23. 23. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 23Informal Reports May have only one or two parts ● Executive summary (sometimes)  Background  Major findings  Recommendations ● Body Or may be formatted as a memo© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  24. 24. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 24Formal Reports Usually contain several parts ● Executive summary ● Title page ● Table of contents ● Body ● Bibliography or references section ● One or more appendices Typically formatted in manuscript style© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
  25. 25. CHAPTER 8 SLIDE 25Tables and Graphics© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Procedures & Theory for Administrative Professionals, 7e
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