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    Computer Concepts PPT Computer Concepts PPT Presentation Transcript

    • Microsoft Office 2010 – IllustratedUnderstanding Essential Computer Concepts
    • Objectives • Investigate types of computers • Examine computer systems • Investigate data representation • Understand memory • Understand storage mediaMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 2
    • Objectives • Examine input devices • Examine output devices • Explore data communications • Learn about networks • Learn about security threatsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 3
    • Objectives • Learn about networks • Learn about security threatsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 4
    • Defining Computers A computer is an electronic device that: • accepts information and instructions from a user • processes data • stores data for later retrieval • produces outputMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 5
    • Investigating Types of Computers The categories of computers are: • Personal computers (PCs) • Desktops • Notebooks (Laptops) • Tablet PCs • Subnotebooks (Ultraportables or Minis) • Slates • Hand-helds • Smartphones • MP3 players • Mainframes • SupercomputersMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 6
    • Investigating Types of ComputersPersonal computers (PCs) are used for general computingtasks, usually for home or office use.Hand-held computers fit in the palm of your hand and runon batteries.Mainframes are used by larger companies to providecentralized storage, processing, and management for largeamounts of data.Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers,and can process an enormous volume of data.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 7
    • Investigating Types of Computers • Notebook computer • also referred to as a laptop computer • small • lightweight • portableMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 8
    • Investigating Types of Computers • Smartphones • used to make and receive phone calls • also used to connect to the Internet, to check email, and to maintain an electronic appointment bookMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 9
    • Investigating Types of Computers Supercomputers are the largest and fastest of computers, and can process an enormous volume of data.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 10
    • Examining Computer SystemsA computer system is made up of:• Hardware—the physical components• Software—the programs or lists of instructions • Operating system—special software that controls basic input and outputMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 11
    • Examining Computer Systems • Architecture or configuration is the design of the computer. • As in, what does the computer consist of? • Specifications are the technical details about each component. • As in, how big is the monitor?Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 12
    • Examining Computer Systems • Data • Words, numbers, figures, sounds, and graphics that describe people, events, things, and ideas • Processing • Modifying dataMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 13
    • Examining Computer Systems• Motherboard • where processing tasks occur • located inside the computer • the main electronic component of the computer • contains the CPUMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 14
    • Examining Computer Systems• Input—data you type into the computer• Output—result of the computer processing your input• Peripheral devices—accomplish the input, output, and storage functionsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 15
    • Examining Computer Systems• Microprocessor • also called central processing unit or CPU • a silicon chip designed to manipulate data • speed determined by: • Clock speed • Word size • Processor typeMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 16
    • Investigating Data Representation • A computer file is a named collection of stored data. • An executable file contains the instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task; for instance, the files that are used while the computer starts are executable. • A data file is created by a user, usually with software.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 17
    • Investigating Data Representation• Computers interpret every signal as “on” or “off”• 1 (“on”) and 0 (“off”) referred to as bits or binary digits• Eight bits = 1 byte. Each byte represents a unique character.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 18
    • Investigating Data Representation• Kilobyte (KB) = one thousand bytes• Megabyte (MB) = one million bytes• Gigabyte (GB) = one billion bytes• Terabyte (TB) = one trillion bytesMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 19
    • Investigating Data Representation• Each ASCII number represents an English character• Computers that run the Windows operating system use the set of Extended ASCII definitions defined by the American National Standards Institute ANSI standard sample ASCII code (ANSI)Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 20
    • Understanding Memory• Computer memory is a set of storage locations on the motherboard.• There are five types of memory: • Random access memory (RAM) • Cache memory • Virtual memory • Read-only memory (ROM) • Complementary metal oxide semiconductor memory (CMOS)Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 21
    • Understanding Memory• RAM • Temporary memory that constantly changes while computer is on • Can be upgraded to make your computer run faster (in sizes from 512 MB-16 GB)• Cache memory • Special high-speed memory chip on the motherboard or CPU • Stores frequently and recently accessed data and commandsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 22
    • Understanding Memory• Virtual memory is extra memory that simulates RAM if more is needed.• Read-only memory (ROM) is the permanent storage location for a set of instructions the computer uses.• CMOS memory is semi-permanent information about where essential software is stored.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 23
    • Understanding Storage Media• Three types of storage media: • Magnetic storage media • Optical storage devices • Flash memoryMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 24
    • Understanding Storage Media • Common magnetic storage devices • hard disks—several magnetic oxide covered metal platters usually sealed in a case inside the computer • Optical storage devices • CD—stores 700 MB of data • DVD—stores 4.7-15.9 GB • Blu-ray—stores 25 GB, used for storing high-definition videoMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 25
    • Understanding Storage Media • Flash memory—similar to ROM except that it can be written to more than once. • Flash memory cards • small, portable cards encased in hard plastic to which data can be written and rewritten • used in digital cameras, handheld computers, video game controllers, and other devicesMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 26
    • Understanding Storage Media • USB flash storage device (USB drive, flash drive) • popular type of flash memory • available in a wide range of sizes up to 64 GB of data • plug directly into the USB port of a personal computer • are about the size of a pack of gum and often have a ring that you can attach to your key chain.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 27
    • Rewriting on Optical Storage• CD-ROMs are for “read-only” access.• CD-R drives allow you to record data on a CD-R disk.• CD-RW drives allow you to write data on a CD-RW disk and access and modify data.• DVD-R and DVD+R are recordable• DVD-RW and DVD+RW are re-recordable• BD-R are recordable• BD+RE are re-recordableMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 28
    • Examining Input DevicesSome input devices are:• Keyboard• Pointing device • Mouse • Trackball • Touch pad Cordless pointing devices• Touchscreen• Scanner• MicrophonesMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 29
    • Using Assistive Devices • People who cannot use their arms or hands instead can use foot, head, or eye movements to control the pointer. • People with poor vision can use keyboards with large keys for input, screen enlargers to enlarge the type and images on the monitor, or screen readers to read the content of the screen aloud.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 30
    • Examining Output Devices• Monitors and printers are common output devices.• LCD monitors and LED monitors are two types of monitors.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 31
    • Examining Output DevicesFactors that influencea monitor’s quality are:• Screen Size• Resolution• Dot Pitch (dp)Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 32
    • Examining Output Devices Types of printers • Laser– high quality • Inkjet– popular for home use • Dot matrix– used to print large quantities PrintersMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 33
    • Exploring Data CommunicationsData communications is the transmission of data fromone computer to another.The four essential components of data communicationsare:• Sender• Channel• Receiver• ProtocolsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 34
    • Exploring Data Communications• A sender is the computer that originates the message.• The message is sent over a channel, such as a telephone.• The receiver is the computer at the message’s destination.• Protocols are the rules that establish the transfer of data between sender and receiver.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 35
    • Exploring Data Communications • Device driver (or driver) • handles the transmission protocol between a computer and its peripheral devices • a computer program that can establish communication because it contains information about the characteristics of your computer and of the device • Data bus • data path between the microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals along which communication travelsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 36
    • Exploring Data CommunicationsPCs have several types of expansion ports: • USB • FireWire (1394) • HDMI • DVI • VGA • Ethernet Computer ports and connectionsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 37
    • Exploring Data Communications• USB (Universal Serial Bus) port—a high- speed serial port which allows multiple connections at the same port• FireWire (IEEE 1394) port—a high-speed serial port developed by Apple Computers, which is slightly faster than USB• HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) port—a high-speed serial port that transmits video and audio digitallyMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 38
    • Exploring Data Communications • DVI—(Digital Video Interface) transmits video digitally • VGA—(Video Graphics Array) allows analog video transmission • Ethernet port—used to connect to another computer, a LAN, a modem, or sometimes directly to the Internet; allows data to be transmitted at high speeds.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 39
    • Learning about Networks • Network • connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices • Network interface card (NIC) • creates a communications channel between the computer and the network • a cable connects the NIC port to the network • Network software • establishes the communications protocols that will be observed on the network • controls the traffic flow of data traveling through the networkMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 40
    • Learning about Networks• Server • acts as the central storage location for programs • provides mass storage for most of the data used on the network• Client—computers on a network dependent on a server• Client/server network—a network with server that acts as the central storage location• Peer-to-peer network • a network without a server • all of the computers are equalMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 41
    • Learning about Networks • Standalone computer—a personal computer that is not connected to a network • Workstation—a personal computer that is connected to a network • Node—any device connected to the networkMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 42
    • Learning about Networks Workstation Server Printer Workstation Your local workstation Typical network configurationMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 43
    • Learning about Networks • LAN (local area network) • computers and peripherals located close to each other • WAN (wide area network) • more than one LAN connected together • the Internet is the largest example of a WAN • WLAN (wireless local area network) • computers and peripherals that use high- frequency radio waves instead of wires to communicate and connect in a network • Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) describes WLANs connected using a standard radio frequency established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 44
    • Learning about Networks • PAN (personal area network)—a network that allows two or more devices located close to each other to communicate or to connect a device to the Internet • Infrared technology—uses infrared light waves to beam data from one device to another • Bluetooth—uses short range radio waves to connect a device wirelessly to another device or to the Internet • WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) • allows computers to connect over many miles to a LAN • a WiMAX tower sends signals to a WiMAX receiver built or plugged into a computerMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 45
    • Learning about Networks Analo g signal Digital Digital signal signal Modem Modem Sending Receiving site site Using modems to send and receive dataMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 46
    • Learning about Security Threats • Security • the steps a computer owner takes to prevent unauthorized use of or damage to the computerMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 47
    • Learning about Security Threats • Malware • any program intended to cause harm or convey information to others without the owner’s permission • Viruses • harmful programs that instruct your computer to perform destructive activities, such as erasing a disk drive • Antivirus software (virus protection software) searches executable files for the sequences of characters that may cause harm and disinfects the files by erasing or disabling those commandsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 48
    • Learning about Security Threats • Spyware • programs contained with other programs that track a computer user’s Internet usage and send this data back to the company or person that created it • usually installed without the computer user’s permission or knowledge • Anti-spyware software detects spyware and deletes themMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 49
    • Learning about Security Threats • Firewall • prevents other computers on the Internet from accessing a computer and prevents programs on a computer from accessing the Internet without the computer user’s permission • can be either hardware or software • Router • a device that controls traffic between network components • usually has a built-in firewall. • Software firewalls track all incoming and outgoing trafficMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 50
    • Learning about Security Threats • Spoofed site • a Web site set up to look like another Web site, but which does not belong to the organization portrayed in the site • has a URL (address on the Web) that looks similar to a URL from the legitimate site • usually set up to try to convince customers of the real site to enter personal information • Phishing • the practice of sending e-mails to customers or potential customers of a legitimate Web site asking them to click a link in the e-mail • the link leads to a spoofed site • Pharming • when a criminal breaks into a DNS server (a computer responsible for directing Internet traffic) and redirect any attempts to access a particular Web site to the criminal’s spoofed siteMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 51
    • Protecting Information with Passwords • Logging in / Logging on • signing in with a username and password • Strong password • at least eight characters • consists of upper- and lowercase letters and numbers • does not include common personal informationMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 52
    • Understanding System SoftwareSystem software helps the computer carry out its basicoperating tasks.The four types of system software are:• Operating systems• Utilities• Device drivers• Programming languagesMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 53
    • Understanding System Software • Operating system • controls the input and output (I/O) • allocates system resources • manages files on storage devices • guards against equipment failure • Operating environment • provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that acts as a liaison between the user and the computerMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 54
    • Understanding System Software • Utilities • a category of system software that augment the operating system by taking over some of its responsibility for allocating hardware resources • Device drivers • handle the transmission protocol between a computer and its peripherals • when you add a device to an existing computer, part of its installation includes adding its device driver to the computer’s configuration • Programming languages • used by a programmer to write computer instructions • Instructions translated into electrical signals that the computer manipulates and processesMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 55
    • Understanding System Software Windows 7 starting screenMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 56
    • Understanding Application Software • Application software • enables you to perform specific computer tasks • Object linking and embedding (OLE) • refers to the ability to use data from another file, called the source • Embedding • occurs when you copy and paste source data in the new file • Linking • allows you to create a connection between the source data and the copy in the new file • the link updates the copy every time a change is made to the source data • Integration • the seamless nature of OLE among some applicationsMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 57
    • Understanding Application Software • Document production software • includes word processing software, desktop publishing software, e-mail editors, and Web authoring software • has a variety of features that assist you in writing and formatting documents, including changing the font (the style of type) and spell checking to help you avoid typographical and spelling errors • Spreadsheet software • a numerical analysis tool • used to create a worksheet composed of a grid of columns and rows • you type data into the cells, and enter mathematical formulas into other cells that reference the dataMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 58
    • Understanding Application Software Checking the spelling in a documentMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 59
    • Understanding Application Software Typical worksheet with numerical data and a graphMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 60
    • Understanding Application Software • Database management software • lets you collect and manage data • Database • a collection of information stored on one or more computers organized in a uniform format of records and fields • record—a collection of data items in a database • field—one piece of information in the record • An example of a database is the online catalog of books at a library; the catalog contains one record for each book in the library, and each record contains fields that identify the title, the author, and the subjects under which the book can be classified.Microsoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 61
    • Understanding Application Software • Graphics software • allows you to create illustrations, diagrams, graphs, and charts • Presentation software • allows you to project a presentation before a group, print it out for quick reference, or transmit it to remote computers • Clip art • simple drawings that are included as collections with many software packagesMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 62
    • Understanding Application Software • Photo editing software • allows you to manipulate digital photos • Multimedia authoring software • allows you to record digital sound files, video files, and animations • Information management software • Keeps track of schedules, appointments, contacts and “to-do” lists • Web site creation and management software • allows you to create and manage Web sitesMicrosoft Office 2010-Illustrated Introductory, Windows 7 Edition 63