2011 GEO-EDU in Korean NatureSeoraksan, 30 September-3 October  Chungbuk National University       Leader: Prof. Chang Zin...
Information of field tripAll participants have to pay 100USD for theSeoraksan field tripFood, accommodation and travel exp...
Seoraksan investigating members
Welcome to Seoraksan
Granite peaks exposed on the Seoraksan ridge
East sea coast from Daecheongbong            仁者樂山智者樂水Benevolent person delights in the mountain,     wise person delights ...
Granite peaks exposed along the Dinosaur Ridge(GongryongNeugseon), the most dangerous and rough ridge of Seoraksan
Seoraksan National Park was designated the 5thnational park in Korea in 1970 and also internationallyrecognized for its ra...
1st day, Field Trip Schedule of SeoraksanSeoraksan; September 30     Time                         Student Agenda          ...
2nd day, Field Trip Schedule of SeoraksanSeoraksan; October 1     Time                          Student Agenda            ...
3rd day, Field Trip Schedule of SeoraksanSeoraksan; October 2     Time                         Student Agenda             ...
3rd day, Field Trip Schedule of YeongwolSeoraksan and Yeongwol; October 3     Time                    Student Agenda      ...
Geographic Map and Hangyeryeong Pass Course                          Hangyeryeong Pass Course                          Tra...
Big Mass of Ulsanam GraniteIn the Seoraksan, there are many rocky peaks which are all composed of granite or gneiss.The pe...
Tor                                         Panhole      Exfoliation dome                         Castle wall-shaped Ulsanam
Geologic Sequence of Rocks and Strata in                    Seoraksan   Geologic age               Name                   ...
Porphyritic Granite including feldspar porphyry(left)                Granodiorite(right)
Granite, coarse-grained
Quartz vein in granite
Occurrences and Processes of Igneous RockOccurrences: A = magma chamber(batholith); B = dike; C = laccolith; D =          ...
Basic Classification of Igneous Rock
Basic Classification of Igneous RockRhyolite: Greek rhyax "stream of lava"Dacite: Dacia, a province of the Roman Empire wh...
Porphyroblast: A large mineral crystal in a metamorphic rock which hasgrown within the finer grained groundmass. Porphyrob...
Two types of Seoraksan Gneiss Complex   Left: Porphyroblastic Gneiss including feldspar crystals                   Pressur...
Geologic route map of the Hangyeryong-Daecheongbong course                                                                ...
Geologic route map of the Hangyeryong-Daecheongbong course              8. Banded Gneiss High Pressure>High Temperature   ...
Types of Metamorphism                    Regional metamorphism            Important factor: Pressure and temperature Regio...
Rock Cycle   1 = magma; 2 = crystallization (freezing of rock); 3 = igneous rocks; 4 = erosion; 5 = sedimentation; 6 =sedi...
Types of Volcanic Rock        Rhyolite                  Andesite         Basalt                  Trachyte
Types of Intrusive Rock     Gabbro               Diorite     Granite         Pegmatite
Types of Metamorphic Rock (I)           Hornfels                 Marble          Cataclastic          Rock               M...
Types of Intrusive Rock (II)       Slate                  Schist       Phyllite               Gneiss
Augen Gneiss
Bongjeongam; small temple, accommodation available
Talus, weathering products near Gwitaegichungbong
Dome-shaped granite mass
Daecheongbong
Observatory and mountain cabin(left) located near          summit(right) of Seoraksan
Daechungbong summit and Jungcheongbong cabin                      Direction of Daechungbong summitDaechungbong summit     ...
Squirrel in Soraksan
Interaction between Matteo andKorean squirrel
Fall foliage, scarlet mapple leaves
Sunset; photographing near Jungcheongbong
Rocky mountains near Cheonbuldong valley
Cubic joint in Chunbuldong granite
V-shaped valley(left) and entrance(right) of Cheonbuldong valley
Water fall flowing on granite in Cheonbuldong valley
Migmatic gneiss
Augen gneiss
Aplite dyke in augen gneiss
Naksan sand beach and lagoon                      lagoon
Questionnaire of Seoraksan Field Trip1. What kind of rocks can be observed along the mountain ridge and also in   the vall...
Matteo Lindner’s Q&A of Seoraksan Field Trip1. What kind of rocks can be observed along the mountain ridge and also in the...
Matteo Lindner’s Q&A of Seoraksan Field Trip3. What were the original rocks of the gneiss before metamorphism?•   On Seora...
Bongjeongam Temple below Socheongbong
Bongjeongam TempleDancheong: traditional multicolored paintwork on wooden buildings
Naksansa TempleDancheong: traditional multicolored paintwork on wooden buildings
Sinheungsa Temple(left) and Buddha Statue(right)
Yeongwol Geo-parkGeology, Geography, Biology, Culture and Sports              500million-years-old                strata &...
in the northeastern region, South Korea
Stratigraphy of Yeongwol              Quaternary strata                ~unconformity~              Mesozoic strata        ...
PALEOZOIC STRATA and FOSSILS,   YEONGWOL GUN, KOREA            Algal mat                    Algal mat & desiccation crack ...
algal matsdesiccation crack
• Origin of Stromatolitea. When it gets sun light, blue-green algae   starts photosynthesis combining CaO and   CO2 and ma...
Trace fossil
Reference                              Trace fossils Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils (Greek; ιχνος ikhnos "trace, ...
Stromatoporoid
General characteristics of stromatoporoid• The stromatoporoids had massive calcareous skeletons that are  preserved as rat...
Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip1. If some mud cracks, ripple marks and stromatolites are found in a ...
Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip1. If some mud cracks, ripple marks, and stromatolites are found in a...
Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip3. What is the difference between stromatolites and stromatoporoidea?...
Reference                              Trace fossils Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils (Greek; ιχνος ikhnos "trace, ...
Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip5. In the Yeongwol field site, we observed the sequence of strata as ...
Homagnostus     Agnostotes           Haniwoides                Pseudoyuepingia      Eochuangia  obesus        orientalis  ...
Trilobite fossil and its external morphology
Relationship between the Pyeongan Supergroup and the Choson Supergroup: DisconformityColumnar section of the Permo-Carboni...
The vertical sandstone and conglomerate of the Carboniferous strata
Quartzite pebble in conglomerate
Fold structures: simple anticline and drag folding
Fusulinid                                        Fossil range: middle Carboniferous-                                      ...
Some stone pillar in a stractite grotto
Sink hole in Doline
Carren in the Karst topography
Karst topography near Kunming in China
Limestone pillars in Karst topography, Kunming
Korean peninsula-shaped topography formed by  meandering river in Yeongwol, Gangwondo
Donggang rafting
Danjong was enthroned in 12, but after less than 3 years, he was deprived his throne by Sejo, hisuncle. Sayuksin including...
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu
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2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu

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Instructional materials for the Geo Tour to Seorak mountain in Korea, 2011

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2011 geo edu(seoraksan)-cbnu

  1. 1. 2011 GEO-EDU in Korean NatureSeoraksan, 30 September-3 October Chungbuk National University Leader: Prof. Chang Zin Lee Office: +82-43-261-2737 Mobile: +82-10-6553-8880 leecz@cbnu.ac.kr
  2. 2. Information of field tripAll participants have to pay 100USD for theSeoraksan field tripFood, accommodation and travel expensesduring field trip will be shouldered by theorganizerPreparation: Hiking boats, mountain-climbingclothes, sun cream, hat, pencil, note, camera,computer, sunglass, wind jacket, knapsackWeather: 0-15°C, Rain or bright
  3. 3. Seoraksan investigating members
  4. 4. Welcome to Seoraksan
  5. 5. Granite peaks exposed on the Seoraksan ridge
  6. 6. East sea coast from Daecheongbong 仁者樂山智者樂水Benevolent person delights in the mountain, wise person delights in the sea
  7. 7. Granite peaks exposed along the Dinosaur Ridge(GongryongNeugseon), the most dangerous and rough ridge of Seoraksan
  8. 8. Seoraksan National Park was designated the 5thnational park in Korea in 1970 and also internationallyrecognized for its rare species. Seoraksan wasdesignated as a Biosphere Preservation District byUNESCO in 1982.The total area of Seoraksan National Park is about400 km2 and it is divided two regions; Naeseorak andOeseorak. Seoraksan has a total of 30 imposingpeaks.Over 2,000 animal species live in Seoraksan,including the Korea goral, Musk deer and others.There are also more than 1,400 rare plant species,such as the Edelweiss, here as well.
  9. 9. 1st day, Field Trip Schedule of SeoraksanSeoraksan; September 30 Time Student Agenda Location September 30 05:30-10:00 Departure to Seoraksan CBNU Investigation of granite, banded gneiss, schist, Hangyeryeong Information September 30 porphyroblastic gneiss, granitic gneiss, augen Center(HIC) to 10:30-18:30 gneiss, quartz, feldspar, biotite, weathering and Jungcheongbong(JCB) erosional surface and geography of Seoraksan September 30 Walk down to Bongjeongam JCB to Bongjeongam 18:30-19:30 September 30 Temple style dinner Bongjeongam 19:30-20:30 September 30 Free time Bongjeongam 20:30
  10. 10. 2nd day, Field Trip Schedule of SeoraksanSeoraksan; October 1 Time Student Agenda Location October 1 Departure to DCB Bongjeongam 8:00 Investigation of granite, banded gneiss, schist, October 1 porphyroblastic gneiss, migmatite, granitic gneiss, 8:00-17:30 DCB to Seorakdong augen gneiss, quartz, feldspar, biotite and geography of Seoraksan October 1 19:00-20:00 Dinner and free time Ilseong condominium October 1 20:00 Free time Ilseong condominium
  11. 11. 3rd day, Field Trip Schedule of SeoraksanSeoraksan; October 2 Time Student Agenda Location October 2 9:00 Departure to Ulsanam Ilseong condominium Investigation of some kinds of rocks, beach sand and geography Naksansa temple October 2 9:00-14:00 Buddhism and ancient culture by Prof. Yong hwan East Sea shoreline Kim October 2 Lunch East Sea shoreline 14:00-16:00 October 2 16:00 Free time Ilseong condominium
  12. 12. 3rd day, Field Trip Schedule of YeongwolSeoraksan and Yeongwol; October 3 Time Student Agenda Location October 3 Departure to the field sites in Yeongwol Ilseong condominium 5:30 October 3 Buddhism explanation on Beopheungsa Beopheungsa temple 9:30-12:30 Temple by Prof. Yong Hwan Kim October 3 Investigation of geologic and sedimentary Yeongwol 12:30-14:30 structures, fossils and geography October 3 Moving from Yeongwol to Cheongju Yeongwol to Cheongju 14:30-18:00 October 3 The end of the Seoraksan field trip CBNU 18:00
  13. 13. Geographic Map and Hangyeryeong Pass Course Hangyeryeong Pass Course Travel Time : 13 hours 20 minutes Distance : 19.3 km Altitude : 1,000 m
  14. 14. Big Mass of Ulsanam GraniteIn the Seoraksan, there are many rocky peaks which are all composed of granite or gneiss.The peaks are well-exposed with some weathering evidences; exfoliation dome, castlekoppie, tor and panhole(weathering pan or solution pan). The Ulsanam is the best of the Seoraksan peaks in the view of spectacle, weathering evidences and scale.
  15. 15. Tor Panhole Exfoliation dome Castle wall-shaped Ulsanam
  16. 16. Geologic Sequence of Rocks and Strata in Seoraksan Geologic age Name Relation Quaternary Alluvium UnconformityCenozoic Period Era Tertiary Dilluvium Unconformity Period Granite Porphyry Intrusion Ulsan Granite Intrusion Masanite Intrusion Pinkish Granite IntrusionMesozoic Cretaceous Jeombongsan Granite Intrusion Era Period Biotite Granite Intrusion Seoraksan Granite Intrusion Hornblend Granite Intrusion Seoraksan Formation Unconformity Precambrian Gneiss Complex
  17. 17. Porphyritic Granite including feldspar porphyry(left) Granodiorite(right)
  18. 18. Granite, coarse-grained
  19. 19. Quartz vein in granite
  20. 20. Occurrences and Processes of Igneous RockOccurrences: A = magma chamber(batholith); B = dike; C = laccolith; D = pegmatite; E = sill; F = stratovolcanoProcesses: 1 = newer intrusion cutting through older one; 2 = xenolith; 3 = contact metamorphism; 4 = uplift due to laccolith emplacement
  21. 21. Basic Classification of Igneous Rock
  22. 22. Basic Classification of Igneous RockRhyolite: Greek rhyax "stream of lava"Dacite: Dacia, a province of the Roman Empire which lay between the Danube Riverand Carpathian Mountains (now modern Romania)Andesite : Andes mountain range.Basalt: Latin basaltes, misspelling of L. basanites "very hard stone," which was importedfrom Ancient Greek, basanity*s (basanites), from basano*s (basanos, "touchstone")Komatiite: Komati River in South AfricaGranite: Latin granum "grain"Diorite: Greek diorizein "distinguish"Gabbro: A town in the Italian Tuscany regionPeridotite: Peridot, a gemstone and pale green olivine
  23. 23. Porphyroblast: A large mineral crystal in a metamorphic rock which hasgrown within the finer grained groundmass. Porphyroblasts arecommonly euhedral crystals, but can also be partly to completelyirregular in shape.Gneiss: Middle German gneist, “to spark”(because the rock glitters)Schist: Greek schistos, “to split”Slate: French escalate, “to split thin plate”Phyllite: “to split into sheets”Hornfels: “hornstone”Migmatite: Greek migma, “to mix”
  24. 24. Two types of Seoraksan Gneiss Complex Left: Porphyroblastic Gneiss including feldspar crystals Pressure<Temperature Right: Augen Gneiss Pressure>,=Temperature
  25. 25. Geologic route map of the Hangyeryong-Daecheongbong course Augen Gneiss Jungc. Daec. Intrusive rock Soc. Miarolitic Aplite texture Porphyroblastic Banded texture Pinkish feldspar Gneiss Granite White feldspar Granite Pinkish feldspar GraniteHangyeryong The upper part of Seoraksan: Metamorphic rock, Gneiss The lower part of Seoraksan: Granite
  26. 26. Geologic route map of the Hangyeryong-Daecheongbong course 8. Banded Gneiss High Pressure>High Temperature Augen Gneiss High Pressure>,=High Temperature Porphyroblastic Gneiss High P<High T
  27. 27. Types of Metamorphism Regional metamorphism Important factor: Pressure and temperature Regional metamorphism occurs large areas of continental crusttypically associated with mountain ranges, particularly subduction zones. Contact metamorphism Important factor: Temperature>>pressureContact metamorphism occurs typically around intrusive igneous rocks as a result of the temperature increase caused by the intrusion of magma into cooler country rock. Dynamic metamorphism Important factor: Pressure>>Temperature Dynamic metamorphism is associated with zones of high to moderate strain such as fault zones. Cataclasis, crushing and grinding of rocks into angular fragments, occurs in dynamic metamorphic zones, giving cataclastic texture.
  28. 28. Rock Cycle 1 = magma; 2 = crystallization (freezing of rock); 3 = igneous rocks; 4 = erosion; 5 = sedimentation; 6 =sediments and sedimentary rocks; 7 = tectonic burial and metamorphism; 8 = metamorphic rocks; 9 = melting
  29. 29. Types of Volcanic Rock Rhyolite Andesite Basalt Trachyte
  30. 30. Types of Intrusive Rock Gabbro Diorite Granite Pegmatite
  31. 31. Types of Metamorphic Rock (I) Hornfels Marble Cataclastic Rock Migmatite
  32. 32. Types of Intrusive Rock (II) Slate Schist Phyllite Gneiss
  33. 33. Augen Gneiss
  34. 34. Bongjeongam; small temple, accommodation available
  35. 35. Talus, weathering products near Gwitaegichungbong
  36. 36. Dome-shaped granite mass
  37. 37. Daecheongbong
  38. 38. Observatory and mountain cabin(left) located near summit(right) of Seoraksan
  39. 39. Daechungbong summit and Jungcheongbong cabin Direction of Daechungbong summitDaechungbong summit Jungchungbong cabin
  40. 40. Squirrel in Soraksan
  41. 41. Interaction between Matteo andKorean squirrel
  42. 42. Fall foliage, scarlet mapple leaves
  43. 43. Sunset; photographing near Jungcheongbong
  44. 44. Rocky mountains near Cheonbuldong valley
  45. 45. Cubic joint in Chunbuldong granite
  46. 46. V-shaped valley(left) and entrance(right) of Cheonbuldong valley
  47. 47. Water fall flowing on granite in Cheonbuldong valley
  48. 48. Migmatic gneiss
  49. 49. Augen gneiss
  50. 50. Aplite dyke in augen gneiss
  51. 51. Naksan sand beach and lagoon lagoon
  52. 52. Questionnaire of Seoraksan Field Trip1. What kind of rocks can be observed along the mountain ridge and also in the valley area?2. Compare the metamorphic condition between augen gneiss and porphyroblastic gneiss.3. What is the original rocks of the gneiss before metamorphism?4. The Seoraksan granites show coarse-grained texture, which indicate the evidence crystallized at deep Earth crust. However all the granites are found on the ground surface easily. Explain the reason.5. Explain the formational processes the metamorphic rocks and igneous rocks distributed in our field course.
  53. 53. Matteo Lindner’s Q&A of Seoraksan Field Trip1. What kind of rocks can be observed along the mountain ridge and also in the valley area?• On the base of the mountain we mainly observed coarse grained granite with a composition of 40% quartz, 40% feldspar, and 20% biotite. The crystals diameter of 3-5mm led us to the conclusion that the granite was formed in a slow cooling process in a batholith. Occasionally we also found medium grained granite, which formed in a dyke where the cooling process is faster. Moreover, we found some evidence contact metamorphism between mudrock and granite that resulted in hornfels and a quartz vein. Towards the top of the mountain we observed various types of gneiss, which covers the granite. We also found small amounts of andesite, which must have come from a dyke.2. Compare the metamorphic condition between augen gneiss and porphyroblastic gneiss.• Augen and poryphyroblastic gneiss forms through regional metamorphism. The regular alignment of the layers and eyes in Augen gneiss is due to high pressure. Poryphyroblasts form in gneiss when it recrystallizes due to high temperature.
  54. 54. Matteo Lindner’s Q&A of Seoraksan Field Trip3. What were the original rocks of the gneiss before metamorphism?• On Seoraksan the original rocks would be mudrock or granite.4. The Seoraksan granites show a coarse-grained texture, which indicates crystallization deep in the earth crust. However, all the granites can be found on the ground surface easily. Explain the reason.• The earth crust consists of tectonic plates that are constantly moving. When two plates move towards each other and one moves under the other, its called subduction. The exposed granites on Seoraksan crystallized deep inside the Earth crust, but the subduction of the Eurasian and the Pacific plate moved the granites of the Eurasian plate to the surface. After the geotectonic movement the upper part of the crust, which lay on the granite, were eroded over a long geologic period.5. Explain the formational processes of the metamorphic and igneous rocks that were distributed over our hiking course.• The igneous rock granite crystallized deep in the earth crust (we also call this intrusive) in batholiths. The igneous rock andesite crystallized in dykes. The metamorphic rocks were formed through regional metamorphism, which occurs in large areas of the continental crust – typically associated with mountain ranges, particularly subduction zones. The original rocks were either mudrock or, of course, granite, which was metamorphosed.
  55. 55. Bongjeongam Temple below Socheongbong
  56. 56. Bongjeongam TempleDancheong: traditional multicolored paintwork on wooden buildings
  57. 57. Naksansa TempleDancheong: traditional multicolored paintwork on wooden buildings
  58. 58. Sinheungsa Temple(left) and Buddha Statue(right)
  59. 59. Yeongwol Geo-parkGeology, Geography, Biology, Culture and Sports 500million-years-old strata & fossils Karst Danjong topography Jangneung Donggang rafting Biodiversity Museum complex
  60. 60. in the northeastern region, South Korea
  61. 61. Stratigraphy of Yeongwol Quaternary strata ~unconformity~ Mesozoic strata ~unconformity~Late Paleozoic(Carboniferous-Permian) strata ~unconformity~ Early Paleozoic(Cambrian-Ordovician) strata
  62. 62. PALEOZOIC STRATA and FOSSILS, YEONGWOL GUN, KOREA Algal mat Algal mat & desiccation crack Stromatopoloid Invertebrate & trace fossils
  63. 63. algal matsdesiccation crack
  64. 64. • Origin of Stromatolitea. When it gets sun light, blue-green algae starts photosynthesis combining CaO and CO2 and making oxygen.b. Suspended particles, mostly fine sand, are stuck to algae when the sun sets. Deposition on the bottom.c. When the sun rises, algae repeat its daily process growing up day by day.d. After several thousand years, it turns into rock looks like a mushroom.
  65. 65. Trace fossil
  66. 66. Reference Trace fossils Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils (Greek; ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), are geological records of biological activity. Trace fossils may be impressions made on the substrate by an organism
  67. 67. Stromatoporoid
  68. 68. General characteristics of stromatoporoid• The stromatoporoids had massive calcareous skeletons that are preserved as rather conspicuous fossils.• The surface of the skeleton, where most of the living tissue resided, has raised structures called mamelons.• The stromatoporoid grew by secreting calcareous sheets. This growth process resulted in layers, termed laminae, parallel to the substrate and rod-like pillars perpendicular to the laminae.• Some stromatoporoids formed domes in excess of 5 m in diameter.
  69. 69. Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip1. If some mud cracks, ripple marks and stromatolites are found in a bed, what is the depositional environment of the bed.2. Explain about the formational process of stromatolite.3. What is the difference between stromatolite and stromatoporoid? And do they have something in common with each other?4. What is the trace fossil? Can you classify some trace fossils?5. In the Yeongwol field site, we observed the sequence of strata as below. Please interpret the depositional environment. Limestone <upper> Shale Mudstone Siltstone Sandstone Conglomerate <lower>
  70. 70. Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip1. If some mud cracks, ripple marks, and stromatolites are found in a bed, wh at is the depositional environment of the bed? Its intertidal. Ripple marks dont necessarily need to be found in intertidal zones; they can also be found in subtidal zones, but they show that the bed was once in the shallow marine. Mud cracks (also: desiccation cracks) form as muddy sediment dries and contracts. They show that the bed was somewhen underwater. Stromatolites are sedimentary structures found in shallow water. Alltogether, we now that the bed comes from a place where shallow ocean water somewhen receded, so the depositional environment must have been in an intertidal zone.2. Explain the formational process of a stromatolite. a) Microorganisms (cyano-bacteria, aka blue-green algea) in shallow water trap CaO and CO2 during the day. They bind the CaO and CO2 for photosynthesis, and produce O2. b) After the sunset the sand sticks to the algae. c) Like that, layer after layer of CaCO3 is binded by new algae every day. d) After several 1000 years the result is a layered concentric structure.
  71. 71. Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip3. What is the difference between stromatolites and stromatoporoidea? And do they have something in common? Stromatolites are fossils of sedimentary structures (see question 7), whereas stromat oporoidea are fossils of an extinct sponge-like animal with a calcareous skeleton. What the two have in common is their concentric layered shape. They can be disting uished by the color and texture within the layer. The stromatoporoideas layers are w hite and have a gridiron texture, whereas the stromatolites have a gray and simple texture.4. What is a trace fossil? Can you classify some trace fossils? Trace fossils are geological records of biological activity, also called bioturbations. There are: - Dwelling trace fossils (Domichnia), e.g. burrows. - Surface trace fossils (Cubichnia), e.g. the trace a starfish makes when its moved there and back by waves or the footprint of a dinosaur. - 3-dimensional feeding trace fossils (Fodinichnia) - Locomotory trace fossils (Repichnia), e.g. the crawling traces of a trilobite.• (The trace fossils are also classified as the next plate(82))
  72. 72. Reference Trace fossils Trace fossils, also called ichnofossils (Greek; ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), are geological records of biological activity. Trace fossils may be impressions made on the substrate by an organism
  73. 73. Matteo Lindner’s Questionnaire of Yeongwol Field Trip5. In the Yeongwol field site, we observed the sequence of strata as below. Please interpret the depositional environment. The fact that the coarsest sediments are located in the lower part of a bed and the finest sediments and limestone in the upper bed part of a bed points towards a transgressional depositional environment i.e. a bed (stratum) which is underwater where the sea level continuously increases.
  74. 74. Homagnostus Agnostotes Haniwoides Pseudoyuepingia Eochuangia obesus orientalis longus asaphoides hana(pygidium)Pseudorhaptag nostus Ivshinagnostus Irvingella megalops(cephalon) Irvingella megalops(미부) Some Trilobite fossils from the Early Paleozoic strata in Yeongwol
  75. 75. Trilobite fossil and its external morphology
  76. 76. Relationship between the Pyeongan Supergroup and the Choson Supergroup: DisconformityColumnar section of the Permo-Carboniferous strata in the Yeongwolcoalfield showing stratigraphicdistribution of some typical fusulinids
  77. 77. The vertical sandstone and conglomerate of the Carboniferous strata
  78. 78. Quartzite pebble in conglomerate
  79. 79. Fold structures: simple anticline and drag folding
  80. 80. Fusulinid Fossil range: middle Carboniferous- Permian Scientific classification Kingdom: Protista Phylum: Foraminifera Order: FusulinidaFusulinoidean grain (left; x 2) and scientific classification (right).The fusulinids are an extinct group of foraminiferan protozoa. They producecalcareous shells, which are of fine calcite granules packed closely together;this distinguishes them from other calcareous forams, where the test is usuallyhyaline. Fusulinids appeared late in the Mississippian Period. They were a partof the Carboniferous and Permian marine communities. They are excellentindex fossils for Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks. However, fusulinidsbecame extinct at the end of the Permian Period
  81. 81. Some stone pillar in a stractite grotto
  82. 82. Sink hole in Doline
  83. 83. Carren in the Karst topography
  84. 84. Karst topography near Kunming in China
  85. 85. Limestone pillars in Karst topography, Kunming
  86. 86. Korean peninsula-shaped topography formed by meandering river in Yeongwol, Gangwondo
  87. 87. Donggang rafting
  88. 88. Danjong was enthroned in 12, but after less than 3 years, he was deprived his throne by Sejo, hisuncle. Sayuksin including Seong, Sammun planned his restoration, but the plan was revealedbefore it was carried out. Danjong was banished in Yeongwol. He died in 17.
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