<ul><li>According to Gilmore Men fulfil social roles. If they are successful they win status and respect from other Men, and Women are attracted to them. </li></ul><ul><li>He recognises three main roles: </li></ul><ul><li>Man the IMPREGNATOR </li></ul><ul><li>Man the PROVIDER </li></ul><ul><li>Man the PROTECTOR </li></ul>
1. The World War (1914 – 1918): Men placed in combat role; toughness, endurance & resilience were demanded of men; Women enter industrial workforce in absence of men 2. The Great Depression (1930’s): Men unemployed, deprived of wage earning ‘breadwinner’ capabilities 3. Feminism (1960’s): Exposure of mens’ power & superiority as a myth; women no longer controlled by men, gaining economic independence; Equality in work & education 4. Industrial & Technological Changes (1980s & beyond): Technology changed the nature of work – less need for heavy graft/manual labour ; Thatcherism & the decline of industry; Growth of ICT Industries 6. The rise of Consumerism, Advertising & Celebrity Culture (1990’s & beyond): Products seen as indicators of personal success; Importance placed on self image/appearance; Counter-balanced by the ‘new lad’ & overstated heterosexuality 5. The Gay Movement & the advent of Gay Culture (1980’s & beyond): Goal of social acceptance and equality for all sexual identities; Challenges the equation of heterosexuality = acceptable manliness
<ul><li>Has a conventional masculine Identity based – selfless, caring as well as strong & forceful </li></ul><ul><li>A courageous man of action - Plays rescuer to the ‘damsel in distress’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sees other men as rivals; </li></ul><ul><li>Displays physical strength, skill & courage – a warrior/adventurer </li></ul><ul><li>Epitomized in epic sagas of Ancient Greece/Rome i.e. Gladiator/Troy </li></ul>
Clip: Commando As you watch the clip make notes on the film techniques used to highlight Arnie’s masculinity. (4.12 – 6.02)
Establishes Arnie as the classic ‘hunter/gatherer’ Use of extreme ‘phallic’ symbols – tree trunk/chainsaw (Phallus associated with notions of potency, virility, power)
<ul><li>A He-Man: Focus on muscled ‘pumped up’ ‘hyper-masculine’ body = emblem of male power </li></ul><ul><li>“ Both actors (Stallone and Schwarzenegger) often resemble a phallus with muscles". (Creed 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy male figures of aspiration: Unachievable images of power/strength for male viewer </li></ul><ul><li>An ice man – no emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Male violence seen as natural </li></ul><ul><li>These characters ignore social changes which reject the need for male strength & power </li></ul><ul><li>Working practices changed – masculine industry jobs declined as developments in technology increase: </li></ul><ul><li>Films such as The Terminator/Robocop – half man/half robot reflects this crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Male Stars were a reflection of the Regan era of Politics whereby he used his political ‘muscle’ to intimidate opponents. </li></ul>
<ul><li>How does Arnie in the 80’s represent the traditional dominant Ideological representation of men? </li></ul>
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