<ul><li>Melibatkan banyak ahli  hipotesis deduktif </li></ul><ul><li>Komponen abiotik VS Biotik </li></ul><ul><li>Terdapa...
<ul><li>Akuatik  terbesar dalam Biosfer </li></ul><ul><li>Stratifikasinya </li></ul><ul><li>Fotik  cahaya fotosintesis <...
Contents 50.9  The distribution of major aquatic biomes
<ul><li>Zona Litoral   pesisir </li></ul><ul><li>Zona Limnetik  makin jauh tepian  plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Zona Prof...
Contents 50.10 Zonation in a lake
<ul><li>Karaketeristik? </li></ul><ul><li>Marsh  air tak mengalir </li></ul><ul><li>Swamp  lumpur </li></ul><ul><li>Bog ...
<ul><li>Berbatasan Dengan Mudflat & Saltmarsh </li></ul><ul><li>Pengantar komunitas laut </li></ul><ul><li>Zona Intertidal...
Contents 50.13 Zonation in the marine environment
<ul><li>Zona Pasang surut  terstratifikasi </li></ul><ul><li>Terumbu Karang  bioma pelagik </li></ul><ul><li>Bioma pelag...
<ul><li>Kanopi  pucuk/tudung pohon </li></ul><ul><li>Permafrost  tundra </li></ul><ul><li>Ekoton  zonasi tak jelas  zo...
Contents 50.15 The distribution of major terrestrial biomes
<ul><li>Pengukuran kepadatan </li></ul><ul><li>Pola penyebaran </li></ul><ul><li>Demografi  life table </li></ul><ul><li>...
Contents 52.3  Generation time and body size
Contents 52.4  Survivorship curves
Contents 52.11  Population growth predicted by the exponential model
Contents 52.14  Population growth predicted by the logistic model
Contents 52.15  Examples of logistic population growth
Contents 52.21  Human population growth
Contents 52.22  Changes in birth and death rates in Sri Lanka
Contents 52.23  Age structures of three nations
<ul><li>Interaksi Interspecies: Timbul karena koevolusi </li></ul><ul><li>Predasi dan Parasitisme (+/-) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Contents 53.10  Competition in laboratory populations of Paramecium
Contents 53.11  Resource partitioning in a group of sympatric lizards
Contents 53.12  Character displacement:  circumstantial evidence  for competition in nature
Contents 53.13  Experimental evidence for competition in nature
Contents 53.21  The theory of island biogeography
Contents 53.22  Species richness and island size
<ul><li>Level Trofik dalam Ekosistem </li></ul><ul><li>Rantai makanan </li></ul><ul><li>Jaring-jaring makanan </li></ul><u...
Contents 54.1  Examples of terrestrial  and marine food chains
Contents 54.2  A food web
Contents 54.5  An idealized pyramid of net productivity
Contents 54.9  The water cycle
Contents 54.10  The carbon cycle
Contents 54.11  The nitrogen cycle
Contents 54.12  The phosphorus cycle
Contents 54.15  The loss of nitrate from a deforested watershed  in the Hubbard BrookExperimental Forest
Contents 54.16  Biological magnification of DDT in a food chain
Contents 54.17  The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide  and average temperatures from 1958 to 1995
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Pengantar ekologi dan biosfer

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Pengantar ekologi dan biosfer

  1. 2. <ul><li>Melibatkan banyak ahli  hipotesis deduktif </li></ul><ul><li>Komponen abiotik VS Biotik </li></ul><ul><li>Terdapat Interaksi  Darwin  gene pool </li></ul><ul><li>Urutkan hirarki ekologi! </li></ul><ul><li>Jelaskan peran komponen abiotik dalam lingkungan! </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Akuatik  terbesar dalam Biosfer </li></ul><ul><li>Stratifikasinya </li></ul><ul><li>Fotik  cahaya fotosintesis </li></ul><ul><li>Afotik  gelap </li></ul><ul><li>Termoklin  pertukaran panas cepat </li></ul><ul><li>Bentik  zona pasir sedimen </li></ul><ul><li>Dentritus  pengurai </li></ul>
  3. 4. Contents 50.9 The distribution of major aquatic biomes
  4. 5. <ul><li>Zona Litoral  pesisir </li></ul><ul><li>Zona Limnetik  makin jauh tepian  plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Zona Profundal  zona dalam </li></ul><ul><li>Danau Ologotrofik  miskin nutrien </li></ul><ul><li>Danau Mesotrofik  sedang </li></ul><ul><li>Danau Eutrofik  kaya nutrien </li></ul>
  5. 6. Contents 50.10 Zonation in a lake
  6. 7. <ul><li>Karaketeristik? </li></ul><ul><li>Marsh  air tak mengalir </li></ul><ul><li>Swamp  lumpur </li></ul><ul><li>Bog  gambut </li></ul><ul><li>Basin Wetland  Cekungan dangkal </li></ul><ul><li>Riverine Wetland  tepian Sungai </li></ul><ul><li>Fringe Wetland  tepi danau besar </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Berbatasan Dengan Mudflat & Saltmarsh </li></ul><ul><li>Pengantar komunitas laut </li></ul><ul><li>Zona Intertidal  pasang surut </li></ul><ul><li>Zona Neritik  kontinental </li></ul><ul><li>Zona oseanik  Dalam </li></ul><ul><li>Zona pelagik  variasi kedalaman </li></ul><ul><li>Zona bentik  dasr laut </li></ul>
  8. 9. Contents 50.13 Zonation in the marine environment
  9. 10. <ul><li>Zona Pasang surut  terstratifikasi </li></ul><ul><li>Terumbu Karang  bioma pelagik </li></ul><ul><li>Bioma pelagik oseanik  makin ke laut </li></ul><ul><li>Bentos  zona abisal </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Kanopi  pucuk/tudung pohon </li></ul><ul><li>Permafrost  tundra </li></ul><ul><li>Ekoton  zonasi tak jelas  zona tumpang tindih </li></ul><ul><li>Hutan Tropis </li></ul><ul><li>Hutan savana </li></ul><ul><li>Gurun </li></ul><ul><li>Chapparal </li></ul><ul><li>Padang rumput& hutam gugur temperata </li></ul><ul><li>Hutan konifer </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul>
  11. 12. Contents 50.15 The distribution of major terrestrial biomes
  12. 13. <ul><li>Pengukuran kepadatan </li></ul><ul><li>Pola penyebaran </li></ul><ul><li>Demografi  life table </li></ul><ul><li>Model Pertumbuhan populasi </li></ul><ul><li>Faktor-faktor pembatas populasi </li></ul>
  13. 14. Contents 52.3 Generation time and body size
  14. 15. Contents 52.4 Survivorship curves
  15. 16. Contents 52.11 Population growth predicted by the exponential model
  16. 17. Contents 52.14 Population growth predicted by the logistic model
  17. 18. Contents 52.15 Examples of logistic population growth
  18. 19. Contents 52.21 Human population growth
  19. 20. Contents 52.22 Changes in birth and death rates in Sri Lanka
  20. 21. Contents 52.23 Age structures of three nations
  21. 22. <ul><li>Interaksi Interspecies: Timbul karena koevolusi </li></ul><ul><li>Predasi dan Parasitisme (+/-) </li></ul><ul><li>Kompetisi (-/-) </li></ul><ul><li>Komensalisme (-/0) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualisme (+/+) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Contents 53.10 Competition in laboratory populations of Paramecium
  23. 24. Contents 53.11 Resource partitioning in a group of sympatric lizards
  24. 25. Contents 53.12 Character displacement: circumstantial evidence for competition in nature
  25. 26. Contents 53.13 Experimental evidence for competition in nature
  26. 27. Contents 53.21 The theory of island biogeography
  27. 28. Contents 53.22 Species richness and island size
  28. 29. <ul><li>Level Trofik dalam Ekosistem </li></ul><ul><li>Rantai makanan </li></ul><ul><li>Jaring-jaring makanan </li></ul><ul><li>Aliran Energi </li></ul><ul><li>Siklus air,karbon,Nitrogen,Fosfor, </li></ul><ul><li>Dampak negatif terhadap ekosistem </li></ul>
  29. 30. Contents 54.1 Examples of terrestrial and marine food chains
  30. 31. Contents 54.2 A food web
  31. 32. Contents 54.5 An idealized pyramid of net productivity
  32. 33. Contents 54.9 The water cycle
  33. 34. Contents 54.10 The carbon cycle
  34. 35. Contents 54.11 The nitrogen cycle
  35. 36. Contents 54.12 The phosphorus cycle
  36. 37. Contents 54.15 The loss of nitrate from a deforested watershed in the Hubbard BrookExperimental Forest
  37. 38. Contents 54.16 Biological magnification of DDT in a food chain
  38. 39. Contents 54.17 The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and average temperatures from 1958 to 1995

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