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Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
Review of education policy in uganda
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Review of education policy in uganda

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This paper looks at the content of Uganda government education policy and critiques the extent to which it has enabled the learner to acquire skills and value systems necessary to create solutions for …

This paper looks at the content of Uganda government education policy and critiques the extent to which it has enabled the learner to acquire skills and value systems necessary to create solutions for present and future problems, and ultimately, live happy lives. The paper analyses the full scope of education sector, starting from pre-primary and primary, through secondary, university, vocational and professional education, to job training and adult education policies.

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  • 1. Review of Education Policy in Uganda Working Paper Submitted by Ojijo™ to the Young Leaders Think Tank for Policy Alternatives-Uganda, Feb, 2012Executive SummaryThis paper looks at the content of Uganda government education policy and critiques the extent to which it hasenabled the learner to acquire skills and value systems necessary to create solutions for present and futureproblems, and ultimately, live happy lives. The paper analyses the full scope of education sector, starting from pre-primary and primary, through secondary, university, vocational and professional education, to job training andadult education policies.Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 2 BACKGROUND................................................................................................................................ 2 SCOPE OF REPORT........................................................................................................................ 2 METHODOLOGY & OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................... 2 ORGANIZATION .............................................................................................................................. 2LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF EDUCATION POLICIES ................................................ 3 THE 1995 CONSTITUTION (AS AMENDED) ...................................................................................... 3 OTHER ACTS OF PARLIAMENT ....................................................................................................... 3ANALYSIS & CRITIQUE OF THE EDUCATION POLICIES OF UGANDA ................ 5 PRE-INDEPENDENT (COLONIALIST) EDUCATION POLICIES ............................................................. 5 POST INDEPENDENT, PRE-NRM EDUCATION POLICIES ................................................................. 6 NRM-ERA EDUCATION POLICIES................................................................................................... 6ALTERATIVE POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS (THEMATIC) ................................ 11 SCOPE ......................................................................................................................................... 11 EQUITY IN ACCESS ...................................................................................................................... 12 INFRASTRUCTURE ........................................................................................................................ 13 CONTENT QUALITY ...................................................................................................................... 13 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 13REFERENCES & SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHIES ......................................................... 15 ™ Ojijo is a bunch of solutions from Homa-Bay County, Kenya.Ojijo is AHA Volunteer; public speaker & trainer on financial literacy, personal (talent & career) development & political leadership; lawyer & lecturer onlegal rhetoric, e-commerce & e-governance law; performance poet; social entrepreneur & investor; and author of 19 books on religion, sexuality, poetry,politics, economics, medicine, law, history, entrepreneurship, network marketing, retirement planning, languages (Swahili & Luo), financial literacy, investingand personal (talent & career) development. Ojijo is the board chairman of Ojijo Foundation, which supports volunteerism (www.ahainitiative.net); financialliteracy & personal (talent & career) development (www.informedinvestors.biz); public speaking & political leadership training(www.allpublicspeakers.com); open religion (www.openreligion.org); and indigenous cultures (www.kycf.org).
  • 2. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoIntroductionBACKGROUNDEducation is the process of imparting/acquiring skills and value systems to be able to providesolution to present and future challenges for the purposes of living a happy life. Educationpolicy, on the other hand, refers to the official government statements and commitment on theprovision of education, both as a private and public good. The system of education in Ugandahas a structure of 7 years of primary education, 6 years of secondary education (divided into 4years of lower secondary and 2 years of upper secondary school), and 3 to 5 years of post-secondary education. The government has addressed the challenges facing the educationsector through commissions, committees and Taskforces.SCOPE OF REPORTThis paper analyses and critiques the Uganda government policy on education by sector ofeducation, namely, kindergarten, or early childhood education/development; primaryeducation; secondary education; senior secondary education; university education; andgraduate/research education. The analysis will also cover professional certification coursesfor post graduate diplomas, adult education and vocational educational policies. This policyanalysis will seek to state the objectives of the government policies with regard to particularsectors, (where there is such policy), and the extent to which the objectives have been met.METHODOLOGY & OBJECTIVESThe report was conducted through primary data collection from key informants, includingProf. Senteza Kajubi, the author of the 1987 Senteza Kajubi Report on Education in Uganda;the Prof. (Nkumba); Prof. Vensayious (Makerere); Prof. (Higher Education); Director,Curriculum Development Centre; and Commissioner of Education at ministry of education.The report also benefited from extensive literature review from secondary and primary(government) sources. Both the interviews, which were open ended, and the literature review, 2 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijowere thematic, seeking information on the history and development of education policies inUganda; the quality, character and effectiveness of the various policies; and the possiblerecommendations to the policies on education, both formative, and substantial.ORGANIZATIONThis first section of the report is the introduction. The second part will cover the backgroundof education policies in Uganda, including the various processes that have led to thedevelopment of current policies and the objectives that were targeted. The third section willbe the particular policy analysis and critique. The fourth and final section will be therecommendations from the particular analysis. Page
  • 3. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoLegal Framework of Education PoliciesEducation policies and training in Uganda is governed by the constitutions directiveprinciples and, statutes including Education Act and other related Acts of Parliament,including University Act, Tertiary institutions Act various other Acts and Charters foruniversities.THE 1995 CONSTITUTION (AS AMENDED)The 1995 Constitution (as amendend), is the grundnorm, and hence, the source of all legalauthority. The 1995 constitution posits education as a right, specifying that each child isentitled to basic education, which is a shared responsibility of the state and the child‟sparents.The constitution however needs to take the wording of the ANC constitution and provide foractionable rights and duties, so that the government can be put to task to provide education,without relying on the defense of poor social-economic status.OTHER ACTS OF PARLIAMENT ¥ Children’s ActThe children’s act provides that all children must be educated. It tasks the state to provide resources,and obliges the parents to make sure the children attend school.There should be a clear duty on the government to ensure that classes are limited to the UN ration of1:40, so as to ensure quality, and to move from ‘bonna basome’, to quality education provision. ¥ University ActThe university act is the overall law that governs provision of university education in the country. Itprovides for guidelines on operations of universities. Together with the charters of universities, the 3 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijouniversities act establishes rights, duties and responsibilities for all stakeholders in the highereducations sector.There should be a clear provision that all universities offer research unit which is compulsory. Further,all unites, apart from business courses, need to offer a training course in entrepreneurship andtransferable skills development, to open the ‘eyes’ of graduates to take advantage of and exploitopportunities in the environment, hence building creativity, and ultimately fighting unemployment. ¥ Tertiary Institutions ActThe act establishes the regulatory framework for tertiary institutions.There should be a clear delimitation of tertiary institutions being transformed into university colleges,or universities. ¥ BITVET Act PageThis is an innovative piece of legislation that promotes vocational education in the country. Of note, isthat the act establishes a portal, and regional nodes for provision of vocational training.
  • 4. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! Ojijo ¥ Education ActThe education act provides, for inter alia, the licensing of education institutions, andregulation of content.There should be an amendment to make it illegal to acquire and transform one type ofacademic institution, especially tertiary institutions, into a university college, since thisreduces access opportunities. 4 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijo Page
  • 5. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoAnalysis & Critique of the Education Policies of UgandaPRE-INDEPENDENT (COLONIALIST) EDUCATION POLICIESDuring the pre- independence period, Uganda‟s education policy was controlled by theBritish Colonial Government and so was the curriculum. The objectives of the curriculum didnot reflect the aspirations of ordinary Ugandans since they were mainly designed to serve theinterests of the British colonial Government.The Catholic and Protestant missionaries were sent to Uganda, like anywhere else they went,by their respective societies to preach Christianity to, and spread it among the differentpeoples of the country. One of the ways which these missionaries conceived to be mosteffective was to make sure that the converts could refresh their religious knowledge in theirhomes by reading the bible and other simple books.Between 1900 and 1924, the Missionaries established schools and taught children and adultswith no, or little, Protectorate Government financial assistance. They designed their ownschool curriculum to suit their missionary purposes.Between 1877 and 1879, children and adults were taught religion, reading, writing andarithmetic. The missionaries houses and compounds formed the initial formal schools.In 1901, a Catholic chief, Stanislaus Mugwanya, requested the missionaries to start a schoolthat would mainly teach English. It was this that made the missionaries think of offering aform of education designed to help build character of pupils and prepare them for thechanging world in which they lived.Therefore, between 1902 and 1906, seven boarding schools were opened to serve this purpose.The majority of these schools were attended mainly by children of chiefs and influentialfamilies who, it was assumed, would sooner or later hold positions of responsibility in thesociety. 5 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. OjijoThe curriculum consisted of religion, reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar,geography, mathematics, music and games.Commissioned Groups to Review Education (1924-1962)During this period, the Protectorate Government appointed five different commissionedgroups of educationists and others to review the education situation in Uganda and makerecommendations.The following were the five Commissions:- 1. The Phelps - Stockes Commission (1924): The Commission found out that the education offered in Uganda by the missionaries was too literary. The educational activities in the schools were not related to the community needs of the people. Amongthe essential components missing from the curriculum were agriculture, health, care by women, and hygiene. It led to the Policy on Vocational Studies, whereby in 1926, Page there was a strong view that the educational system for Ugandans should, in addition to academic subjects, provide vocational education and prepare the majority of the pupils to live well in the villages.
  • 6. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! Ojijo 2. The Earl de la Warr Committee (1935) mainly examined the state of Makerere College and its source of inputs. Among its other recommendations were to improve and expand primary education and to develop education for girls. 3. The Thomas Education Committee (1940) dwelt on the administration and financing of education. 4. The de Bunsen Commission (1952) looked into teacher education and the educational structure. 5. The Binns Study Group (1957) was sent to East Africa towards the period of granting independence to the colonies in order to study and recommend on how to:A critique of the ideological foundations of African education is advanced by Mazrui(1978:13); he regards neo-colonial cultural dependency as a threat to African psychologicalautonomy and sovereignty and reports that: “Very few educated Africans are even aware thatthey are also in cultural bondage. All educated Africans … are still cultural captives of theWest.”The policy of all colonial education was “subordination of Africans”, as they did not provideeducation according to European standards, rather, they served to perpetuate colonialdomination.” (Victor Uchendu,1979:3). There was a clear neglect of African culture andhistory by mission schools, causing Africans to lose self-respect and “love for our own race”,leading to what Ngugi wa Thiongo called “cultural genocide” perpetuated intellectualdependency on the West. (Ngugi, 1972)POST INDEPENDENT, PRE-NRM EDUCATION POLICIESProf Edgar Castle‟s Education CommissionAfter Uganda gained independence in 1962, the first step the new government took was toformulate post independence Education Policy that would address the needs of a freeUganda. In 1963, the then Prime Minister, Dr. Milton Obote, instituted the Prof Edgar Castle1963 Uganda Education Commission to examine the content and structure of education inUganda and consider how it could be improved and adopted to the needs of Uganda . Thiswas due to the realization that the pre-existent education system was not geared towards the 6 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijoobjects of producing skilled Africans for the African economy, but rather, skilled workers forthe colonial industries. Since 1963, education policy in Uganda was mainly guided by theCastle Commission report up to the inception of the 1922 Government White Paper, whichlaid a strong emphasisA strong emphasis on the quality of education for all people; argued for raising standards ofagriculture; technical education; expansion of girls‟ education; provision of adult education;training teachers for especially primary education; and Africanisation of content of educationcurriculum.NRM-ERA EDUCATION POLICIESIn 1986, the post-conflict government, the physical infrastructure had deteriorated with nearly Pagetwenty years of civil strife. A large percentage of the primary classes met in temporarystructures; permanent structures had received little or maintenance for nearly two decades.Text books, instructional materials were almost nonexistent in most schools, making teaching
  • 7. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! Ojijoand learning extremely difficult. There were few trained teachers, most having fled thecountry, and the curriculum content needed to be changed drastically. ¥ Education Policy Review Commission (Prof Senteza Kajubi Commission)The NRM‟s first bold move to enhance education was to establish an education commission,chaired by the reknowned educationist, Prof. Senteza William Kajubi, to provide solutions toeducation sector. The findings led to the 1992 White Paper on Education, which was the basisof UPE, USE and Education for All policy. The commission also recommended inclusion ofcivic studies, vocational skills and financial management practice (financial literacy) amongother courses on the school curriculum.The commission defended universalisation of primary education thus:“Only when every child is enrolled at the right age and does not leave school without completing thefull cycle of primary education it would be possible to ensure that all citizens have the basic educationneeded for living a full live. Also it will help in achieving a transformation of society leading to greaterunity among the people, higher moral standards and an accelerated growth of economy.” ¥ Primary Education Reform Programme (PERP)In 1991, government designed the Primary Education Reform Programme (PERP) to addressissues of declining quality of basic education. This Programme was launched in 1993 and itfocussed on three central issues of increasing access to quality learning opportunities;improving school management and instructional quality; and strengthening planning,management and implementation. In order to implement the PERP, government formulatedPrimary Education Teacher Development Programme (PETDP) to spear head the PrimaryEducation Reform Programme. ¥ 1992 Government White Paper on Education 7 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. OjijoThe 1992 Government White Paper on Education is the basis of official policy on the purposeand programmes of education. Its aims are to promote citizenship; moral, ethical and spiritualvalues; promote scientific, technical and cultural knowledge, skills and attitudes; eradicateilliteracy and equip individuals with basic skills and knowledge and with the ability to“contribute to the building of an integrated, self-sustaining and independent nationaleconomy”. The White Paper accepted the major recommendations of EPRC. ¥ Policy of Education as a Human RightAs a product of the White Paper, in Uganda, education is a constitutional right enshrined inthe constitution of the republic of Uganda, articles 30 makes educations for children a humanright, and article 34 states that all children are entitled to basic education by the state andparents. ¥ Equitable Access Policy PageThe key policy thrust in the educational sector for both rural and urban Uganda includesproviding equitable access to quality and affordable education to all Ugandans, propelling the
  • 8. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! Ojijonation towards achieving the goals of Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), meetingcommitments to achieve Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals(MDGs) by 2015, providing relevant education and enhancing efficiency, and strengtheningpartnerships in the education sector. More resources have been allocated to lower educationalpublic sector through the UPE programme in order to enhance equity of access at that levelbetween boys and girls (MoSE 1998 b). ¥ Affirmative Action PolicyThis equitable access policy has led to the affirmative action policy, supporting more womenenrolment, by reducing cutoff points for entry to university by women, disabled, andchallenged persons, including students from hardship areas, mainly northern Uganda. ¥ Universal Primary Education (UPE)The Universal Primary Education (UPE) was launched in 1997 following recommendations ofthe Education Policy Review Commission (EPRC, 1989), and the subsequent relevantstipulations of the GoU White Paper (1992) and the development of children‟s Statute (1996).The policy advocates for the redistribution of resources vis-a-vis reforming the educationalsector. More resources have been allocated to lower educational public sector through theUPE programme in order to enhance equity of access at that level between boys and girls(MoSE 1998 b). ¥ Education For All (EFA) PolicyThis was an enviable move by the government to ensure that everyone, child and adult alike,benefits from the timeless and universal advantages of education. However, lack of clearmonitoring of performance, lack of infrastructure, and the then persistent LRA insurgency inNorthen Uganda greatly impaired the realization of the mission. Uganda‟s social diversity hasbrought a collateral concern for preservation of cultural heritage, social justice, humandignity, political equality and multicultural education. To this end, the curriculum hasincorporated cultural studies, but this is still limited, and students are not studying such 8 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijothings as fables, proverbs, idioms and rhetoric in traditions. Cultivation of oral and writtenfluency in local African languages is important in building self-esteem, preserving culture,and advancing the literary output and identity of African peoples. In addition to the MDGs,Uganda is also committed to meeting the Education for all (EFA) goals (set in Jomtien in 1990and reaffirmed in Dakar in 2000). The current Government efforts in education sector,especially the launching of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) policy are, by and large,premised on the recommendation of the Government White Paper on Education of 1992, butalso focus towards attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and Education forAll (EFA) goals. ¥ Community & Adult Education PolicyUnder the white paper, and further bifurcated by the access to all commitment, thegovernment of Uganda has established a community and adult education policy, which isimplemented through classes that teach literacy in communities, and also through Pageprofessional courses in universities to train and equip adult educators.
  • 9. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! Ojijo ¥ Policy of Decentralization Of Education Service ProvisionUganda implemented the policy of decentralization, under which policy; the centralgovernment has channeled public service. Under the local Government Act of 1997, nursery,primary schools, special schools and technical schools fall under the administration andmanagement of District Councils. Each district has the authority to formulate, approve, andexecute its own development plan. Registration for UPE children, distribution of textbooksand monthly remittances for schools from central government are all channeled through thedistrict Administration officer. Decentralisation has brought the schools closer to theadministrative units above them and therefore potentially could be more responsive. ¥ Policy of Vocationalisation of EducationGiven the high drop out rates, and the fact that informal economy contributes in great marginto the development of the economy, on top of other factors such as the high unemployment,and the lack of job skills, the governments since pre-independence have had vocationalisationas a major tool of advancing education. However, it is the NRM government that officiallyformalized the system through the statutes, and a celar policy on vocational institutions. Tothis end, the vocational education training is provided in all regions, though the accessibilityis lowered. ¥ Policy Of Liberalization Of Educations SectorOne major recommendation of Prof. Kajubi Commission was the need for opening of thespace for education service provision to seal the gap created by the insurgency and civil warvacuum, and hence, as a result, the government opened provision of education, and has sinceseen the chartering of over 30 universities, and countless other initiatives, by the public,private, civil society sectors, and cross-partnerships amongst and between sectors. Highereducation especially tertiary education is increasingly becoming liberalized, which in fact 9 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijomeans privatized. All these have led to Uganda being referred to as „regional social/educationcapital‟, by providing home to the largest number of foreign students in the region, than anyother eastern African country. ¥ The Education Sector Strategy Plan (ESSP)The ESSP commit the government to assuring universal access to primary education as thehighest priority, points to the removal of financial impediments and pay particular attentionto gender and regional equity. Putting the plan into practice was envisaged through sharedcontributions by the public and private sector, by the household and community. The ESSP ofUganda‟s Ministry of Education and Sports (MoSE) covers the fiscal years 2004/5 to 2014/5,and it succeeds the Education Strategic Investment Plan (ESIP of1998-2003. Page ¥ Policy on Regular Curriculum Revision
  • 10. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoCurriculum revision provides another measure of post-colonial educational reconstruction inUganda and this import cannot be more explicit with the creation of a national curriculumdevelopment centre. The new NRM government has promoted policy of africanisation ofeducation content, through africanised textbooks. Innovative community-based educationfocuses on collective farming, hygiene, literacy and political education. The country‟s mainlyagricultural economy is served by school-based farm programs that aim to reduce the rural-urban social division; in addition, these programs tried to build acceptance of the dignity ofmanual work. This emphasis has expanded at the secondary level with agricultural,commercial, industrial and social service courses of study. Such vocationalisation reflects theconcern for life adjustment found in traditional African education. Curriculum developmentin the 1990s has addressed several problem areas affecting Uganda‟s well-being and unity;these include environmental education, population and family life, multi-cultural educationand education for peace. However, the system formal education system is still rigid, test-based and competitive, rather than flexible, cooperative and research based. Curriculumreview has been institutionalized through the National Curriculum DevelopmentCentre(NCDC) ¥ Education Language PolicySince independence, education language policy after independence has been marked by verygradual Africanisation. Until recently in Uganda, English has been used as the only mediumof instruction in primary, secondary, tertiary and adult education. Therefore, schools in thepre- and early post-independence era followed a „straight for English‟ policy. However,British colonial policy had encouraged mother tongue instruction, especially in early primarygrades. Mother tongue or the dominant local area language is used for teaching in pre-primary and primary grades 1 to 3 while English is taught as a subject. ¥ Job Training /Continuing Professional Development Policy 10 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. OjijoThe government has a policy for continuing professional development, but this is partial andonly applicable to certain professions, mainly law and medicine. Other professional courseslike accountancy, architecture, etc, do not have these legal requirements. Further, continuingcareer development is not just limited to professional courses, and there is need to haveincentives for employees, to ensure that staffs attend refresher courses to ensure they arebetter equipped to address to the dynamic and continually challenges of a changing economicsituation of Uganda and the world. ¥ Implementation of PoliciesDevelopment of education sector has been guided by the first Education Sector InvestmentPlan (ESIP-I) 1998-2003 and the second Education Sector Investment Plan (ESIP-II) 2004-2015.The Education Sector Strategic plan (ESSP) for the fiscal years 2004-2015 is set to succeed theESIP in two ways. Page
  • 11. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoAlterative Policy Recommendations (Thematic)SCOPE ¥ Pre-Primary Education/Early Childhood DevelopmentThis is the age (between 3-6 years) where talent is best identified and development begins(Ojijo, 2011). However, the current policy framework does not provide for a comprehensivetalent identification and development program, including a talent test, amongst otherstrategies. ¥ Primary EducationThe policy on primary education is about access to all, and the government has over andagain stressed that the goal is to get everyone to class, and then handle quality issues later.However, it is now evident that the primary education system is a pitfall for children, causingmassive future disillusionment, as the content is skewed, attention is lacking, andinfrastructure, both in terms of physical facilities, and teachers, is thinly stretched tomaximum. ¥ Secondary Education/Senior Secondary EducationThe level of secondary education is where most students identify their career goals, and startto specialize for future professions. However, the current system still burdens the studentwith very many subjects, confusing arts with sciences, and hence limiting chances ofspecializing, and ultimately producing a jack of all trades, and specialist in none. The neweconomy needs specialization, as a factor of enhancing efficiency (Adam Smith, 1730). Thepolicy shift should move towards intensive career guidance, followed by limited subjectchoices for the purposes of specialization. ¥ University Education 11 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. OjijoThe current policy of university education is lacking in practical skills and transferable skillsformation, on top of value based content. The university student graduate today sits at home,waiting to be employed, and when he is lucky to be employed, he lacks practical skills tosupplement his theories, and where he has the practical skills, he lacks the transferable skillsexemplified by letter writing, effective communication and interpersonal skills.The inability of the graduate to create a job is explained by both attitude, and also lack ofskills. Very few courses, notably medicine, and social work, demand a compulsory internshipplacement, even though there is a government agency for the industrial placements. Further,there lacks incentives by the government to companies to absorb interns, through tax waivers,etc. also, the students lack creative skills partly due to lack of methodological training intransferable skills and personal development, and partly due to lack of research skills, sinceresearch, though being the only true way to generate new knowledge, is not compulsory, butan elective subject. It is important that research is made a compulsory subject. Further, everycourse unit should have a compulsory entrepreneurship module, to prepare students tomarket their skills, and hence transform their skills to cash. Page
  • 12. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! Ojijo ¥ Graduate Research StudiesA quick look at graduate research curriculum will reveal a repetition of content. Indeed, inmost law schools, to take an example, graduate students take course units with undergraduate students, and instead of specializing in graduate studies, the courses are generic.Further, the period of mastering is two years, as opposed to international one year periods,which makes education pursuits long and unattractive. ¥ Professional Certification CoursesCurrently, careers options of law, medicine, architecture, accountancy, and related financialservices, offers a regulatory regime for compulsory professional certification, mainly due tothe fiduciary duties held by the professionals to their clients. This is progressive, but for thefact that the monopolization of legal professional training, as opposed to accountancy andmedicine, leads to crammed classes, and lack of personal attention. There is need todecentralize examination of law graduates, and to remove the cap on admissions, so that alllawyers who qualify should attend and be released to the market, where due to competition,they will then become creative and specialize. ¥ Vocational TrainingThe government has done tremendous work with vocational institutions, under the statute,and previously through community based institutes. However, the policy of transformingvocational and technical institutes to university colleges and universities ultimately reducesthe infrastructures for vocational studies, and ought to be halted. Institutions willing to beuniversities should start as such, and work through the process, so that the youth who fail tomake it to universities, or who do not wish to go to universities, are not deprived of access toinstitutions for vocational training. ¥ Adult EducationUganda seems to be guided by Mwalimu Julius Nyerere‟s Adult Education „Declaration of 12 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. OjijoDar es Salaam‟ in which he wrote: “Adult education is anything which enlarges men‟sunderstanding, activates them, helps them to make their own decisions and to implement thosedecisions for themselves.”Of special note however, is the gap in training adults about important aspects of financialmanagement, as was proscribed by the Prof. Kajubi Commission. This area, also referred to asfinancial literacy, is an important segment for adults, especially for planning for their old age. ¥ Job TrainingApart from the professional careers of law and medicine, there is not mandatory requirementfor continual job training and improvement. This is a clawback since the value of anemployees contribution, and hence his income, is equivalent to his knowledgebase, and wherethe employee does not improve, then his contribution to the market, and workplace, becomesredundant. There is need for an incentive regime, backed by legal and regulatory provisions,for require the continual improvement through job training. Companies offering such Pageprograms should benefit from tax incentives, and other privileges.EQUITY IN ACCESS
  • 13. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoUntil the early 1990s the education policy was fraught with gender disparities in enrolment,dropout, performance and general attainment. (Kikampikaho and Kwesiga,2002). Thedevelopment of gender equity is another case of transformative policy. This innovationremains far short of the goal of gender parity. In traditional African education, boys and girlswere segregated with different curricula that prepared youth for their divergent life goals.This transition has met with cultural resistance and remains controversial; nevertheless, theevidence of added value that female education brings to child-rearing, health, familywellbeing, economic life and community makes a compelling case for gender equalisation inAfrican educational reconstruction. (Tripp and Kwesiga, 2002)Pre-school education, when available, is urban and elitist. Special education is notinstitutionalized, nearly non-existent in certain areas. In many areas, rural schools are fewer,more remote, poorly equipped and understaffed. Access to basic education is reduced due toemphasis on the secondary/tertiary levels; nevertheless, in 1994 only 30% of primary schoolgraduates found places in secondary schools, and this is less than 5% of the school-agepopulation.INFRASTRUCTUREInadequate facilities and instructional resources affect most African countries, includingUganda. Many circumstances contribute to this situation. The war was a decisive factor inareas of northern Uganda. Further, rapid urbanisation causes a growth in school-agepopulation that continues to outpace school construction; this leads to overcrowding andreliance on substandard and unsanitary buildings. Also, the UPE policy leads to an influx ofstudents, but lack of physical, and human resource infrastructure. Insufficient supplies oftextbooks and lack of essential facilities and equipment for science laboratories detracts fromthe quality and potential of instruction.CONTENT QUALITYA final concern involves the relevance of education to the social and economic well-being ofeach country and to each individual‟s fulfilment of potential. There is low completion rates, 13 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijohigh grade repetition and significant numbers of drop-outs. These facts seem to indicate eitherthat the schools are not teaching students well or that the curriculum is irrelevant to theirneeds. In many cases, formal school curricula have been criticised for being unrelated to theconditions and demands of life in rural areas. There is likewise a need to increase the use ofAfrican languages as mediums of instruction in areas where these are the only effective meansof communication. Another dimension of relevance involves philosophical consistency. Asmore African countries move to expand democracy, schools should not only teach how thisform of government works, but also restructure themselves as participatory, open forums inwhich students and teachers can practice democracy through debate, discussion andexchange of views about their political destiny.In contrast to traditional African education, where methods involved active participation,observation and learning by doing, instructional methods in modern, formal African schoolscontinue to be dominated by rote learning, pupil passivity, limited verbal interaction, andreliance on text and test. One reason for this is the shortage of trained teachers. Another factoris the climate of competition and high-stakes testing which encourages memorization for Pageexaminations more than acquisition of applied skills, critical thinking or creativity.CONCLUSION
  • 14. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoThe current education policy in Uganda espouses universal education, with equalopportunity for all. However, policy reconstruction is an ongoing, never-ending process. Itworks in the context of the present crisis, but moves to transcend this by creative integrationof past successes with future goals. The core goals reflect traditional values of training insocial justice, morality, and responsibility, along with acquisition of life skills needed in thelocal environment. Modern policy goals include national development and unity along withindividual service to the nation. 14 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. Ojijo Page
  • 15. Review of Education Policy in Uganda! OjijoReferences & Select BibliographiesGovernment of Uganda, Government White Paper on the Education Policy Review Commission Report Entitled "Education for National Integration and Development" Government Printer, Kampala, April, 1992.Ajayi, J.F.A., Goma, L.K.H. & Johnson, G.A. (1996) The African Experience With Higher Education. London: James Currey.Bassey, M.O. (1999) Western Education and Political Domination in Africa. Westport, CT: Bergin Harvey.Berkson, I.B. (1940) Preface to an Educational Philosophy. NY: Columbia University.Nwomonoh (Ed.) Education and Development in Africa, 25-40. San Francisco: International Scholars Publications.Bunyi, G. (1999) Rethinking the place of African indigenous languages in African education. International Journal of Educational Development, 19 (4/5), 337-350.Educational profile: Uganda (2000). In World Data on Education. Geneva: UNESCO, International Bureau of Education. [Online] http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/databanks/dossiers/puganda.htm [2001, February 7]Habte, A., Wagaw, T. & Ajayi, J.F.A. (1993) Education and social change. In A.A. Mazrui & C. Wondji (Eds.) General history of Africa: 8. Africa since 1935, 678-701. Paris: UNESCO.Mazrui, A.A. (1978) Political Values and the Educated Class in Africa. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Moumouni, A. (1968) Education in Africa. NY: Praeger.Mungazi, D.A. (1996) The Mind of Black Africa. London: Praeger.United Nations, Economic and Social Council: Commission of Human Rights, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights-Report by Ms Katarina Tomasevski, Special Rapporteur on the right to education-Addendum, Mission to Uganda 26 June-2 July 1999 15 Review of Education Policy in Uganda. OjijoMinistry of Education and Sports, the Ugandan Experience of Universal Primary Education (UPE); July 1999.UNESCO, Ministerial Seminar on Education for Rural People in Africa: Policy Lessons, Options and Priorities; Status of Education for Rural People in UgandaInternational Bureau of Education, Gender Sensitive Educational Policy and Practice; Uganda Case Study, Report by Doris Kakuru MuhweziMinistry of Education and Sports, March 2005: Education Sector Strategic Plan 2004-2015. Page

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