Week 6 cyberpolitics


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Week 6 cyberpolitics

  1. 1. Free Software Movement and Open Source Communities GPA 1035 Prepared and Presented by Dr. Haggen So Released under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong Licence
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Early Hacker Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Stallman </li></ul><ul><li>Linus Torvalds and Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Raymond, the Cathedral and the Bazaar, Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity and Conflicts between Free Software and Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Free/Open Source Software and Software Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Political Implications </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of Software (1)
  4. 4. Early Hacker Culture MIT AI Lab CTSS (Compatible Time-sharing System) vs ITS (Incompatible Time-sharing System)
  5. 5. Early Hacker Culture <ul><li>Access to computers-and anything </li></ul><ul><li>which might teach you something </li></ul><ul><li>about the way the world works </li></ul><ul><li>Should be unlimited and total </li></ul><ul><li>Always yield to the Hands-On Imperative! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Early Hacker Culture All information should be free
  7. 7. Early Hacker Culture Mistrust Authority-Promote Decentralization
  8. 8. Early Hacker Culture Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria such as degrees, age, race or position
  9. 9. Early Hacker Culture You can create art and beauty on a computer
  10. 10. Early Hacker Culture Computers can change your life for the better
  11. 11. Richard M. Stallman
  12. 12. Apple ][+ Clone
  13. 13. Changes in Computer Industry <ul><li>Rise of Personal Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Widening of Market – Horizontal Market Possible </li></ul><ul><li>Secrecy and Profitability – Closed Source </li></ul>
  14. 14. Source Code <ul><li>Computer Instructions are coded in binary format 00101... </li></ul><ul><li>A more human friendly method to program computer: </li></ul><ul><li>/* Hello World program */ </li></ul><ul><li>#include<stdio.h> </li></ul><ul><li>main() </li></ul><ul><li>{ printf(&quot;Hello World&quot;); } </li></ul><ul><li>Convert source code into binary instructions by a computer compiler </li></ul>
  15. 15. Responses of Richard Stallman <ul><li>Release source code that could not be used commercially </li></ul><ul><li>Release source code that must remain freely available -> Software Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>1983 GNU project, Unix Clone </li></ul><ul><li>1985 Free Software Foundation, Free as in Free Speech, General Public License (GPL) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Free Software <ul><li>The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0). </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Free Software <ul><li>The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2). </li></ul><ul><li>The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rise and Fall <ul><li>GNU project was very successful, released lots of useful software </li></ul><ul><li>Next step was to implement the &quot;heart&quot; of the operating system – kernel was missing </li></ul><ul><li>People problems </li></ul>
  19. 19. Android
  20. 20. Android
  21. 21. Linus Torvalds and the Penguin
  22. 22. What book changes your life?
  23. 23. The Next Generation <ul><li>Linus Torvalds, a new comer, provided an alternative kernel, Linux, v0.01 release in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Linux was built upon the GNU project and released under GPL </li></ul>
  24. 24. Eric Raymond the Cathedral and the Bazaar Open Source
  25. 25. <ul><li>A late member of the MIT AI Lab community </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote the essay &quot;the Cathedral and the Bazaar&quot;, became the standard analysis for mechanism in Open Source collaboration </li></ul>Eric Raymond
  26. 26. The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Open Source 2 forces Brooks's Law vs Egoless Programming
  27. 27. Linus's Law &quot;Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.&quot;
  28. 28. Motivations Scratch one's itch ego-boosting for difficult tasks
  29. 29. Community Formation Metiocracy Forking
  30. 30. Diversity and Conflicts between Free Software and Open Source
  31. 31. <ul><li>Open Source and Linux became 'profitable' concepts during the dot com boom </li></ul><ul><li>VA Linux (NASDAQ:LNUX) offered at $30, highest at $320, first day closed at $239.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction on Linux taking over the desktop market long overdue </li></ul>The Open Source and Linux Hype
  32. 32. <ul><li>The web browser company in 90s </li></ul><ul><li>Faced challenge from Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the Cathedral and the Bazaar, Open up the source code to fight Microsoft in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Firefox to reach 25% of global market share end of 2009 -> Success?? </li></ul>Netscape/Mozilla
  33. 33. <ul><li>Facing business model problem </li></ul><ul><li>Internal software quality problem </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source as Last Resort? </li></ul>More in-depth Analysis
  34. 34. <ul><li>Drop in the price of the tools (computer), availability of source code </li></ul><ul><li>Linux in every set-top box and Internet router </li></ul><ul><li>Google powered by Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Example - Operating System in EEEPC </li></ul>Commodification of Software
  35. 35. <ul><li>Who wrote 2.6.20? http:/ /lwn .net/Articles/222773/ </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft and Open Source </li></ul>Commodification of Software
  36. 36. Open source is an intellectual-property destroyer ... I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business. I'm an American; I believe in the American way. Allchin in 2001:
  37. 37. Linux is a cancer that attaches itself in an intellectual property sense to everything it touches Ballmer(2001) on GPL:
  38. 38. <ul><li>Openness in computer systems through Open Source </li></ul><ul><li>Commodification lower the IT Barrier </li></ul>Politicial Implications
  39. 39. <ul><li>Use Open Source Altivore to fight FBI's surveillance program - Carnivore </li></ul><ul><li>e-Voting and Open Source </li></ul>Openness in Computer Systems through Open Source
  40. 40. <ul><li>InMediaHK reused Coolloud's code, based on Open Source Project Drupal </li></ul><ul><li>Tor as an anti-GFW instrument </li></ul>Commodification lowers the IT Barrier
  41. 41. Image Credits Ferdi (2006) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Honeywell-Bull_DPS_7_Mainframe_BWW_March_1990.jpg, released under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Licence. http://www.stallman.org/saintignucius.jpg, released under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Derivative 3.0 Licence.
  42. 42. Image Credits A-giâu (2005) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Taiwanese_Apple_II_clone_Cosmo.jpg, released under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Licence. laihiu (2009) http://www.flickr.com/photos/laihiu/3799300943/in/set-72157621976446710/, released under Creative Commons Attribution Attribution 2.0 Licence.
  43. 43. Image Credits Android Open Source project (2009) http://developer.android.com/images/system-architecture.jpg, released under Apache 2.0. Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason (2004) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Linus_Torvalds.jpeg, released under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Licence.
  44. 44. Image Credits Larry Ewing <lewing@isc.tamu.edu>, http://www.isc.tamu.edu/~lewing/linux/ using the GIMP. Russ Nelson (2005) File:Esr.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Esr.jpg.
  45. 45. Associated Press. (2004). &quot;Diebold to Settle E-Voting Suit.&quot; Wired Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.wired.com/politics/security/news/2004/11/65674. Baker, M. (2006). The Mozilla Project:Past and Future. Open Sources 2.0:The Continuing Evolution. C. DiBona, D. Cooper and M. Stone. Sebastopol, California, O'Reilly. Brooks, F. P. (1995). The mythical man-month : essays on software engineering. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. Castro, J. (2004). &quot;Ars Technica sits down with Scott Collins from Mozilla.org.&quot; Retrieved 26 Jun, 2004, from http://arstechnica.com/etc/linux/collins-interview-1.html. Corbet, J. (2007). &quot;Who wrote 2.6.20?&quot; LWN Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://lwn.net/Articles/222773/. Dotzler, A. (2009, 27 Sep 2009). &quot;firefox breaks 24%.&quot; Mozillazine Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://weblogs.mozillazine.org/asa/archives/2009/09/firefox_breaks_24.html. Dugan, S. (2000). &quot;Defanging Carnivore:A security specialist explains why his open-source version of the FBI's snooping technology is a victory for privacy fans.&quot; The Salon Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.salon.com/tech/view/2000/09/25/robert_graham/. Free Software Foundation. (2000). &quot;What is Free Software?&quot; Retrieved 21 Jun 2000, from http://www.fsf.org/philosophy/free-sw.html. References
  46. 46. Greene, T. C. (2001). &quot;Ballmer: &quot;Linux is a cancer&quot; Contaminates all other software with Hippie GPL rubbish.&quot; The Register Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/06/02/ballmer_linux_is_a_cancer/. Heilemann, J. (2000). &quot;The Truth, The Whole Truth, and Nothing But The Truth.&quot; Wired Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.11/microsoft.html. Japan, M. (2007). &quot;The History of Firefox and Mozilla: The story of browsers dating back to the dawn of the Web.&quot; Retrieved 6 Oct, 2009, from http://www.foxkeh.com/downloads/history/history-foxkeh.pdf. Kelty, C. M. (2000). Scale and Convention: Programmed Languages in a Regulated America, Mass. Institute of Technology. Leonard, A. (2001). &quot;Life, liberty and the pursuit of free software.&quot; The Salon Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://archive.salon.com/tech/log/2001/02/15/unamerican/. Levy, S. (1984). Hackers: Heroes of The Computer Revolution. Garden City, New York, Anchor Press/Doubleday. Lucas, G. (2004). &quot;State bans electronic balloting in 4 counties:Touch-screen firm accused of 'reprehensible,' illegal conduct.&quot; San Francisco Chronicle Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/05/01/MNG036EAF91.DTL. References
  47. 47. Open Source Initiative. (2003). &quot;The Open Source Definition.&quot; Retrieved 30 Jan, 2003, from http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition.php. Raymond, E. S. (2000). &quot;The Cathedral and the Bazaar.&quot; Retrieved 30 May, 2000, from http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar.html. Raymond, E. S. (2000). &quot;Homesteading the Noosphere.&quot;. Retrieved 22 Dec, 2000, from http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/writings/homesteading/homesteading/. Torvalds, L. and D. Diamond (2001). Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental Revolutionary. New York, TEXERE. Weinberg, G. M. (1971). The psychology of computer programming. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold. Williams, S. (2002). Free as in Freedom:Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software. Sebastopol, California, O'Reilly Media. Zetter, K. (2003). &quot;Aussies Do It Right: E-Voting.&quot; Wired Retrieved 4 Nov, 2003, from http://www.wired.com/news/print/0,1294,61045,00.html. Zetter, K. (2004). &quot;Diebold May Face Criminal Charges.&quot; Wired Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.wired.com/politics/security/news/2004/04/63191. Zetter, K. (2009). &quot;Voting Machine Company Agrees to Hand Over Source Code.&quot; Wired Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/06/voting-machine-company-agrees-to-hand-over-source-code/. 小兔黑黑 . (2008). &quot; 微軟 - 創意的破壞者 .&quot; InMediaHK Retrieved 10 Oct, 2009, from http://www.inmediahk.net/node/1000762. References