Copyright 101 Copyrightand Plagiarism dos and don’t
What we will cover What is copyright How to tell if something is copyright What is plagiarism When to cite, and when not to cite Citation styles How to incorporate others ideas into your writing
Definition of Copyright Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States for original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, architectural, cartographic, choreographic, pantomimic, pictorial, graphic, sculptural, and audiovisual creations. “Copyright” literally means the right to copy. The term has come to mean that body of exclusive rights granted by law to authors for protection of their work. The owner of copyright has the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, and, in the case of certain works, publicly perform or display the work; to prepare derivative works; in the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission; or to license others to engage in the same acts under specific terms and conditions. Copyright protection does not extend to any idea, procedure, process, slogan, principle, or discovery.
Definition take 2 A copyright is a law that gives the owner of a written document, musical composition, book, picture, or other creative work, the right to decide what other people can do with it. Wikipedia http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright
Things that are copyrighted Items published between 1923-now with a copyright notice, and has been renewed if needed Items published without notice that are less than 95 years from publication date Unpublished items where the author is still alive or dies less than 70 years ago Unpublished anonymous works that are less than 120 years from creation date Don’t worry, there is more. Check specifics here: http://copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm
Things that are not copyrighted Unpublished works who’s authors died 70+ years ago Anonymous unpublished works created 120+ years ago Items published before 1923 (there are exceptions) Items published before 1977 without copyright notice Items published before 1989 without notice or registration Works published by the an officer or employee of the US government as part of their official duties There are always exceptions and special cases, check at http://copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm
When can you use copyrighted materials? When you get permission When it falls under Fair Use When the Creative Commons License allows When it is in the public domain (i.e. no longer covered under copyright laws) When use is covered under the TEACH act of 2001 As usual, exceptions apply
Fair Use Fair use is a copyright principle based on the belief that the public is entitled to freely use portions of copyrighted materials for purposes of commentary and criticism – including in educational situations Unfortunately, if the copyright owner disagrees with your fair use interpretation, the dispute will have to be resolved by courts or arbitration. http://fairuse.stanford.edu/
Creative Commons Creative Commons is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others, consistent with the rules of copyright. Attribution, Share Alike, Non-Commercial, No Derivative Works Search for creative commons materials: http://search.creativecommons.org/ http://creativecommons.org/
Public Domain A creative work is said to be in the public domain if there are no laws which restrict its use by the public at large. (http://www.public-domain-image.com/public_domain/public_domain.html) Search for items in the public domain: http://www.google.com/cse/home?cx=010475139252798918668%3Ap04xreki1j4 Get public domain books: http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Main_Page
TEACH Act of 2001 the TEACH Act serves as an extension of existing copyright laws. The TEACH Act covers additional situations that may occur in the digital environment but not in the face-to-face classroom. The TEACH Act: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED456838&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED456838
Some resources on copyright Copyright.gov: http://www.copyright.gov/ Copyright terms and conditions grid: http://copyright.cornell.edu/resources/publicdomain.cfm Copyright crash course: http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/cprtindx.htm Copyright and Fair use: http://fairuse.stanford.edu/ Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/ Public Domain search: http://www.google.com/cse/home?cx=010475139252798918668%3Ap04xreki1j4 TEACH act FAQ: http://tlt.its.psu.edu/dmd/teachact/teachactFAQ.html Getting Permission: http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/IntellectualProperty/permissn.htm
Definition of Plagiarism the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work. something used and represented in this manner. http://dictionary.reference.com
If you use text and ideas from any of the following without citing it is plagiarism Articles Books Tests Lectures White papers Your friend’s papers Famous quotes Non famous quotes Patents Web pages Wikipedia Newsletters Newspapers Blogs Or, anything you did not come up with on your own
So, what don’t I have to cite? Common Knowledge Original ideas
What is common knowledge? something widely or generally known (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/common+knowledge) Varies by cultural background and personal history Examples: current president, date of a holiday Rule of thumb: if you are unsure, cite it.
Original ideas Invention and processes you came up with on your own Reporting on empirical research Fiction you came up with
Ways to incorporate ideas into your own papers Paraphrase Short quotes Statistics incorporated into your own words Report on a paper
Common elements of citations Author(s) name(s) Title of book/journal/website Article title Page numbers Volume/ issue/ page numbers URL/ database name
Modern Language Association (MLA) Example of in text: Frederick Lane reports that employers do not necessarily have to use software to monitor how their employees use the Web: employers can “use a hidden video camera pointed at an employee’s monitor” and even position a camera ”so that a number of monitors [can] be viewed at the same time” (147). Example of works cited: Trilling, Lionel. The Liberal Imagination. 1950. Introd. Louis Menand. New York: New York Review of Books, 2008. Print.
American Psychological Society (APA) In text example: Obesity puts children at risk for a number of medical complications, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and orthopedic problems (Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004, p. 1). Works cited example: Mulvaney, S. A., Mudasiru, E., Schlundt, D. G., Baughman, C. L., Fleming, M., VanderWoude, A., . . . Rothman, R. (2008). Self-management in Type 2 diabetes: The adolescent perspective. The Diabetes Educator, 34, 118-127.
Chicago Style In Text: A Union soldier, Jacob Thompson, claimed to have seen Forrest order the killing, but when asked to describe the six-foot-two “a little bit of a man.”12 Foot note: 12. Brian Steel Wills, A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 187. Bibliography: Wills, Brian Steel. A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
Vancouver style In text: Recommendations based on inadequate evidence often require reversal when sufficient data become available, (John Doe, April 1, 2002) while timely implementation of recommendations based on strong evidence can save lives.(3) References page: Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.
Lets write a paragraph incorporating other people’s ideas…
Some ways to keep track Zotero.com http://www.webcitation.org/ Refworks and Endnote (both cost) Many databases such as ebscohost (academic search premier) will give you properly formatted citations
Citations Guides I like Research and documentation online 5th edition (MLA, APA, Chicago, CSE) http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/ References according to the Vancouver style http://www.michener.ca/lrc/lrcvanco.php IEEE standards style manual http://standards.ieee.org/guides/style/ The OIT guides http://www.oit.edu/libraries/help/citing