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Algae Fuels: Emerging Opportunities for Indian Entrepreneurs
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Algae Fuels: Emerging Opportunities for Indian Entrepreneurs

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  • Devoloping countries taking larger share.. (india, china), video (inconvenient truth)
  • Although there are alternatives, they dun satisfy transportation needs….
  • Biofuels (ethanol, etc…)
  • Introduction to algae fuels
  • Few companies
  • Breakthroughs (yield & cost)
  • Biofuel mandates, economics (growth, investments, cost)
  • Developing countries are often situated in regions which are geographically interesting for algae cultivation (favourable climatic conditions, cheap labour and underdeveloped land)

Transcript

  • 1. Algae Fuels : Emerging opportunities for Indian Entrepreneurs
  • 2. The story behind Oilgae…
  • 3. Why are we here for?
    To give a overall summary about algae biofuels
    To highlight the opportunities in this sector
  • 4. List of Contents
    Introduction
    Classification of energy
    Biofuels
    Biomass as fuel source
    Introduction to algae biofuels
    History
    Uniqueness of algae fuels
    Technology
    Algae fuels: Growth and Investments
    Role of India in algae biofuels
    Current status of algae fuels in India
    Benefits to Emerging entrepreneurs
    Challenges and bottlenecks
    Conclusion
  • 5. Introduction
    Incremental need for alternative fuels is mainly due to:
    Rising crude oil prices
    Resulting impact on our environment due to fossil fuels
    (e.g., global warming)
  • 6. Classification of energy
    ENERGY SOURCE
    Non RenewableEnergy
    Renewable Energy
    Solar
    Alternative
    Traditional
    Wind
    Oil
    Hydro
    Nuclear
    Gas
    Ocean
    Tar Sands
    Coal
    Oil Shale
    Geothermal
    Gas Hydrates
    Biomass
  • 7. Biofuels
    Less common types:
    • Biobutanol
    • 8. Synfuel
  • Biomass as biofuel source
    • Any liquid that stores energy, which is typically utilized by an engine or generator, can be called a “fuel.”
    • 9. Biofuels are fuels that are derived from organic biomass, rather than minerals
    • 10. Classified into
    1st , 2nd & 3rd generation biofuels
  • 11. First generation biofuels
    Made from soybeans, palm, canola and rapeseed
    Pros
    • Simple and well-known production methods
    • 12. Familiar feedstocks
    • 13. Scalable to production capacities
    • 14. Experience with commercial production and use in several countries
    Cons
    • Feedstocks compete directly with crops grown for food
    • 15. Low land-use efficiency
    • 16. Modest net reductions in fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions with current processing methods
  • Second generation biofuels
    Non-food bio-feedstocks are considered as feedstock for second generation biofuels (jatropha, cellulose)
    Pros
    • Eliminates competition for food and feed
    • 17. More efficient and environmentally friendly
    • 18. Less farmland is required
    • 19. Useful by-products
    Cons
    • Same downfall as the first generation fuels but without as great of an eco imprint.
  • Third generation biofuels
    Algae are considered to belong to the third generation feedstock.
    Pros
    • superior yields
    • 20. not directly affecting the human food chain
    • 21. grown in places that are not suitable foragriculture
    • 22. enhanced efficiencies or reduction in cost
    Cons
    The problem of course isin developingtechnologies that will enable this kind of biofuel to be more cost effective to make.
  • 23. Introduction to algae fuels
  • 24. History of energy from algae
    Aquatic Species Programme, (1978 and 1996)
    Mainly focused on microalgae for oil (biodiesel)
    25 million dollar investment
    Production of algae for fuel is not economically viable
    Since 2002, there have been a number of commercial and research efforts in the algae energy field, and the activities have further accelerated starting 2008.
    While most of the efforts in the first few years focused on biodiesel as the end-product, recently a number of efforts have recently been initiated to explore the viability of using algae as feedstock for other energy products.
  • 25. Uniqueness of algae fuels
    Higher oil yield
    Lesser land requirement
    food vs. fuel
    Algae fuels
    Adaptability
    Range of products
    WWT & CO2 capture
  • 26. Higher oil yield
  • 27. Lesser land requirement
    Algae is capable of producing 30 times more oil per acre than the current crops now utilized for the production of biofuels.
    Algae could produce up to 94,000 liters of oil per acre, shrinking land requirements
  • 28. Adaptability to a range of environment
    Grown under conditions which are unsuitable for conventional crop production
    (marine water, wastewater, open ponds)
  • 29. Solve the food versus fuel problem
    Does not compete directly with crops grown for food
    Algae can make use of marine and waster water
    Some algae can be grown in desert regions
    Some algae can be grown in ocean environment
    Does not require expensive nutrients for growing
  • 30. A wide range of fuel products
    Algae
  • 31. Integrated with Wastewater Treatment and CO2 capture
  • 32. How to obtain fuel from algae?
    Picking up the best algae
    Growing the algae
    Harvesting
    Generating the fuel product
  • 33. Open systems
  • 34. Closed systems
    Tubular PBR
    Flat plate PBR
    Also referred as Photobioreactors
  • 35. Product generation via different routes
    Biodiesel
    Ethanol
    Hydrogen
    Methane
    Electricity – where algae biomass is directly used for combustion
    Other hydrocarbon fuel variants, such as JP-8 fuel, gasoline, biobutanol etc.
  • 36. Biodiesel from algae
    Cultivation of Microalgae species
    Harvesting of Microalgae
    Extraction of Oil from Microalgae
    Transesterification
    Biodiesel
  • 37. Ethanol from algae
    Algae Biomass
    Fermentation
    Ethanol
  • 38. Hydrogen from algae
    Biomass
    Gasification
    Biogas Fermentation
    Dark Fermentation
    Steam Reformation
    H2
  • 39. Methane from algae
    Algal Biomass
    Anaerobic digestion
    Methane
  • 40. Challenges & Bottlenecks
    Economical
    Biological
    Technical
  • 41. Picking up an algae strain
  • 42. Technical Challenges
    Maintenance of open pond cultivation
    Cost of closed systems
    Harvesting of microalgae
  • 43. Economics
  • 44. Algae fuels: Growth and Investments
  • 45. Growth
    More than 100 companies are working on algae fuels, especially in USA and UK
  • 46. Investments
  • 47. Opportunities for Entrepreneurs
    Biofuel production
    R&D
    Investor
    Equipment manufacturer
    Biofuel refineries
    Bioremediation using algae
  • 48. Tremendous opportunities for Indian entrepreneurs
  • 49. Supports
    Government funds
    Cleantech investors
    Carbon credits and nutrient credits
  • 50. Key players
    Research Institutes & Organizations
    > 25
    Pilot plant
    Commercial plant
    <5
    0
  • 51. MCRC - pioneer in algae cultivation
    • A non-Governmental Voluntary Research Organisation
    • 52. Established in 1977
    • 53. The first major research on algae technology at MCRC was on Spirulina
    • 54. Technology was licensed to the sister concern, The New Ambadi Estates (now Parry Agro Industries Ltd.)
  • Indian oil and petroalgae
    • ICOL is the 18th largest petroleum company in the world, and is currently India’s largest company by sales.
    • 55. PetroAlgae has signed an MOU to license its proprietary technology for producing and harvesting algae for fuel to Indian Oil
    • 56. Announcement was on Nov 2009
  • DBT funded projects on algae fuels
  • 57. ONGC and teri research
    • TERI, a leader in the field of bio-remediation and has been giving services to ONGC.
    • 58. StatoilHydro and India's leading oil company ONGC have signed an MOU
    • 59. Explore the potential of Algae-based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), and CDM (clean development mechanism) projects in India.
  • Other Indian companies
    Hydrolina Biotech Pvt Ltd.,
    BioMax
    Enhanced biofuels
  • 60. Conclusion
    • Even with few challenges taken into consideration, algae biofuel ’s natural advantages look to make it one of the foremost players in the clean energy market
    • 61. Algae biofuel production holds future promise for developing countries.
    • 62. More jobs
    • 63. Energy independence