Why are we here for? To give a overall summary about algae biofuels To highlight the opportunities in this sector
List of Contents Introduction Classification of energy Biofuels Biomass as fuel source Introduction to algae biofuels History Uniqueness of algae fuels Technology Algae fuels: Growth and Investments Role of India in algae biofuels Current status of algae fuels in India Benefits to Emerging entrepreneurs Challenges and bottlenecks Conclusion
Introduction Incremental need for alternative fuels is mainly due to: Rising crude oil prices Resulting impact on our environment due to fossil fuels (e.g., global warming)
Classification of energy ENERGY SOURCE Non RenewableEnergy Renewable Energy Solar Alternative Traditional Wind Oil Hydro Nuclear Gas Ocean Tar Sands Coal Oil Shale Geothermal Gas Hydrates Biomass
History of energy from algae Aquatic Species Programme, (1978 and 1996) Mainly focused on microalgae for oil (biodiesel) 25 million dollar investment Production of algae for fuel is not economically viable Since 2002, there have been a number of commercial and research efforts in the algae energy field, and the activities have further accelerated starting 2008. While most of the efforts in the first few years focused on biodiesel as the end-product, recently a number of efforts have recently been initiated to explore the viability of using algae as feedstock for other energy products.
Uniqueness of algae fuels Higher oil yield Lesser land requirement food vs. fuel Algae fuels Adaptability Range of products WWT & CO2 capture
Lesser land requirement Algae is capable of producing 30 times more oil per acre than the current crops now utilized for the production of biofuels. Algae could produce up to 94,000 liters of oil per acre, shrinking land requirements
Adaptability to a range of environment Grown under conditions which are unsuitable for conventional crop production (marine water, wastewater, open ponds)
Solve the food versus fuel problem Does not compete directly with crops grown for food Algae can make use of marine and waster water Some algae can be grown in desert regions Some algae can be grown in ocean environment Does not require expensive nutrients for growing
Closed systems Tubular PBR Flat plate PBR Also referred as Photobioreactors
Product generation via different routes Biodiesel Ethanol Hydrogen Methane Electricity – where algae biomass is directly used for combustion Other hydrocarbon fuel variants, such as JP-8 fuel, gasoline, biobutanol etc.
Biodiesel from algae Cultivation of Microalgae species Harvesting of Microalgae Extraction of Oil from Microalgae Transesterification Biodiesel
Ethanol from algae Algae Biomass Fermentation Ethanol
Hydrogen from algae Biomass Gasification Biogas Fermentation Dark Fermentation Steam Reformation H2
Methane from algae Algal Biomass Anaerobic digestion Methane