Nina on Renewable Energies

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Presentatoin on Renewable Energies by Nina Hug, held at oikos Spring Meeting 2009 in Oslo, 27 March 2009

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Nina on Renewable Energies

  1. 1. Renewable Energy Policy of the European Union – How Europe converts to sustainable energy supply and consumption Workshop at the oikos Spring Meeting 2009 in Oslo Nina Hug, oikos PhD Fellow 2008-2011 www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 1
  2. 2. Agenda 1 Why a renewable energy policy? 2 History of energy policy and EU targets 3 How to reach the targets? 4 Summary: how far reaches the EU’s arm? 5 International Context: the role of CDM 6 Further reading and tasks www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 2
  3. 3. Why a renewable energy policy? -  reducing GHG emissions -  energy security -  knowledge based industry -  rural development www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 3
  4. 4. History of Renewable Energy Policy in the EU 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Proposal White RE-Directive progress Evaluation new RE- Paper report of support 21% share of directive schemes RE in with electricity country consumption targets Directive RE Road map: on bio- target of 20% fuels share of RE in energy consumption www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 4
  5. 5. EU Energy Targets -  2010: 21% electricity from renewable sources -  2010: 5,75% biofuels. -  2020: 20% renewables in total energy consumption www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 5
  6. 6. Excursus: What are Directives? -  Setting targets -  means to achieve the result left to member states -  Timetable for implementation -  no compliance EU-Commission can initiate legal action www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 6
  7. 7. Progress in reaching the targets share of total primary energy supply in 2006 (EU 27) Renewable Energy share: 7,4 % Source: IEA www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 7
  8. 8. Progress in reaching 2010 targets in 2006 EU expects to reach a share of 19% by 2010, missing the target by 2% Source: EEA www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 8
  9. 9. Sector-Objectives to meet the 2020 targets -  Renewable electricity: from 15% to 34% -  Role of wind energy: 12% -  Solar energy cost reduction by 50% -  Sustainable heating and cooling: double the amount -  Applying best practices (Sweden, Germany, Austria) -  Biofuels: share of 14% www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 9
  10. 10. Support schemes for renewables www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 10
  11. 11. Feed-in tariffs dominate the scene support schemes for onshore wind energy www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 11
  12. 12. Harmonization of support schemes? -  27 EU member : 27 different support schemes -  EU favors Quota: market freedom -  But: national schemes now well established -  Security for investors prevails over harmonization   Recommendations to reduce administrative barriers www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 12
  13. 13. How far reaches the EU‘s arm? -  Provide framework -  Setting inscentives -  Pressure by competition: lead markets -  Diffusion of policy: structure – agency divide -  The role of pioneers: e.g. ICLEI (local governments for sustainability) -  Credibility in international negotiations www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 13
  14. 14. The international context •  Kyoto targets EU-15: reduction by 8% for the period 2008-2012 •  Kyoto-Mechanisms can be applied by member states •  One crucial mechanism is CDM •  What effects does this have on Renewable Energies in Europe and worldwide? •  How is sustainability addressed with this mechanism? www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 14
  15. 15. Clean Development Mechanism and Renewables - earning carbon credits as a reward to investments in climate-friendly projects abroad - Businesses allowed to meet domestic GHG-reduction targets by using CDM - Project proposal includes -  where and how are emissions reduced? -  What would be future emissions in absence of the project (baseline scenario) -  Validation by Designated Operational Entity (DOE) -  Executive Board of CDM decides on approval www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 15
  16. 16. Conditions for sustainable CDM projects -  Invest in projects focussed on renewable energy sources -  Ensure technology-transfer and capacity building -  Move from individual technology unit approach to integrated planning -  Meet sustainability criteria that go beyond „additionality“ Conclusion -  CDM could reduce costs for reaching GHG emission targets -  But: threatening leadership-role of EU in climate change: less impetus to improve renewable energy technologies www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 16
  17. 17. Group work and further reading 1. Policy: sustainability of CDM. A Development Mechanism that cleans little?! 2. Reaching the 2020 targets: What can offshore wind energy contribute – what are the main challenges? www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 17
  18. 18. Your task •  Divide into 4-people groups and read the texts provided! •  Take a worksheet and write down your opinion to the question/ thesis! •  Exchange the worksheet with your neighbour and write a commentary to his opinion. Circulate the worksheets until you get your initial worksheet back. •  Write down your conclusion based on the commentaries you received from your colleagues. www.oikos-international.org 2-Apr-09 18

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