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Nina on Renewable Energies


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Presentatoin on Renewable Energies by Nina Hug, held at oikos Spring Meeting 2009 in Oslo, 27 March 2009

Presentatoin on Renewable Energies by Nina Hug, held at oikos Spring Meeting 2009 in Oslo, 27 March 2009

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  • 1. Renewable Energy Policy of the European Union – How Europe converts to sustainable energy supply and consumption Workshop at the oikos Spring Meeting 2009 in Oslo Nina Hug, oikos PhD Fellow 2008-2011 2-Apr-09 1
  • 2. Agenda 1 Why a renewable energy policy? 2 History of energy policy and EU targets 3 How to reach the targets? 4 Summary: how far reaches the EU’s arm? 5 International Context: the role of CDM 6 Further reading and tasks 2-Apr-09 2
  • 3. Why a renewable energy policy? -  reducing GHG emissions -  energy security -  knowledge based industry -  rural development 2-Apr-09 3
  • 4. History of Renewable Energy Policy in the EU 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Proposal White RE-Directive progress Evaluation new RE- Paper report of support 21% share of directive schemes RE in with electricity country consumption targets Directive RE Road map: on bio- target of 20% fuels share of RE in energy consumption 2-Apr-09 4
  • 5. EU Energy Targets -  2010: 21% electricity from renewable sources -  2010: 5,75% biofuels. -  2020: 20% renewables in total energy consumption 2-Apr-09 5
  • 6. Excursus: What are Directives? -  Setting targets -  means to achieve the result left to member states -  Timetable for implementation -  no compliance EU-Commission can initiate legal action 2-Apr-09 6
  • 7. Progress in reaching the targets share of total primary energy supply in 2006 (EU 27) Renewable Energy share: 7,4 % Source: IEA 2-Apr-09 7
  • 8. Progress in reaching 2010 targets in 2006 EU expects to reach a share of 19% by 2010, missing the target by 2% Source: EEA 2-Apr-09 8
  • 9. Sector-Objectives to meet the 2020 targets -  Renewable electricity: from 15% to 34% -  Role of wind energy: 12% -  Solar energy cost reduction by 50% -  Sustainable heating and cooling: double the amount -  Applying best practices (Sweden, Germany, Austria) -  Biofuels: share of 14% 2-Apr-09 9
  • 10. Support schemes for renewables 2-Apr-09 10
  • 11. Feed-in tariffs dominate the scene support schemes for onshore wind energy 2-Apr-09 11
  • 12. Harmonization of support schemes? -  27 EU member : 27 different support schemes -  EU favors Quota: market freedom -  But: national schemes now well established -  Security for investors prevails over harmonization   Recommendations to reduce administrative barriers 2-Apr-09 12
  • 13. How far reaches the EU‘s arm? -  Provide framework -  Setting inscentives -  Pressure by competition: lead markets -  Diffusion of policy: structure – agency divide -  The role of pioneers: e.g. ICLEI (local governments for sustainability) -  Credibility in international negotiations 2-Apr-09 13
  • 14. The international context •  Kyoto targets EU-15: reduction by 8% for the period 2008-2012 •  Kyoto-Mechanisms can be applied by member states •  One crucial mechanism is CDM •  What effects does this have on Renewable Energies in Europe and worldwide? •  How is sustainability addressed with this mechanism? 2-Apr-09 14
  • 15. Clean Development Mechanism and Renewables - earning carbon credits as a reward to investments in climate-friendly projects abroad - Businesses allowed to meet domestic GHG-reduction targets by using CDM - Project proposal includes -  where and how are emissions reduced? -  What would be future emissions in absence of the project (baseline scenario) -  Validation by Designated Operational Entity (DOE) -  Executive Board of CDM decides on approval 2-Apr-09 15
  • 16. Conditions for sustainable CDM projects -  Invest in projects focussed on renewable energy sources -  Ensure technology-transfer and capacity building -  Move from individual technology unit approach to integrated planning -  Meet sustainability criteria that go beyond „additionality“ Conclusion -  CDM could reduce costs for reaching GHG emission targets -  But: threatening leadership-role of EU in climate change: less impetus to improve renewable energy technologies 2-Apr-09 16
  • 17. Group work and further reading 1. Policy: sustainability of CDM. A Development Mechanism that cleans little?! 2. Reaching the 2020 targets: What can offshore wind energy contribute – what are the main challenges? 2-Apr-09 17
  • 18. Your task •  Divide into 4-people groups and read the texts provided! •  Take a worksheet and write down your opinion to the question/ thesis! •  Exchange the worksheet with your neighbour and write a commentary to his opinion. Circulate the worksheets until you get your initial worksheet back. •  Write down your conclusion based on the commentaries you received from your colleagues. 2-Apr-09 18