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dsl−18...
93−46−8−89.ip105.fastwebnet.it
96−4−5−188.mobileinternet.proximus.be
agsb−4d04075c.pool.mediaWays.net
aroides.torproject.o...
Joss wright
Joss wright
Joss wright
Joss wright
Joss wright
Joss wright
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Joss wright

  1. 1. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Global Censorship Analysis Joss Wright joss.wright@oii.ox.ac.uk @josswright Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 1/43
  2. 2. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Censorship Most countries engage in some form of Internet filtering. China’s ‘Golden Shield’ is the most well-known. Saudi Arabia presents perhaps the most extreme filtering regime. (OpenNet Initiative) Different technologies; different targets; different rationales and justifications. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 2/43
  3. 3. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Censorship Technologies Technical classification of filtering: DNS Poisoning IP Header Filtering (address or protocol) IP Content Filtering (keyword or protocol) Proxy Filtering Legal and social pressure. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 3/43
  4. 4. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions DNS Lookup User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network Q: target.com? A: 82.68.72.161 target.com? target.com? 82.68.72.161 82.68.7.161 target.com → 82.68.72.161 Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 4/43
  5. 5. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions DNS Hierarchy target.com? target.com? target.com? target.com? `Authoritative' Domain Name Server for target.com `Root' Domain Name Server User's Domain Name Server (usually ISP-operated). Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 5/43
  6. 6. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Web Request ... target.com 82.68.72.161 User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 6/43
  7. 7. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions DNS Poisoning User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network Q: target.com? A: 95.45.23.122 target.com? target.com? 95.45.23.122 95.45.23.122 target.com → 95.45.23.122 Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 7/43
  8. 8. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions IP Header Filtering ... target.com 82.68.72.161 User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 8/43
  9. 9. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions IP Header Filtering ... target.com 82.68.72.161 User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 9/43
  10. 10. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions IP Content Filtering (DPI) ... target.com 82.68.72.161 User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 10/43
  11. 11. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Proxy Filtering ... target.com 82.68.72.161 User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment Censorship Authority Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 11/43
  12. 12. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Proxy Filtering ... target.com 82.68.72.161 User Home Router ISP's DNS Server ISP Router User ISP's Network Network A Network B Target Network http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment http://82.68.72.161:80/ blog.html?q=enlightenment Censorship Authority Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 12/43
  13. 13. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Limitations Flexibility against logistics. Sophisticated methods require greater computational resources. Maintaining a censorship scheme requires continual update. Centralization raises technical, administrative, and organizational burdens. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 13/43
  14. 14. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Localized Filtering Localized filtering in response to local events. Filtering differs across a state or region. Filtering varies over time. Organizations engage in filtering, in addition to state mandated schemes. Reveal filtering tactics, methods, reasoning, limitations. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 14/43
  15. 15. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Existing Work HERDICT: crowdsources filtering information from volunteer web users. OpenNet Initiative: use volunteers and direct means to examine filtering around the world. OONI: volunteer-run censorship probing tools. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 15/43
  16. 16. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Existing Approaches User reports – HERDICT, and many ad-hoc approaches. Direct investigation – OpenNet Initiative. Automated testing – OONI, OpenNet Initiative, M-Lab. Remote analysis. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 16/43
  17. 17. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Limitations Crowdsourcing or using volunteers can be effective if the tool is sufficiently usable, but is limited: Undirected, inconsistent coverage. Direct investigation is expensive. Automated testing requires deployment, and may face ethical issues. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 17/43
  18. 18. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Direct Action Direct access to other connections is possible in some limited cases. Tor exit nodes, and similar services such as psiphon. VPN services or remote shells. Creatively-used public services – webservers, FTP, IRC, bittorrent... Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 18/43
  19. 19. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Direct Action Problems Direct services are rare, especially in countries with interesting filtering. No-one wants to run Tor-like services in filtered areas! VPN services are also rare. Remote shells are even more so. These services are typically offered to get past filtering, not get in. Creative misuse of open services seems the most fruitful option. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 19/43
  20. 20. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Legality and Ethics Is it legal to access blocked websites? Is it ethical to ask someone else to access blocked websites? Consent for automated tools. Is it legal to ‘abuse’ a service, with or without malicious intent? Is it legal to scan for services to abuse? Is it ethical to open a service operator to repercussions based around such misuse? Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 20/43
  21. 21. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Legal Concerns Sites are sometimes blocked for serious legal or societal reasons: Pornography, homosexuality, lèse majesté, insult to religion Reporting sites as blocked may well be legal, but detection attempts may cause legal or social consequences. When is the risk too small, and how can we judge this against arbitrary cultural contexts? Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 21/43
  22. 22. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Experiments in China Internet population around 513 million as of December 2011. Geographic, cultural and ethnic diversity. Extremely well-known and active internet censorship regime. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 22/43
  23. 23. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions China DNS Scanning 278 DNS servers across China. Testing for known banned websites, initially from HERDICT. DNS query for each site to each server. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 23/43
  24. 24. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Observations Many blocked sites are listed as non-existent in the majority of DNS servers tested. Several servers return no result for most blocked sites, but occasionally redirect requests to other DNS servers before doing so. DNS poisoning is widespread. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 24/43
  25. 25. 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  29. 29. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Observations DNS filtering is heterogeneous across China. Some cities show little DNS filtering, some return no results, some return poisoned results, some both. Beijing is, perhaps surprisingly, relatively permissive on average. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 30/43
  30. 30. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions The Mystery of The Pet Club Server Location Domain of Returned IP Address 121.52.209.12 China, Chaoyang thepetclubfl.net 162.105.129.27 China, Beijing thepetclubfl.net 202.102.224.94 China, Henan thepetclubfl.net 202.115.32.39 China, Chengdu thepetclubfl.net 202.127.12.8 China, Nanjing thepetclubfl.net 202.38.193.33 China, Guangzhou thepetclubfl.net 202.38.64.9 China, Hefei thepetclubfl.net 202.96.104.18 China, Ningbo thepetclubfl.net 202.96.174.66 China, Shenzhen thepetclubfl.net 202.96.197.1 China, Shanghai thepetclubfl.net 202.98.0.68 China, Changchun thepetclubfl.net 202.99.216.75 China, Xian thepetclubfl.net 202.99.224.203 China, Baotou thepetclubfl.net 202.99.96.126 China, Tianjin thepetclubfl.net 219.141.253.1 China, Beijing thepetclubfl.net 221.13.28.234 China, Guiyang thepetclubfl.net 221.7.92.99 China, Chongqing thepetclubfl.net 59.63.158.124 China, Beijing thepetclubfl.net Figure: Example torproject.org requests resolving to alternative domain. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 31/43
  31. 31. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Problems The analysis is mainly wrong. Ongoing data reveals clear evidence of man-in-the-middle interception. Any Chinese IP address will respond to ‘blocked’ DNS requests. UDP intercepted; TCP not. Tool discovery. Identification of patterns in intercept behaviour is now of interest. Location and authority. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 32/43
  32. 32. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Updated Experiments ChokePoint Project conducted experiments twice daily for eight months. Allows analysis of behaviour over time. Allows detection of trends not available in snapshot data. Richer data set; expanded list of 1187 servers. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 33/43
  33. 33. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Geography or Structure? Geographical information is not that useful for analysis. Helpful for intuitions, but ultimately misleading. GeoIP is also a very limited tool. Logical network structure is key. Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 34/43
  34. 34. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Border Routers −50 0 50 −100 0 100 long lat Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 35/43
  35. 35. oiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioiioxford internet ins�tute university of oxfordoiioiioiioiioiioiio Introduction Information Sources Legality and Ethics Experiments Questions Network Structure ●●●●●●●● ●●●● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ●●●● ● ●● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ●●●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ●● ● ●●● ●● ● ●● ● ●●● ● ● ● ● ●●● ● ● ●● ●●● ● ● ● ●● ●● ● ● ●● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ●●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●●●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●●●● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Joss Wright Global Censorship Analysis: 36/43
  36. 36. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● dsl−189−163−17−5−dyn.prod−infinitum.com.mx 96−4−5−188.mobileinternet.proximus.be hostname_lookup_error−65.19.141.201−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−249.129.46.48−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−93.95.227.222−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−38.229.72.16−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure r49−2−123−56.cpe.vividwireless.net.au hostname_lookup_error−38.229.72.14−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure agsb−4d04075c.pool.mediaWays.net hostname_lookup_error−253.157.14.165−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−54.76.135.1−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−82.195.75.101−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure p8006−ipbfp204motosinmat.mie.ocn.ne.jp hostname_lookup_error−69.46.84.54−[Errno 1] Unknown host requires.assortedquicksandone.com hostname_lookup_error−86.59.30.40−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−197.4.4.12−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−46.82.174.68−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−93.46.8.89−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−8.7.198.45−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−203.98.7.65−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−78.16.49.15−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−37.61.54.158−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−243.185.187.39−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−59.24.3.173−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−159.106.121.75−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure localhost vescum.torproject.org aroides.torproject.org nova.torproject.org stellatum.torproject.org listera.torproject.org hostname_lookup_error−50.117.125.252−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−203.161.230.171−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−202.181.7.85−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−202.106.1.2−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−64.33.88.161−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−216.234.179.13−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−37.61.54.158−[Errno 1] Unknown host 93−46−8−89.ip105.fastwebnet.it hostname_lookup_error−159.106.121.75−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−243.185.187.39−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−59.24.3.173−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−203.98.7.65−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−8.7.198.45−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−78.16.49.15−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−46.82.174.68−[Errno 1] Unknown host tonycastro.com tonycastro.net tonycastro.org.ez−site.net thepetclubfl.net hostname_lookup_error−202.181.7.85−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−202.106.1.2−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−209.145.54.50−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−203.161.230.171−[Errno 1] Unknown host not_applicable ip−216−234−179−13.tera−byte.com hostname_lookup_error−4.36.66.178−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure 1 2 3 4 5 log10(Total Results) Result(ReverseLookup) DNS query results for www.torproject.org (October 2013 − March 2014)
  37. 37. 93−46−8−89.ip105.fastwebnet.it 96−4−5−188.mobileinternet.proximus.be agsb−4d04075c.pool.mediaWays.net aroides.torproject.org dsl−189−163−17−5−dyn.prod−infinitum.com.mx hostname_lookup_error−159.106.121.75−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−159.106.121.75−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−197.4.4.12−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−202.106.1.2−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−202.106.1.2−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−202.181.7.85−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−202.181.7.85−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−203.161.230.171−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−203.161.230.171−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−203.98.7.65−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−203.98.7.65−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−209.145.54.50−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−216.234.179.13−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−243.185.187.39−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−243.185.187.39−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−249.129.46.48−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−253.157.14.165−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−37.61.54.158−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−37.61.54.158−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−38.229.72.14−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−38.229.72.16−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−4.36.66.178−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−46.82.174.68−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−46.82.174.68−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−50.117.125.252−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−54.76.135.1−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−59.24.3.173−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−59.24.3.173−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−64.33.88.161−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−65.19.141.201−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−69.46.84.54−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−78.16.49.15−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−78.16.49.15−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−82.195.75.101−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−86.59.30.40−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−8.7.198.45−[Errno 1] Unknown host hostname_lookup_error−8.7.198.45−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−93.46.8.89−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure hostname_lookup_error−93.95.227.222−[Errno 2] Host name lookup failure ip−216−234−179−13.tera−byte.com listera.torproject.org localhost not_applicable nova.torproject.org p8006−ipbfp204motosinmat.mie.ocn.ne.jp r49−2−123−56.cpe.vividwireless.net.au requires.assortedquicksandone.com stellatum.torproject.org thepetclubfl.net tonycastro.com tonycastro.net tonycastro.org.ez−site.net vescum.torproject.org log(Freq) 0 2 4 6
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