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Significance Cancer is the2nd leading cause of death in United States 1,529,560 new cancers and 569,490 deaths in U.S. in 2010
Edwin Smith Papyrus 1600 BC
Origin of the word “Cancer” 460 BC Credited to Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine Derived from term “carcinos” and “carcinoma” These words often refer to a crab in Greek, because the finger like projections spreading from a cancer cell suggest a crab. Celcus (28- 50BC): Latin- cancer Galen in 130- 200AD: Greek- oncos
Renaissance Period Giovanni Morgagni of Padua 1761
John Hunter 1728-1793
Causes of Cancer Humoral theory of Hippocrates Lymph theory Blastema theory Trauma theory Parasite theory
DNA Proto-oncogenes Tumor suppressor genes
Modern Cancer Treatment Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation
Halsted approach-complete resection of tumor and “arms of the crab” Modern clinical trials demonstrate that less extensive surgery is equally effective Understanding cancer as a disease, better surgical instruments, and combined therapy have enabled surgical progress Fiberoptic technology, laparoscopic, endoscopic thorascopic surgeries-less invasive, less morbidity Evolution of Surgery
Imaging To diagnose cancer, previously required open exploratory surgery Starting in 1970’s. CT, MRI, and PET have improved diagnosis and staging making exploratory surgery less common.
Chemotherapy “Its palliation is a daily task, its cure a fervent hope.” William Castle describing leukemia in 1950 From The Emperor of All Maladies
Chemotherapy for LeukemiaGoodman and Gilman Nitrogen Mustard for Lymphoma
Chemotherapy for LeukemiaSidney Farber Antifolates for Acute Leukemia