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Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?
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Two Streams - Egocentric and Ergonomic: In Which One Are You Swimming?

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Roger Kahler …

Roger Kahler
Director, InterSafe Group

(Invited, Friday 28, Ilott Room, 8.30)

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    • 1. New Zealand OHSIG Conference – 26-28 October 2011Two Streams _ Egocentric and Ergonomic – In Which One Are You Swimming? Roger Kahler Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 2. Classes of Damage Classes of DamagePermanent - Multiple Fatalities - Single Fatality - Non-fatal Permanent DamageTemporary - Temporary e.g. LTIMinor - Minor e.g.MTI Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 3. Vision Zero HarmEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 4. A Strategic Pathway to the Vision of Zero Harm• Elimination of Permanent Personal Damage• Systematic reduction of Temporary and Minor Damage Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 5. Cost & Size of Personal Damage Australia 2005/2006100 30,900 $40.2B 80 $1301k av. 227,000 60 33,100 $0.7B 231,897 164,000 $10.5B $4.3B $3k av. ≈$0 40 $317k av. $26k av. 2,603 $1.9B 20 $730k av. 0 Permanent Permanent >5 days, <5 days, Minor Fatal no return to reduced full duties full duties work income % of all occurences % of all costs Total Incidents = 689,500 Total Cost = $57.6 billion Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 6. Class I Non-Fatal Damage (Injury and Disease – All Industries) Percentage Percentage Number of Number of Change in Change in Class I People in Numbers Workforce Year cases – No Workforce – from Size from Return to Full and Part Previous Previous Work* Time (million) Period Period1991-92 19290 - 7.5 -2000-01 26900 28% 9.9 32%2005-06 30900 15% 10.16 2.6% * Excludes Permanently Reduced Income Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 7. Likelihood of Class I Non-Fatal Damage (Injury and Disease – All Australian Industries) Likelihood (1 case per Number of Class I Year ‘x’ person years of Cases* exposure)1992-93 50,000 1:1502000-01 48,900 1:2022005-06 64,000 1:158 * No Return to Work and Permanently Reduced Income Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 8. New Zealand – 2007-2008• Work-related Fatalities: 119• Work-related Injuries (> 1 week): 37,700• Workforce Numbers: 2.26 million• 91.6% returned to work within year• 82.3% returned to work within 6 months• Does the 18% cost the most? Source: ACC Facts Sheet Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 9. New Zealand – 2007-2008• Fatality Likelihood: 1:18,700 worker years• Injury Likelihood: 1:60 worker years Permanent Impairment Likelihood ? Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 10. GOAL Organisational Psychology≈ 80 years ≈ 60 years 1930 1950 Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 11. Preamble• 1500 Industrialisation of Britain• 1833 British Factory Inspectorate• 1867 Massachusetts Factory Inspection• 1874 France – Inspection of workshops• 1885 Germany – Workers’ Compensation Act• 1921 ILO – Geneva• 1929 Egocentric Stream emerges Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 12. “Egocentric” Stream1. 1:29:3002. Unsafe acts, unsafe conditions3. 88:10:24. Lapse, Error, Mistake, Violation5. A goal of “Accident Prevention”6. Zero harm7. “Cause-Effect” thinking Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 13. Foundation of a major injury (Heinrich) - 1929 1 MAJOR INJURIES 29 MINOR INJURIES 300 NO-INJURY ACCIDENTS UNSAFE ?000 - - - 000? UNSAFE PRACTICES CONDITIONS Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 14. Heinrich’s Domino Model Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 15. Swiss Cheese ModelEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 16. Egocentric Stream• Failure model• Unsafe acts model These models are useful if fixing the point of failure / unsafe act is an effective solution Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 17. The Bird accident ratio study - 1969 1 Serious or Disabling ANSI Z16.1 10 Minor Injuries 30 Property Damage Accidents600 Incidents with No Visible Injury or Damage Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 18. The Ergonomic Stream Attributes (compared with Egocentric Stream)1. Behaviour, Knowledge and Skills present/absent (versus unsafe acts)2. Equipment and Environment aspects (present/absent) (versus unsafe conditions)3. 100:100:100 (versus 88:10:2)4. Damage Reduction (versus Accident Prevention) Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 19. The Ergonomic Stream Attributes (compared with Egocentric Stream) cont.5. “Is” thinking (versus cause-effect)6. Damage as a consequence of an Energy Exchange7. Energy Management Strategies (versus Hierarchy of Control)8. Pareto Focus (versus Zero Harm) Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 20. Incident Prevention Extended to Damage Reduction Stability / Metastability / Instability Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 21. Key Dates / People / Concepts – prior to 1970’s• 1949 – Gordon and Gibson – Injuries can be researched same as infectious disease• 1961 – Gibson and Haddon – Injury as a consequence of an energy exchange• 1960s – Haddon – Pre Event / Event / Post Event – 2D Matrix formed when he added Human, Vehicle and Environment• 1962 – Haddon – 10 Energy Management Strategies (“Escape of Tigers”) Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 22. McDonald’s Contribution (1960’s and 1970’s)1. Haddon’s 5 physical energies→ 13 describers2. Event phase of Haddon’s Pre-event / event / post- event → Stable, Metastable, Unstable, Damage3. Pareto Focus (80-20 Rule)4. “Is” thinking versus cause/effect Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 23. McDonald’s Contribution (1960’s and 1970’s) cont5. Essential and Contributory Factors6. Classifying Damaging Energies → Class I, Class II, Class III7. Accidents / Incidents → Damaging and Non- Damaging Occurrences8. The Taxonomic Process Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 24. Pre-event Event Post EventStable Metastable Unstable Damage Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 25. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 26. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 27. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 28. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 29. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 30. MetastabilityEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 31. “Is” ThinkingEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 32. Summary & Conclusion• Fatality rates decreasing• Non-fatal permanent rates increasing/static?• Describe your stream• To enter Ergonomic stream requires “faith”• Damaged people pay the price of leaders’ “high level” thought/activity Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 33. Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 34. Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 35. Egocentric Stream -v- Ergonomic Stream Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 36. •Which stream are you in?•Do we need elements of “both” streams? Engineering Safer Workplace Solutions
    • 37. The EndEngineering Safer Workplace Solutions

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