OHS in the NZ FishingOHS in the NZ Fishing
Industry: PreliminaryIndustry: Preliminary
findings of the key issuesfindings o...
BackgroundBackground
 The NZ seafood industry is 4th largestThe NZ seafood industry is 4th largest
industry behind dairy,...
Background: KeyBackground: Key
StakeholdersStakeholders
 The NZ Seafood Industry Council: industry-The NZ Seafood Industr...
BackgroundBackground
 The commercial fishing industry is one of theThe commercial fishing industry is one of the
most com...
Occ Injury & Illness RatesOcc Injury & Illness Rates
 NZ’s commercial fishing sector represents aNZ’s commercial fishing ...
Accidents within theAccidents within the
Commercial Fishing SectorCommercial Fishing Sector
Accidents
0
50
100
150
200
250...
OHS Initiatives:OHS Initiatives: Safe ShipSafe Ship
ManagementManagement
 Introduced in 1998, the aims of Safe ShipIntrod...
OHS Initiatives:OHS Initiatives: Safe ShipSafe Ship
ManagementManagement
 Operating under the umbrella of Safe ShipOperat...
OHS Initiatives:OHS Initiatives: Safe ShipSafe Ship
ManagementManagement
 External audits have revealed a numberExternal ...
Preliminary StudyPreliminary Study
 The aim of this study is therefore to investigateThe aim of this study is therefore t...
Preliminary StudyPreliminary Study
Interviewees: 6 representativesInterviewees: 6 representatives
 3 captains of in-shore...
Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues
Changes in the IndustryChanges in the Industry::
 The impact of new ...
Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues
Barriers to OHS complianceBarriers to OHS compliance ::
 Tight opera...
Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues
Employment PracticesEmployment Practices
 Typically crews of fishing...
Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues
 Knowledge of OHS, Legislation, and OSHKnowledge of OHS, Legislation...
Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues
 Integrating health and safety throughoutIntegrating health and safe...
ConclusionConclusion
 While fishing is a lucrative but diminishingWhile fishing is a lucrative but diminishing
industry, ...
THANK YOUTHANK YOU
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Occupational Health and Safety in the New Zealand Fishing Industry: Preliminary Finding of the Key Issues

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Dr Jeremy Hayman
Department of Management
School of Business and Law,
Auckland University of Technology, Auckland
Jeremy.hayman@aut.ac.nz

(P25, Thursday 27, Civic Room 3, 3.00)

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
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Occupational Health and Safety in the New Zealand Fishing Industry: Preliminary Finding of the Key Issues

  1. 1. OHS in the NZ FishingOHS in the NZ Fishing Industry: PreliminaryIndustry: Preliminary findings of the key issuesfindings of the key issues D. Anderson, J. HaymanD. Anderson, J. Hayman & F. Lamm& F. Lamm
  2. 2. BackgroundBackground  The NZ seafood industry is 4th largestThe NZ seafood industry is 4th largest industry behind dairy, meat and forestry,industry behind dairy, meat and forestry, contributing $4 billion to GDP in 2009contributing $4 billion to GDP in 2009  There are approximately 2500 enterprisesThere are approximately 2500 enterprises and 1300 registered commercial fishingand 1300 registered commercial fishing vesselsvessels  The industry employs approximatelyThe industry employs approximately 26,000 FTE, but as most are26,000 FTE, but as most are independentindependent contractors & work seasonally it is difficult tocontractors & work seasonally it is difficult to provide an accurate figureprovide an accurate figure
  3. 3. Background: KeyBackground: Key StakeholdersStakeholders  The NZ Seafood Industry Council: industry-The NZ Seafood Industry Council: industry- owned company with shares held byowned company with shares held by Commercial Stakeholder OrganisationsCommercial Stakeholder Organisations (CSOs). (CSOs).   Seafood Industry CouncilSeafood Industry Council  The NZ Fishing Industry Guild: based inThe NZ Fishing Industry Guild: based in NelsonNelson  Maritime Union of New ZealandMaritime Union of New Zealand  Service & Food Workers’ UnionService & Food Workers’ Union  Maritime NZ,Maritime NZ, Transport Safety InvestigationTransport Safety Investigation Commission & ACCCommission & ACC
  4. 4. BackgroundBackground  The commercial fishing industry is one of theThe commercial fishing industry is one of the most complex industries in terms of:most complex industries in terms of:  Variety of working environmentsVariety of working environments  High rate of mobile workersHigh rate of mobile workers  Tight margins (fuel costs etc)Tight margins (fuel costs etc)  Diminishing fish stocksDiminishing fish stocks  International competitionInternational competition  Significant health and safety issuesSignificant health and safety issues  Still little is know of the employment & OHSStill little is know of the employment & OHS practices in the NZ fishing industrypractices in the NZ fishing industry
  5. 5. Occ Injury & Illness RatesOcc Injury & Illness Rates  NZ’s commercial fishing sector represents aNZ’s commercial fishing sector represents a disproportionately high number of maritimedisproportionately high number of maritime accidents & fatalities.accidents & fatalities.  241 claims for every 1000 fulltime workers &241 claims for every 1000 fulltime workers & "shocking" rate of deaths at work."shocking" rate of deaths at work.  With the exception of 2007, (14 fatalities) the rate ofWith the exception of 2007, (14 fatalities) the rate of reported fatalities and accidents within thereported fatalities and accidents within the commercial fishing sectorcommercial fishing sector has remained statichas remained static between 2000-2008 – (average of 6 fatalities)between 2000-2008 – (average of 6 fatalities)  Fatality rate has been declining slightly in 2009, butFatality rate has been declining slightly in 2009, but we need to question whether the industry has alsowe need to question whether the industry has also been shrinking.been shrinking.
  6. 6. Accidents within theAccidents within the Commercial Fishing SectorCommercial Fishing Sector Accidents 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2000- 2001 2001- 2002 2002- 2003 2003- 2004 2004- 2005 2005- 2006 2006- 2007 Accidents
  7. 7. OHS Initiatives:OHS Initiatives: Safe ShipSafe Ship ManagementManagement  Introduced in 1998, the aims of Safe ShipIntroduced in 1998, the aims of Safe Ship Management programme are:Management programme are:  to raise the health and safety on NZ-ownedto raise the health and safety on NZ-owned commercial vessels, andcommercial vessels, and  to make ship owners and operators responsible forto make ship owners and operators responsible for daily maintenance and operation of their vessels.daily maintenance and operation of their vessels.  Covers NZ-owned commercial vessels operatingCovers NZ-owned commercial vessels operating in NZ waters to improve their day-to-day safetyin NZ waters to improve their day-to-day safety on small domestic cargo, passenger and fishingon small domestic cargo, passenger and fishing vessels,vessels,  Safe Ship Management replaced the earlierSafe Ship Management replaced the earlier system of annual surveyssystem of annual surveys
  8. 8. OHS Initiatives:OHS Initiatives: Safe ShipSafe Ship ManagementManagement  Operating under the umbrella of Safe ShipOperating under the umbrella of Safe Ship Management are a number of sub-initiatives -Management are a number of sub-initiatives - the 3 main ones being:the 3 main ones being:  Safe Operational PlansSafe Operational Plans : introduced in 1999,: introduced in 1999, it is a scaled-down version of Safe Shipit is a scaled-down version of Safe Ship Management.Management.  Safety ProfilingSafety Profiling (the Safety Profile(the Safety Profile Assessment Number (SPAN) scheme wasAssessment Number (SPAN) scheme was introduced in July 2001.introduced in July 2001.  FishSafeFishSafe: Supported by Maritime NZ, DoL,: Supported by Maritime NZ, DoL, ACC and industryACC and industry
  9. 9. OHS Initiatives:OHS Initiatives: Safe ShipSafe Ship ManagementManagement  External audits have revealed a numberExternal audits have revealed a number failings with the Safety Managementfailings with the Safety Management System:System:  A lack of consistencyA lack of consistency  Overcharging for auditsOvercharging for audits  Reluctance by some owners and operators toReluctance by some owners and operators to undergo auditundergo audit  Maritime NZ slow to implementMaritime NZ slow to implement improvements.improvements.
  10. 10. Preliminary StudyPreliminary Study  The aim of this study is therefore to investigateThe aim of this study is therefore to investigate barriers to implementing and maintaining OSHbarriers to implementing and maintaining OSH measures; and to explore the integration ofmeasures; and to explore the integration of health and safety in the NZ fishing industry.health and safety in the NZ fishing industry.  Two techniques were used in this study:Two techniques were used in this study:  An extensive literature review was undertakenAn extensive literature review was undertaken  A series of interviews with owners andA series of interviews with owners and operators of commercial fishing ventures wereoperators of commercial fishing ventures were carried out to explore key themes found in thecarried out to explore key themes found in the related literature.related literature.
  11. 11. Preliminary StudyPreliminary Study Interviewees: 6 representativesInterviewees: 6 representatives  3 captains of in-shore and off-shore fishing vessels;3 captains of in-shore and off-shore fishing vessels;  2 operators of fish processing facilities;2 operators of fish processing facilities;  1 First-mate off-shore tuna vessel.1 First-mate off-shore tuna vessel.  All operations are based in the Bay of Plenty, &All operations are based in the Bay of Plenty, &  were small businesses supplying fish for distributionwere small businesses supplying fish for distribution to local and export markets.to local and export markets.  In-shore fishing activities performed throughout theIn-shore fishing activities performed throughout the year in close proximity to the NZ coastline.year in close proximity to the NZ coastline.  Off-shore fishing operations generally performedOff-shore fishing operations generally performed during the tuna season (December - March), noduring the tuna season (December - March), no more than 200 miles from the New Zealandmore than 200 miles from the New Zealand coastline.coastline.
  12. 12. Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues Changes in the IndustryChanges in the Industry::  The impact of new technology & issues aroundThe impact of new technology & issues around resource sustainabilityresource sustainability  The changing nature and skill capacity of theThe changing nature and skill capacity of the workforceworkforce  Overseas interests = unsustainable, poorOverseas interests = unsustainable, poor fishing and employment practicesfishing and employment practices  Those employed in the fishing are poorly paidThose employed in the fishing are poorly paid compared to employees in other occupationscompared to employees in other occupations  Research shows that fishermen have a high rateResearch shows that fishermen have a high rate of alcoholismof alcoholism
  13. 13. Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues Barriers to OHS complianceBarriers to OHS compliance ::  Tight operating margins generated by increasingTight operating margins generated by increasing fuel, compliance and wages costs, as well asfuel, compliance and wages costs, as well as diminishing fishing stocks, all of which havediminishing fishing stocks, all of which have contributed to reduced profitscontributed to reduced profits  Reduced profits in turn have a flow-on effect onReduced profits in turn have a flow-on effect on the ability of employer to fund health and safetythe ability of employer to fund health and safety improvementsimprovements  Inconsistent standards and enforcement fromInconsistent standards and enforcement from Maritime NZ (a perennial complaint that has alsoMaritime NZ (a perennial complaint that has also been registered by TAIC in its reports)been registered by TAIC in its reports)
  14. 14. Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues Employment PracticesEmployment Practices  Typically crews of fishing vessels in NZ are paidTypically crews of fishing vessels in NZ are paid on aon a "share of catch"share of catch" basis." basis.  At the end of every voyage, each member of theAt the end of every voyage, each member of the crew received a % of the value of the fish caughtcrew received a % of the value of the fish caught less certain expenses.less certain expenses.  Most crew are independent contractors who areMost crew are independent contractors who are not entitled to paid holidays & do not receive anynot entitled to paid holidays & do not receive any income when they were not at sea.income when they were not at sea.  This makes the responsibility for OHSThis makes the responsibility for OHS complicated and has implications for workers’complicated and has implications for workers’ compensationcompensation
  15. 15. Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues  Knowledge of OHS, Legislation, and OSHKnowledge of OHS, Legislation, and OSH Programmes:Programmes:  The interviewee’s years of training & industryThe interviewee’s years of training & industry expertise = level of OHS knowledgeexpertise = level of OHS knowledge  Interviewees utilised industry experts,Interviewees utilised industry experts, colleagues and government agencies tocolleagues and government agencies to obtain additional OHS information and advice,obtain additional OHS information and advice,  3 interviewees had not participated in the3 interviewees had not participated in the FishSafe programmeFishSafe programme
  16. 16. Summary of the Main IssuesSummary of the Main Issues  Integrating health and safety throughoutIntegrating health and safety throughout the workplacethe workplace::  Lack of understanding of OHS preventativeLack of understanding of OHS preventative measuresmeasures  OHS initiatives are often introduced after aOHS initiatives are often introduced after a incidentincident  Hard to introduce preventative measuresHard to introduce preventative measures when the workplace and environment arewhen the workplace and environment are constantly changingconstantly changing  Requires a level of expertise that owners &Requires a level of expertise that owners & employees may not possess.employees may not possess.
  17. 17. ConclusionConclusion  While fishing is a lucrative but diminishingWhile fishing is a lucrative but diminishing industry, there are still significant OHSindustry, there are still significant OHS issues.issues.  OHS regulations and enforcement areOHS regulations and enforcement are piecemeal and inconsistent and dividedpiecemeal and inconsistent and divided between different agenciesbetween different agencies  There is, therefore, a need for aThere is, therefore, a need for a comprehensive review of the OHS in thecomprehensive review of the OHS in the fishing industry.fishing industry.
  18. 18. THANK YOUTHANK YOU Questions?Questions?

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