Bringing Safety Climate Theory to Life in the Electrical Industry


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Heidi Borner
Director, Orange Umbrella®
P.O. Box 13-549 Johnsonville, Wellington, 6440

(P12, Wednesday 26, Ilott Theatre, 1.30)

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  • Takes away the decision-making and risk assessment in favour of always having to wear hat, boots, gloves, overalls in every circumstance.
  • Proposal: Pilot to explore response from industry.The pilot should answer questions such as: What are employees’ perceptions of their work and workplace?What supports do companies need to go through the process – Setup, Survey, Follow up? What role will EEA play to support companies? Benchmarking and evidence of employee involvement in health and safety.
  • Bringing Safety Climate Theory to Life in the Electrical Industry

    1. 1. Bringing Safety Climate Theory to Life in the Electricity Industry
    2. 2. Organisational Culture“Norms, values and basic assumptions of a given organisation”(Gershon, Stone, Bakken & Larson (2004). Measurement or organizational culture andclimate in health care. Journal of Nursing Administration, 34(1), 33-40.)
    3. 3. Organisational Climate “Employees’ perception of the organisation’s culture”(Gershon, Stone, Bakken & Larson (2004). Measurement or organizational culture and climate in health care. Journal of Nursing Administration, 34(1), 33-40.)
    4. 4. Organisational System Society Organisation Culture F e Strategies e d Systems b a c Actions k Outcomes
    5. 5. “The water fish swim in”(LeBaron, M., & Pillay, V. (2006). Conflict across cultures. Boston: Intercultural Press division of Nicholas Brealey Publishing
    6. 6. ContinuumCompliance Commitment Have to Want to
    7. 7. Compliance‣ “Have to”‣ Compliance – Focus is on the “rules” and the “law”. This is by both management and staff. Eg. “blanket PPE” policy‣ Level above enforces rules for level below‣ Little leeway for problem-solving, challenging status quo
    8. 8. Commitment‣ “Want to”‣ Engaged in the workplace aims‣ Collaborative problem solving‣ People work the same way whether or not the enforcer is watching
    9. 9. “If I can convince them it’s a goodidea then half the battle is won.If I can’t then I am wasting my time” Graham Henry Dominion Post, Oct 24, 2011
    10. 10. Health and Safety‣ For safety sensitive work, engagement will not happen without excellent health and safety.‣ If people feel at risk and less important than profit, they will not engage with the company. Electricity - Aviation Health care - Construction Police and Fire - Transportation Forestry - Oil and Gas Mining …..many others
    11. 11. Electricity Industry‣ This project has been building for the last 40 years with safety management system development and Safety Rules for the industry.‣ Over the last 10 years the serious injuries have plateaued.‣ Industry agreement that an industry approach was needed to address best practice, manage health and safety and regulatory issues.
    12. 12. Growth of Effective Safety Systems - Fennell Adapted from D. Fennell, “Growth of Effective Safety Systems” (presented at the Canadian Society of Safety Engineers Conference, 2006)
    13. 13. Electricity Industry‣ In 2008 the ESI Safety Strategy to 2020 was agreed to “strategically address leadership, organisational issues and cultural/behavioural issues”.‣ “Aim is to move the ESI beyond compliance to a proactive safety culture”.‣ Outcome is to reduce the incidents of injury, serious harm, and death to electricity workers and public.
    14. 14. ESI Vision“Safe and Healthy People in Productive,Well-Managed Workplaces”
    15. 15. ESI VisionEvery individual in our industry has a role andresponsibility to realise the vision:‣ Boards of Directors who make decisions impacting safety and who establish responsibilities and accountabilities for their senior management team;‣ Executive and Senior Management who establish the culture, lead by example, visibility, who set performance requirements and enable activities;
    16. 16. ESI Vision‣ Designers who consider those constructing, using and maintaining, or being near what they design;‣ Managers and Supervisors who plan and optimise financial, human and material resources to productively and safely meet their objectives;‣ Employees who have direct responsibility to themselves, peers, family and friends to go home safely and in good health after every day or shift.
    17. 17. ESI Strategy Proactive Culture‣ Industry-wide constant learning and improvement‣ Mindful organisations: Recognise good performance No denial about safety issues Raising issues is expected and safe Information is treated seriously and acted on Reporting is non-prejudicial.
    18. 18. ESI Strategy Aims‣ Industry-level overview‣ Benchmarks for workplace culture and forward- looking indicators.‣ Enable industry-level initiatives consistent with safety improvement aims under the ESI Safety Strategy to 2020.
    19. 19. How???
    20. 20. ESI Industry Platform‣ Build on the platform established by the ESI industry‣ Electricity Engineers’ Association (EEA) has a mandate to facilitate and lead the industry: Safety Rules Best Practice Guides Forums and Conferences Lobby and representation of the industry to the regulators Monitoring of performance Reporting
    21. 21. ESI Industry‣ Dedicated Safety Strategy and Policy Group (SSPG) to look at safety issues in particular‣ Willingness to look at industry and wider experience
    22. 22. Safety Climate Project‣ Orange Umbrella® tools were used to bridge the theory to practice‣ Started with a Pilot to test it for the ESI and determine uptake.
    23. 23. Safety Climate Project Objectives‣ Valid and reliable measurement‣ Use data to reduce the risk of illness and injury to workers, and increase productivity‣ Establish lead safety performance indicators.‣ Leading indicator benchmarks
    24. 24. Safety Climate Project Objectives‣ Pan-industry communication and co- operation‣ Easily measure their own progress on a regular basis and at low cost.‣ ESI Health and Safety Strategy to 2020.
    25. 25. Safety Climate Project ObjectivesBenefits:‣ Productivity‣ Quality improvement‣ Decreased losses through incidents and injuries.‣ Each enterprise can target the issues that are relevant to them – very important.‣ Pan-industry and unified approach to human factors – lifts the whole industry.
    26. 26. Safety Climate Project‣ Safety Climate Project Induction - Companies new to the SCP.‣ Safety Climate Project Continuation - Measuring progress and monitoring status.‣ EEA Industry Oversight & Coordination - Information used at an industry level to create systemic change.
    27. 27. Safety Climate Project Pilot‣ 3 Day Process Leader workshop‣ GSP™ Survey: 2 survey rounds‣ NewHeights™ improvement process: Orange Umbrella® facilitated workshops to analyse results, meet with employees and executive, plan actions‣ Implement actions: 3-6 months‣ Monitor: second survey‣ Celebrate successes and keep improving.‣ Report of project findings
    28. 28. Project Roles‣ EEA‣ Orange Umbrella®‣ Participating company‣ Process Leader‣ Executive Management
    29. 29. ConfidentialityAggregated, anonymised data of participating organisations for industry reporting.
    30. 30. Repeat 1 2 3 4SCOPE & SURVEY ASSESS IMPLEMENT MONITOR Productivity and Injury, illness, performance absenteeism and litigation
    31. 31. What does the SCP measure?Health and safety performance and the enablers that make that performance happen.
    32. 32. Systems view‣ Employees’ views of the system‣ Not singling out one person to blame‣ What is working well and what needs to be changed in our system of work?‣ At all levels - work group, team leaders and supervisors, managers, company, industry
    33. 33. Power of PerceptionThe issue is not whether perceptions are right or wrong
    34. 34. Power of PerceptionThe issue is that they are real. “My perception is my reality.”
    35. 35. ABLE to do it KNOW Great Safety EQUIPPED what to do PERFORMANCE to do it WANT to do it ®Copyright © 1998-2010 Performance! Design® . All rights reserved. The Performance Maximizer ® is a registered trademark of Anthony Roithmayr.
    36. 36. Able to do it Know Great Safety Equipped what to do PERFORMANCE to do it Leading Indicators Want to do it ® Lagging Indicators Safety Results CompanyCONDITIONS Safe Work Safe Work & INDIVIDUAL Business INPUTS ACTIONS OUTCOMES OUTCOMES IMPACT Feedback and Consequences
    37. 37. SCP Pilot Overview‣ 11 companies‣ Three day Process Leader Workshop‣ Two GSP Surveys – April and September, 2010‣ 98 NewHeights™ workshops‣ 383 Line mechanics (overhead, underground) and service technicians.
    38. 38. SCPP group
    39. 39. Age
    40. 40. Hours per week 38% 44+ hours
    41. 41. SCP Findings‣ The SCP is challenging “traditional safety” thinking Eg. “Hazard ids are ticked therefore people are safe.”
    42. 42. Hazard Ids‣ “We are short of time and they take a long time to do so we do them on the way to the job.”‣ “We complete the forms. Then we get together and do the real hazard id.”‣ “The checklist we use does not represent the hazards but has to be done for the audit.”‣ “It does not matter what we put onto the hazard id because no one looks at it. It only goes into a file for the audit anyway.”
    43. 43. AuditsAssumptions:‣ “If audit scores are high, we will be safe.”‣ “We have reached our safety target of completing 100% of audits.”‣ “Audits are leading indicators of safety.”Field staff say:‣ “The auditor does not understand our work.”‣ “The auditor does not follow our safety rules and is an onsite hazard.”
    44. 44. Audits‣ Auditing is valuable to show that systems are in place. The problem is how they are used.Limitations:‣ They cannot predict safety outcomes.‣ They do not measure: How good the system is The human factors that affect performance All possible scenarios that can happen in the field Only measure what they are set up to measure
    45. 45. Injury/Event Statistics‣ The Electricity Supply Industry is heavily LTI and audit driven‣ Performance is measured in LTIs and audit scores‣ Decisions are made on LTI frequency and severity rates‣ KPIs have LTIs built in for Supervisors, managers, CEOs, boards, company contracts
    46. 46. Injury/Event Statistics‣ How LTIs are tracking is published widely throughout the company and the industry‣ Goals are related to reducing LTIs‣ ACC experience rating - penalties and incentives are based on LTIs too.
    47. 47. LTI rateAccuracy depends on reporting:‣ How consistently do people report?‣ What are the consequences of reporting? “I don’t want to be the one to break the record.” “I don’t want to be the reason the bonus is lost.” “Everyone will hear about it and I will feel like an idiot.” “All investigations show it is always the person’s fault.”‣ The compensation system‣ The relationship with the immediate supervisor‣ So what is the LTI rate actually measuring?
    48. 48. Incident Underreporting‣ LTI Underreporting from Field Staff to the company‣ LTI Underreporting from the Company to the Industry level‣ General underreporting for First Aid, Medical Aid, Lost time, Near Miss and Vehicle and Plant incidents.
    49. 49. Themes - Strengths‣ Pride, commitment, passion: “We keep the power on.” “Little old lady down the street…” 2.21: Leaving the worksite safe. (94.8)‣ Depth of skills, knowledge and experience: “We are proud of our skills and knowledge.” SWA, Know and Able had the highest scores.
    50. 50. Themes - Strengths‣ Openmindedness to challenging the status quo: Honest look at themselves and the system. Sincere feedback to improve the situation. Wanting to be heard reflected in low ratings for Interactions, Want, SCI.
    51. 51. Themes - Strengths‣ Systems view: GSP is used to evaluate the wider system rather than focusing on individual job performance.‣ Co-worker support: The highest ratings across the board were for gangs supporting each other and looking out for each other.
    52. 52. Themes - Strengths‣ Improved collaboration and open communication: Worked collaboratively to create joint decisions to make improvements. Great platform for tackling industry challenges.
    53. 53. Themes - Challenges‣ Leadership Skills: Want, Interactions, SCI relating to leadership was low. At all levels. Need to be able to discuss work, clarify issues and ask for support to work safely.
    54. 54. Themes - Challenges‣ Communication: Tied in with leadership skills. Respectful two-way communication, feedback, facilitation. No more fingerpointing, ridiculing.
    55. 55. Themes - Challenges‣ Training: Proportionately high numbers of staff with 4 years or less experience. Experience in the field doing a variety of tasks (more than once!) is a priority. Mentoring, coaching is needed. Cross training with other companies. Supervisor mentoring.
    56. 56. Themes - Challenges‣ Feedback: Tied in with leadership skills and communication. Very low scores in Want, Interactions, SCI. Defining what makes a “good” workday which should go well beyond the absence of injury. Being able to give feedback and recognition to all parts of the business eg. Job planning.
    57. 57. Themes - Challenges‣ Drug Testing: Support drug testing. It is now ad hoc, incomplete and inconsistent. Not integrated with disciplinary process, incident investigations and HR benefits.
    58. 58. Themes - Challenges‣ Underreporting of incidents: Underreporting due to unclear reporting methods, definitions (eg Near Miss) Inconsistent formal and informal disciplinary consequences Potential loss of business for contractors. Need for positive KPIs to balance the injury data.
    59. 59. Themes - Challenges‣ Job planning problems: Leads to, frustration, erosion of trust, RUSHING…
    60. 60. Themes - Challenges‣ Hazard identification sheets: Disconnect between the real hazard id and the paperwork. Very strong view that hazard id is “non- negotiable” but the paperwork is seen as a paper exercise.
    61. 61. Round Two‣ Surprise.‣ Pleased that the process was continuing and is seen as important by senior management.‣ The survey was sensitive in picking up issues.‣ People said they understood the questions better, and this may have affected the ratings. Most said they put more thought into the answers.
    62. 62. Round Two‣ CEO and senior management involvement makes a BIG difference - visibility, demonstration of commitment, easier to get things improved.‣ Communication of the Action Plans to the staff on a regular basis demonstrates that their input is being taken seriously.‣ Action Planning committee. Designated group, Senior management involvement in this group helps to get the changes approved, visible commitment, team feel.
    63. 63. Round Two‣ Events - Earthquake, snow storms, wind storms, rain storms, Lines Competition‣ Almost all groups reported that the systems worked better during events. Hazard risk control was paramount People respected each other, and “everyone pitched in and helped”. “There was a level playing field”.
    64. 64. Round Two‣ Did we do what we set out to do in our first Action Plan?‣ Are we on the right track?‣ Are there issues that need more attention?‣ There were some easy fixes.‣ Culture change takes time.
    65. 65. Action Plans Range 5 to 23 Action Plans Average 19 Action Plans per company‣ Action Plans were largely underway when the second survey was done.‣ Second survey gives an indication of whether Actions are on the right track.
    66. 66. SCP Status 2010 2011 Participating 11 19 Companies Asset Owners 0 4 (individual)Field Staff Survey 383 ~1200 respondentsSupervisor Survey 0 44 respondents
    67. 67. Google image