Service-Learning Workshop at Tri-C


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  • Jones’ article, “The underside of service-learning” deals specifically with this topic. She describes the students who just don’t get it. In different ways they do not engage with the service or the academic part of the class. They are unable to see the connection that is the most important part of service-learning. They might then embark upon their service insincerely which can be a severe consequence for the community site and the class as a whole.
  • Jones’ article, “The underside of service-learning” deals specifically with this topic. She describes the students who just don’t get it. In different ways they do not engage with the service or the academic part of the class. They are unable to see the connection that is the most important part of service-learning. They might then embark upon their service insincerely which can be a severe consequence for the community site and the class as a whole.
  • Service-Learning Workshop at Tri-C

    1. 1. Service-Learning Dick KinsleyOhio Campus
    2. 2. Participant Outcome: I have few answers and many more questions. I am confused as ever, but I believe that I am confused at a higher level about more important questions.
    3. 3. Setting the Context Service-Learning as a Teaching Methodology Service-Learning Key Concepts Course Integration Resources on service-learning
    4. 4. John Dewey/ Kurt Lewin/Jean Piaget “Conceptualized learning is a process where intelligence is shaped by experience over time.” Jean Piaget
    5. 5. Learning from Experience “A man who carries a cat by the tail learns something he can learn in no other way.” Mark Twain “We should be careful to get out of an experience only the wisdom that is in it -- and stop there; lest we be like the cat that sits down on a hot stove-lid. She will never sit down on a hot stove-lid again -- and that is well; but also she will never sit down on a cold one anymore.”- Following the Equator, Puddnhead Wilsons New Calendar
    6. 6. Kolb’s Learning Cycle
    7. 7. Experiential Learning Cycle
    8. 8. The Service-Learning Cycle
    9. 9. Service-Learning Definitions “Service-learning is an educational methodology which combines community service with explicit academic learning objectives, preparation for community work, and deliberate reflection. Students participating in service-learning provide direct and indirect community service as part of their academic coursework, learn about and reflect upon the community context in which service is provided, and develop an understanding of the connection between service and their academic work. These learning experiences are designed through a collaboration of the community and the institution or academic unit/program, relying upon partnerships meant to be of mutual benefit. Improvement and sustainability of the experiences and the partnerships are enhanced through formal assessment activities that involve community, faculty, student and institutional perspectives.” Source: Gelmon, Sherrill B., Holland, Barbara A., Driscoll, Amy, Spring, Amy, & Kerrigan, Seanna (2001). Assessing Service-Learning and Civic Engagement: Principles and Techniques. Campus Connect: Brown University, Providence, RI., p. v.
    10. 10. What is Service Learning?The service learning instructional methodologyintegrates community service with academicinstruction as it focuses on critical, reflectivethinking and civic responsibility. Service learningprograms involve students in organizedcommunity service that addresses local needs,while developing their academic skills, sense ofcivic responsibility, and commitment to thecommunity. Service learning is related to but doesnot include cooperative education, practicum, orinternship programs.
    11. 11. What is service-learning?Service-learning is a form of experiential educationcharacterized by all of the following: student participation in an organized serviceactivity participation in service activities connected tospecific learning outcomes participation in service activities that meetidentified community needs structured time for student reflection andconnection of the service experience to learning (Abes,Jackson & Jones, 2002)
    12. 12. Experiential Education
    13. 13. What is learning?Service-learning is embedded in a view of learning as:• Beginning with personal connections• Useful as its core purpose• Developmental and incremental• Transformative• Foundational to citizenship in a complex society
    14. 14. Key Themes in Service-Learning•Collaboration with the community (reciprocity)•Importance of reflection•Active learning (meaningful work)•Development of a sense of caring•Promotion of a sense of civic responsibility•Impact societal problems (O’Grady, 2000)
    15. 15. Service-Learning Outcomes Moral Political IntellectualCharity Giving Civic Duty Additive ExperienceChange Caring Social Transformative Reconstruction Experience
    16. 16. Types of Service Experiences Community Service-Learning Internships/Pract Service icums (Service learning) (Service (service Learning) Learning)Primary Recipient Recipient AND ProviderIntended ProviderBeneficiaryPrimary Focus Service Service AND Learning LearningIntended Civic and Ethical Academic and Civic Career andEducational Development Development AcademicPurposes DevelopmentIntegration with Peripheral Integrated Co-Curriculum curricular/Supplem entalNature of Service Based on a Social Based on Academic Based on onActivity Cause/Need Discipline Industry or Career
    17. 17. Types of Service Experiences Community Service-Learning Internships/P Service racticums (Service (Service (service learning) Learning) Learning) Faculty Role None Classroom Classroom Instructor/Supervis Instructor or Agency Role Supervisor Instructor/Supervis Instructor/Sup or ervisor
    18. 18. Benefits of Service-LearningBenefits to Students Benefits to FacultyHands-on use of skills and knowledge that Inspiration and invigoration of teachingincrease relevance of academic skills methodsOpportunities that incorporate different Increased student contact through emphasislearning styles I on student-centered teachingInteraction with people of diverse cultures and Increased understanding of how learninglifestyles occursIncreased sense of self-efficacy Connecting the community with curriculum and becoming aware of current societal issues asAnalytical skills, and social development they relate to academic areas of interestValuable career guidance and experience Identifying areas for research and publication related to current trends and issueOpportunities for meaningful involvement withthe local communityIncreased civic responsibility
    19. 19. Benefits of Service-LearningBenefits to the University Benefits to the CommunityEnhanced teaching, research and Awareness of and access to universityoutreach activities resourcesFaculty and student engagement in Positive relationship opportunities with thecommunity issues universityIncreased student retention Awareness-building of community issues, constituents, agenciesOpportunities to extend universityknowledge and resources Opportunities for contributing to the educational processPositive community relationships Affordable access to professionalIncreased development and preparation of developmentuniversity graduates Short and long term solutions to pressingIncreases in the overall quality of community needseducation
    20. 20. Outcomes of Service-Learning “Transformative potential” Ability to connect subject matter with “real- life” experience: experiential learning Personal development, critical thinking, sensitivity to diversity, and development of citizenship (Eyler and Giles, 1999; Jones, 2002)
    21. 21. Major learning outcomesStereotyping and Tolerance outcomes• More positive view of people with whom they work• Growing appreciation for difference: seeing similarities through differences• Increased capacity for toleranceRelated Program Characteristics:Placement quality, reflection activity, application of service and subject matter, diversity
    22. 22. Major learning outcomesPersonal Development outcomes• Greater self-knowledge, spiritual growth, reward in helping others• Increased personal efficacy, increased relationship between service-learning and career skill developmentRelated Program Characteristics:Placement quality, reflection activity, application of service and subject matter, diversity
    23. 23. Major learning outcomesInterpersonal Development outcomes• Increased ability to work well with others• Increased leadership skillsRelated Program Characteristics:Placement quality where students are challenged and have appropriate opportunity to take responsibility over work
    24. 24. Major learning outcomesCommunity and College Connection outcomes• Increased connectedness to community• Development of connectedness with peers• Increased closeness of faculty-student relationshipsRelated Program Characteristics:Strong community voice, placement quality, reflection, and application
    25. 25. Retention and Career Skills First-year SL students were more likely than NSL peers to indicate they planned to re-enroll and graduate from their current institution o Muthiah, Bringle, & Hatcher, 2002 SL participation enhances mediating variables for student retention, including students’ interpersonal, community, and academic engagement, and peer and faculty relationships o Gallini & Moely, 2003; Bringle, Hatcher, & Muthiah, 2010 Civic engagement activities enhance students’ sense of technical competence in a variety of fields o Langley, 2006; Vogelgesang, 2003; Vogelgesang & Astin, 2000; Astin, Sax, & Avalos, 1999; Sledge et al., 1993
    26. 26. The underside of service-learningThe complexities that emerge when undergraduate students engage with ill- structured, complex social issues in the community service settings typically associated with service-learning courses
    27. 27. The underside of service-learning Some students just “don’t get it” Cannot see the connections between their service work and the course content Embark upon their service insincerely: severe consequences for service site and class (Jones, 2002)
    28. 28. Diary of a Fish Sunday-Swam Around Bowl. Ate. Slept. Monday-Swam Around Bowl. Ate. Slept. Tuesday-Swam Around Bowl. Ate. Slept. Wednesday-Swam Around Bowl. Ate. Slept. Thursday-Swam Around Bowl. Ate. Slept. Friday-Swam Around Bowl. Ate. Slept. Saturday-Swam Around Bowl. Ate. Slept.
    29. 29. Student Reflection Today I got to the nursing home at 2:00. Talked to some ladies. Passed out popcorn at the movie. Went home at 4:00.
    30. 30. Reflection as Key to Learning
    31. 31. Reflection is: Reflection is a skill, more accurately a cluster of skills, involving observation, asking questions and putting facts, ideas, and experiences together to add new meaning to them all. Learning in this way, and instilling the practice as a habit, can allow program experiences to live on in the students’ lives in new experiences and new learning. Dan Conrad & Diane Hedin Youth Service: A Guidebook for Developing and Operating Effective Programs
    32. 32. Developmental Perspective onLearning Prior knowledge is the key to learning Prior knowledge must be activated Learners must be actively involved in constructing personal meaning Deep understanding takes time Context reinforces learning
    33. 33. Effective reflection… Facilitates learners goals and objectives Activates prior knowledge Reinforces new knowledge Identifies problems Reinforces critical questions Provides support Enhances trust and dialogue
    34. 34. Keys to Reflection Continuous Contextual Challenging Connected
    35. 35. “How will we know when weget there?” said Alice. “Oh,”said the Cat, “You will always get somewhere if you don’t care where you are going.”
    36. 36. Principles of Good Practice: Mintz & Hesser (1996)An effective program:• engages people in responsible and challenging actions for the common good,• provides structured opportunities for people to reflect critically on experience,• articulates clear service and learning goals for everyone involved,• allows for those with needs to define needs,• clarifies all partners’ responsibilities,• matches service providers and needs while recognizing changing circumstances,
    37. 37. Principles of Good Practice (con’t)An effective program:• expects genuine, active, and sustained organizational commitment,• includes training, supervision, monitoring, support, recognition, and evaluation to meet service and learning goals,• expects that time commitment for service and learning is flexible, appropriate, and in the best interests of all involved; and• is committed to participation by and with diverse populations. Mintz & Hesser, 1996, pp.41-44
    38. 38. Essential Elements of Effective Service-Learning Practice includes: Clear educational goals that require the application of concepts, content and skills from the academic disciplines and involves students in the construction of their own knowledge. Having students engaged in tasks that challenge and stretch them cognitively and developmentally. Using assessment as a way to enhance student learning as well as to document and evaluate how well students have met content and skills. Service tasks that have clear goals and meet genuine needs in the community and have significant consequences for themselves and others. Formative and summative evaluation in a systematic evaluation of the service effort and its outcomes. Valuing diversity through its participants, its practice and its outcomes. The preparation of students for all aspects of their service work including a clear understanding of task and role, the skills and information required by the task, awareness of safety precautions, as well as knowledge about and sensitivity to the people with whom they will be working. Student reflection before, during and after service, that uses multiple methods to encourage critical thinking, and is a central force in the design and fulfillment of curricular objectives. Multiple methods are designed to acknowledge, celebrate and further validate students’ service work.
    39. 39. Developing Service-Learning Courses The effectiveness of Service-Learning as a teaching approach depends largely on the preparation phase. When designing the course, faculty need to consider several factors from preparation to implementation to evaluation. The following steps are recommended to ensure a successful experience to all constituents: Explore how service-learning fits into your teaching philosophy Determine how service-learning experiences may facilitate learning by drawing connections to course objectives and desired outcomes Gather resources on community needs and ideas for potential projects Identify community partners and build a collaborative relationship Integrate information on service-learning into the course syllabus, review logistical details and make necessary arrangements Plan how students will be oriented to service-learning Decide on strategies to connect service to learning though reflection Set-up evaluation procedures
    40. 40. Exemplary Service-Learning Syllabi: Include service as an expressed goal. Clearly describe how the service experience will be measured and what will be measured. Describe the nature of the service placement and/or project Specify the roles and responsibilities of students in the service site Define the need(s) the service placement meets. Specify how students will be expected to demonstrate what they have learned in the placement/or project (journals, papers, presentations). Present course assignments that link the placement and the course content Include a description of the reflective process Include a description of the expectations for the public dissemination of student’s work.
    41. 41. Service-learning design matters!• High quality placements matching students’ interests and developmental readiness with opportunity for direct service• Application/Connection between course subject matter and issues raised by service experience• Structured reflection in the form of writing and discussion• Diverse life experiences, view points, and ways of knowing are integral to design• Presence and validation of the wisdom of community voice
    42. 42. ResourcesOhio Campus Compacthttp://www.ohiocampuscompact.orgNational Campus Compact http://www.compact.orgService-Learning Clearinghouse http://www.servicelearning.orgCommunity College National Center for Civic Engagement