Tools for Thoughtful Assessment


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June 28, 10:15 – 11:30am, Room: Delaware C&D
Assessment experts have taught us the power of Assessment for Learning: Assessment that advances student learning rather than simply evaluating it. To make the shift to Assessment for Learning, teachers need practical, proven, ready-to-use assessment techniques. Participants in this session will explore classroom-tested, research-based tools for assessment that can immediately be put into practice. Participants will also develop an appreciation of the interaction between instruction and assessment, the two most critical factors influencing student achievement.
Main Presenter: Harvey Silver, Silver Strong and Associates

Published in: Education, Technology
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Tools for Thoughtful Assessment

  1. 1. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Assessment‐Driven Instruction Presented by Tr. Harvey F. Silver, EdD 1 Let’s begin our work on our first learning target by  exploring this question:  What’s the relationship between instruction and assessment? 2 What’s the relationship between  instruction and assessment? We’ll begin our investigation of this important question   with something that every respectable workshop  should start with… snack time! 3 1
  2. 2. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Here’s one way of thinking about the relationship  between instruction and assessment… Assessment  Instructional  Integrated  Design Design Lesson/Unit  Design 4 This reminds us of a classic song… Feel free to sing along… Try, try, try to separate them Assessment and Instruction Its an illusion  Go together like a horse and carriage Try, try, try, and you will only come This I tell you brother To this conclusion You cant have one without the other Assessment and Instruction, Assessment and Instruction  Go together like the horse and carriage Its an institute you cant disparage Dad was told by mother Ask the local gentry  You cant have one, you cant have none, you cant have  And they will say its elementary one without the other! 5 What’s the relationship between assessment design and instructional design? Assessment informs instruction and Instruction responds to assessment 6 2
  3. 3. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Preparing Students  Blueprint for for New Learning Lesson Design How do you establish your  purpose, activate students’  prior knowledge, and prepare  them for learning? Deepening and Presenting New Learning Reflecting on and           Reinforcing Learning Celebrating Learning y p How do you help students  y p How do you present new   How do you help  How do you help solidify their understanding  information and provide  students look back on their  and practice new skills? opportunities for students to  learning and refine their  actively engage with content? learning process? Applying Learning How do students demonstrate  their learning and what kinds  of evidence do you collect  to assess their progress?  7 Blueprint Instruction Assessment Preparing  How do you  Students   establish your  for New  purpose, activate  Learning students’ prior  knowledge, and  prepare  them  for learning? See next page for activity sheet Blueprint Instruction Assessment Presenting  How do you  New  present new   Learning information and  provide  opportunities for  students to  actively engage  with content? 3
  4. 4. Match the assessment questions to the section of the blueprint below.   How will I…  How will I help students   How will I…  • engage students in meaningful writing  reflect on, learn from, and  • identify and communicate  tasks that help them synthesize and  celebrate their  learning targets to students?  show what they know?  accomplishments?  • assess students’ background  • develop high‐quality culminating  knowledge, interests, attitudes,  assessment tasks and grading schemes?  and learning profiles?  • differentiate summative assessment  • prepare students to produce  practices to promote success for all  high‐quality work?  students?  How will I …   How will I…  • have students practice, process, and check their  • check for understanding while presenting new  grasp of the material?   information?  • help students improve their work through  • check for understanding after presenting new  feedback and self‐assessment?  information?  • encourage students to establish goals and assess  their progress?  Blueprint/Instruction   Assessment   Preparing Students  for New Learning      How do you establish your purpose, activate  students’ prior knowledge, and prepare   them for learning?  Presenting New Learning     How do you present new information and  provide opportunities for students to actively  engage with content?  Deepening and Reinforcing Learning     How do you help students solidify their  understanding and practice new skills?  Applying Learning     How do students demonstrate their learning  and what kinds of evidence do you collect to  assess their progress?  Reflecting on and Celebrating Learning     How do you help students look back on their  learning and refine their learning process?  4
  5. 5. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Blueprint Instruction Assessment Deepening  How do you help  and  students  solidify  Reinforcing  their understanding   Learning and practice new  skills? Blueprint Instruction Assessment Applying  How do students  Learning demonstrate  their  learning and what  kinds of evidence do  you collect  to  you collect to assess their  progress?  Blueprint Instruction Assessment Reflecting on  How do you help   and  students look back  Celebrating  on their learning  Learning and refine their  learning process? learning process? 5
  6. 6. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Lesson One: Love and Marriage, Horse and Carriage, Assessment and Instruction Blueprint Instruction Assessment Preparing  How do you establish your  How will I… Students  for New  purpose, activate students’  • identify and communicate learning targets to students? Learning prior knowledge, and prepare  • assess students’ background knowledge, interests, attitudes, and  them for learning? learning profiles? • prepare students to produce high‐quality work? How do you present new   How will I… Presenting New  information and provide  • check for understanding while presenting new information? Learning opportunities for students to  • check for understanding after presenting new information? actively engage with content? How do you help students  How will I … solidify their understanding  • have students practice, process, and check their grasp of the  Deepening and  p g and practice new skills? and practice new skills? material? Reinforcing  • help students improve their work through feedback and self‐ Learning assessment? • encourage students to establish goals and assess their progress? How do students  How will I… demonstrate  their learning  • engage students in meaningful writing tasks that help them  Applying Learning and what kinds of evidence  synthesize and show what they know? do you collect  to assess their  • develop high‐quality culminating assessment tasks and grading  progress?  schemes? • differentiate summative assessment practices to promote  success for all students? Reflecting on and  How do you help  students  How will I… Celebrating  look back on their learning  • help students reflect on, learn from, and celebrate their  Learning and refine their learning  accomplishments? process? Tools for Thoughtful Assessment By Abigail L. Boutz Harvey F. Silver Joyce W. Jackson Matthew J. Perini How Will IWhat isand Communicate Learning Identify the question? Goals to Students? If you don’t know where you’re going, you might wind up  someplace else. — Yogi Berra What is the intended learning? That one question should drive all  What is the intended learning? That one question should drive all planning and assessment in schools today. — Rick Stiggins, Judith Arter, Jan Chappuis,  and Stephen Chappuis, Classroom Assessment for Student Learning—Doing It Right, Using It  Well, 2006, p. 54 6
  7. 7. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm STUDENT‐FRIENDLY LEARNING TARGETS What is it? A tool that offers students a clear vision of the learning to come  by ensuring that classroom learning targets are spelled out in  specific and student‐friendly language . Steps: 1. Write the targets in “I will” or “I can” format. 1 W it th t t i “I ill” “I ”f t 2. Frame them in simple, age‐appropriate language that will  make sense to students. 3. Define concepts that may be unfamiliar to students in  familiar terms. 4. Be specific so that students can tell what they’re trying to  achieve and when they’ve achieved it. 16 STUDENT‐FRIENDLY LEARNING TARGETS Here are four standards that a middle school science teacher  selected for a unit on ecosystems. STANDARDS THAT I INTEND TO ADDRESS DURING THIS UNIT  RST.6‐8.7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a  text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart,  diagram, model, graph, or table). RST.6‐8.3. Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out  experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. p , g , p g RST.6‐8.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain‐ specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical  context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics. RST.6‐8.9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments,  simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text  on the same topic. Review the standards and write two  student friendly learning goals 17 STUDENT‐FRIENDLY LEARNING TARGETS Things that students will KNOW and BE ABLE TO DO (declarative and procedural  knowledge):  I will know how to create and label a food web.  I will know that plants make their own food using energy from the sun. Concepts that students will UNDERSTAND and appreciate:  I will understand that the plants and animals in an ecosystem depend on one  another for survival.  I will understand that humans can positively and negatively affect the health of  ecosystems.  y THINKING SKILLS/PROCESSES that students will use and develop: I will be able to compare and contrast the roles of producers, consumers, and  decomposers.  I will be able to apply what I know about a plant’s or animal’s relationship to its  ecosystem and to other living things to predict how a change in the ecosystem  might affect the population of that plant or animal.  Behaviors and “HABITS OF MIND” that students will focus on:  I will use my prior knowledge to help me make sense of new material.  I will ask questions and search for reasons/explanations.  18 7
  8. 8. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm What- is the question? How Will I Use Pre-Assessments to Inform and Pre Enhance Instruction? Getting to know you,  Getting to know all about you. — Oscar Hammerstein,  “Getting to Know You,” from The King and I g , g To teach a student well, a teacher must know that student well. — Carol Ann Tomlinson and Marcia B. Imbeau,  Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom, 2010, p. 58 HAND OF KNOWLEDGE What is it? A tool that gives us insight into our students’ interests, talents,  and learning preferences by having them complete a hand‐ shaped organizer with the following “getting to know you”  questions: Pinky finger Pinky finger What do you do for fun in your free time? What do you do for fun in your free time? Ring finger  What is something that you’re really good at?  Middle finger  Think about something interesting that you learned  outside of school.  What is it? Why is it interesting? How  did you learn it?  Index finger  What word or phrase best describes you as a learner? Thumb  When school is hard or boring, what makes it that way?   Be specific. Palm What is a dream that you have for your future? 20 HAND OF KNOWLEDGE Review the following two student  Hand of  Knowledge.  What can you learn from each hand  that would help you work with that student more  effectively? See next page for activity sheet 8
  9. 9. Hand of Knowledge Example One  Hand of Knowledge Example Two   9
  10. 10. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm HAND OF KNOWLEDGE 22 HAND OF KNOWLEDGE 23 How Will I Prepareis the question? What Students to Produce High- High-Quality Work? Quality is everyone’s responsibility. —W. Edwards Deming, quality and management expert We had to write our first lab report. And it was like, Hello! We  W h dt it fi t l b t A d it lik H ll ! W never really learned what a good lab report was supposed to have  in it. I mean I guess we sort of knew from middle school. But this  was high school science, and I just wasn’t clear about what I was  supposed to do. The teacher just assumed we would be able to do  it on our own. And that’s how I got my first F in school. —Claire B., frustrated high school student 10
  11. 11. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm STUDENT‐GENERATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA What is it? A tool that helps students produce higher‐quality products and  performances by showing them what exemplary work looks  like and helping them identify its essential attributes  25 STUDENT‐GENERATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA Review the following three student work that  represent different levels of performance  (expert, proficient, apprentice). p p pp See next page for activity sheet Expert Example Student A How are Birds and Bats Similar and Different? While there are actually many differences between bats and birds, at first glance, bats and birds appear to be very similar creatures. The most obvious reason for this is that both birds and bats have wings and can fly. Birds and bats are also often similar in size. Another reason why birds and bats look similar is that they are both vertebrates, which means that they both have b kb b th h backbones. If you t k a closer l k h take l look, however, you will fi d th t ill find that there are actually many important differences between bats and birds. Although birds and bats look similar from far away, birds are covered with feathers while bats are covered with fur. Additionally, bats are mammals but birds are not. Like other mammals, bats have live babies. In contrast, birds lay eggs instead. Birds and bats also have different types of homes. For example, bats live in caves, whereas birds live in nests. Finally, while birds are active during the day, bats are nocturnal animals, which means that they come out at night. So although birds and bats may look similar at first, they are really not that much alike after all. 11
  12. 12. Expert How are Birds and Bats Similar and Different?By PabloWhile there are actually many differences between bats and birds, at first glance, bats andbirds appear to be very similar creatures. The most obvious reason for this is that both birds andbats have wings and can fly. Birds and bats are also often similar in size. Another reason whybirds and bats look similar is that they are both vertebrates, which means that they both havebackbones. If you take a closer look, however, you will find that there are actually manyimportant differences between bats and birds. Although birds and bats look similar from faraway, birds are covered with feathers while bats are covered with fur. Additionally, bats aremammals but birds are not. Like other mammals, bats have live babies. In contrast, birds layeggs instead. Birds and bats also have different types of homes. For example, bats live in caves,whereas birds live in nests. Finally, while birds are active during the day, bats are nocturnalanimals, which means that they come out at night. So although birds and bats may looksimilar at first, they are really not that much alike after all. Proficient How are Birds and Bats Similar and Different?By EliseI used to think bats and birds were the same but now I know they are different. Birds and bats are very similar. Forexample both can fly. Bats and birds also have some interesting differences between them. One example is bats flyaround in the dark at night and live in caves. Birds are afraid of the dark so they come out at daytime and they don’tgo into caves. That is why birds live in nests. Another interesting difference is that birds lay eggs and bats don’t.Another interesting similarity is that both bats and birds eat some of the same things, but bats eat blood and birdsdon’t. Another interesting difference between bats and birds is that birds are birds and bats aren’t. Finally, birds sleepwith their heads up but bats hang upside down. How would you like to eat blood and sleep during the day upside down? Apprentice How are Birds and Bats Similar and Different?By PrinceBirds and bats are both animals and they can fly. Birds and bats are thesame size, so that is one reason they are the same. But bats are blackand birds are not black. Also birds probably don’t have teeth. These arereasons bats and birds are different. For example, birds have beaks andbats don’t. Birds and bats like to eat the same food. But bats also eatblood. Bats like being awake at night and birds sleep during the night likeI do. That is a difference. Another difference is because birds lay eggsand bats live in caves. Bats would probably win if they got in a fight witha bird. 12
  13. 13. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Proficient Example Student B How are Birds and Bats Similar and Different? I used to think bats and birds were the same but now I know they are different. Birds and bats are very similar. For example both can fly. Bats and birds also have some interesting differences between them. One example is bats fly around in the dark at night and live in caves. Birds are afraid of the dark so they come out at daytime and they don’t go into caves. That is why birds live in nests. Another interesting difference is that birds lay eggs and bats don’t. Another interesting similarity is that both bats and birds eat some of the same things, but bats eat blood and birds don’t. Another interesting difference between bats and birds is that birds are birds and bats aren’t. Finally, birds sleep with their heads up but bats hang upside down. How would you like to eat blood and sleep during the day upside down? Apprentice Example Student C How are Birds and Bats Similar and Different? Birds and bats are both animals and they can fly. Birds and bats are the same size, so that is one reason they are the same. But bats are black and birds are not black. Also birds probably don’t have teeth. These are reasons bats and birds are different. For example, birds have beaks and bats don’t. Birds and bats like to eat the same food. But bats also eat blood. Bats like being awake at night and birds sleep during the night like I do. That is a difference. Another difference is because birds lay eggs and bats live in caves. Bats would probably win if they got in a fight with a bird. STUDENT‐GENERATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA HIGH‐PERFORMANCE APPROACH 30 13
  14. 14. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm STUDENT‐GENERATED ASSESSMENT CRITERIA THREE‐LEVEL APPROACH 31 CHECKLISTS What is it? A tool that prepares students to produce complete and quality work by  giving them a checklist of elements to include or procedures to follow 32 CHECKLISTS WRITER’S CHECKLIST FOR A CONSTRUCTED‐RESPONSE ITEM 33 14
  15. 15. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm CHECKLISTS TEN‐POINT CHECKLIST FOR REPLACING A VEHICLE’S BATTERY Replacing a Vehicle’s Battery: A Nine‐Point Checklist To replace a vehicle’s battery, follow these steps: Connect a memory holder to the cigarette lighter to store vehicle’s  information. g p yp , g , Using cable pullers and battery pliers, remove the negative cable first,  and the positive cable second. Remove the hold‐down clamps and carefully remove the battery. Place the new battery in the tray with the terminals in the proper  position. Install the hold‐down clamps and make sure they are secure. Install washers on both terminals to prevent corrosion. Connect the positive cable first, then the negative cable. Disconnect the memory holder from the cigarette lighter. Make sure the vehicle starts and runs and that the dash indicator shows  normal operation. 34 CHECKLISTS Take a look at how one teacher uses a checklist  to help her students during a project.  35 RUBRICS What is it? A tool that prepares students to produce high‐quality  work by providing them with clear criteria for  distinguishing different levels of performance 36 15
  16. 16. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Holistic Rubric 37 Analytic Rubric 38 What is the question? How Will I Check for Understanding While Presenting New Information? Your audience gives you everything you need. They tell you.  — “Funny Girl” Fanny Brice When we refer to formative assessments, we are referring to the  informed judgments that the teacher strategically gathers and  uses within the classroom to move a student from point A to point  B. Such assessments require skilled teachers who continuously  take note of and respond to where their students are.  — Pérsida Himmele and William Himmele,  Total Participation Techniques, 2011, p. 104 16
  17. 17. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm STOP, SLOW, GO What is it? A tool that provides on‐the‐spot feedback about the  pace and effectiveness of classroom lessons  40 STOP, SLOW, GO 41 SPEEDY FEEDBACK What is it? A tool that prepares teachers to teach more  effectively by providing them with on‐the‐spot  feedback about students’ grasp of the material 42 17
  18. 18. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm SPEEDY FEEDBACK WHITEBOARDS Before beginning a lesson, give each student a  whiteboard or a pad of paper and a marking pen.  Stop at various times during your presentation to ask  content‐related questions or give students problems  to solve. Have students record their responses in  large print, show their work if appropriate, and hold  their boards/pads up for you to see.  43 SPEEDY FEEDBACK LETTER CARDS/CLICKERS Before beginning a lesson, give each student a set of  nine index cards labeled A, B, C, D, E, True, False, Yes,  and No. (If you have access to electronic clickers, use  them instead.) Stop at various times throughout your  them instead ) Stop at various times throughout your presentation to ask questions about the material that  you’ve presented: multiple‐choice, yes/no, or  true/false. Have students hold up the card that  reflects their response or enter a response on their  clickers. 44 SPEEDY FEEDBACK HAND SIGNALS Similar to Letter Cards except that students respond  using simple hand‐signals rather than index cards  (e.g., thumbs up/thumbs down instead of “yes/no” or  “true/false”—or one, two, three, or four fingers  instead of “A, B, C, or D”) d f“ ”) WORD CARDS Similar to Letter Cards except that students are given  cards containing content‐related vocabulary terms  45 18
  19. 19. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm What is the question? How Will I Check for Understanding After Presenting New Information? Staying on the surface all the time is like going to the circus and  staring at the outside of the tent. —Dave Barry, humorist and author Instruction should not be a Ouija‐boardlike game in which  teachers guess about what to do next. Ed h b h d Educating kids is far too  i kid i f important for that sort of approach. Rather, instructing students  should be a carefully conceived enterprise in which decisions  about what to do next are predicated on the best available  information. And the best available information about what to do  next almost always flows from a determination about what  students currently know and can do. ‐‐ W. James Popham,  Transformative Assessment, 2008, p. 14 4‐2‐1 What is it? A tool that both solidifies and tests students’ grasp of what  they’ve learned from readings, lectures, etc. by having them  identify, discuss, and summarize key points with their  classmates Individually: FOUR key ideas Pairs: The TWO most important ideas Groups of four: The ONE most important idea 47 4‐2‐1 Steps 1. Identify the four most important points. 2. Share and compare your points with a partner.   Then agree on two ideas. 3. Pair up with another pair. Pair up with another pair. 4. Share and compare your points with another pair.   5. Try to reach a consensus about the one most  important idea. 6. Select the most important point and write a  summary paragraph. 19
  20. 20. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm 4‐2‐1 In the 1900s, Today, there are Humans have Tigers are also Individually: there were more less than 3200 destroyed a lot of getting killed FOUR key than 100,000 tigers left on the tiger’s habitat. by poachers ideas tigers in the Earth. and farmers. world. Pairs: Today, there are Tigers are getting killed The TWO most Less than 3200 and their habitat is important ideas tigers left on Earth. being destroyed. Groups of four: Tigers will go extinct if we The ONE most don’t do something about it. important idea 49 4‐2‐1 Summary Paragraph: What did I learn by reading this article? Tigers are in big trouble. If we don’t do something about it, they will go extinct. Last century, there were over 100,000 tigers in the world. Today, there are less than 3200. Tigers need lots of space and the places where they live are getting destroyed by humans. humans In the last ten years about half of their habitat has years, been destroyed. Another problem is that tigers are getting killed by poachers. Killing the tigers is illegal, but the poachers do it anyway because they want to sell tiger skin and tiger claws and tiger teeth for money. Thinking about a world with no more tigers makes me sad. If we don’t do something about this problem, kids 100 years from now might not even know what a tiger is. 50 MEMORY BOX What is it? A review and assessment technique that has students  draw a “Memory Box” on paper and fill it with  everything they can remember about a given topic  (facts, formulas, dates, etc.). See next page for activity sheet 20
  21. 21. Memory Box Steps  1. Take a moment to review your notes.  2.  Using the Memory Box below, write down everything you can remember about the topic.  3. Boggle:  • Compare your list with a partner. Earn a point for everything you have that they don’t have.  4. MVP: Most Valuable Point   Memory Box                                    21
  22. 22. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm MEMORY BOX Steps 1. Take a moment to review your notes. 2. On a blank sheet of paper, create a box. 3. Write down everything you can remember about  the topic. 4. Boggle: • Compare your list with a partner. Earn a  point for  everything you have that they don’t have. 5. MVP: Most Valuable Point MEMORY BOX What is the question? How Will I Have Students Practice, Process, and Check Their Grasp of the Material? I appear to be wiser than he, because I do not fancy I know what I  do not know.  — Socrates (as recounted in Plato’s “Apology”) This research finds that, without training, most learners cannot  , g, accurately judge what they do and don’t know, and typically  overestimate how well they have mastered material when they  are finished studying. This “illusion of knowing” is reflected in the  assertion that many students make after they receive a poor  grade on a test: “But I studied so hard. I thought I really knew the  material cold. How could I have failed?” — Harold Pashler, et al., Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning, 2007, p. 23 22
  23. 23. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm SPOT CHECK QUIZZER What is it? A non‐graded, unannounced quiz whose purpose is  to help students assess what they do and don’t  already know so that they can use their study time  y y y more wisely SPOT CHECK QUIZZER Steps 1. Administer a short, ungraded quiz on previously‐ taught material. 2. Share the answers with students, either verbally or  via an answer key. y 3. Instruct students to identify and revisit material that  caused them problems on the quiz. GRADUATED DIFFICULTY What is it? Inspired by the work of Muska Mosston (1972), this  differentiating‐by‐readiness tool lets students choose  what level to work at while practicing essential skills 23
  24. 24. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm GRADUATED DIFFICULTY Steps 1. Identify a skill that you want students to practice. Develop  three different tasks that will help them practice the selected  skill, each at a different level of difficulty. 2. Present all three tasks to students. Have them compare the  different tasks, determine what makes one more difficult  than another, and choose the task that feels right to them. 3. Prepare students to make good choices by discussing the  3 Prepare students to make good choices by discussing the consequences of selecting tasks that are too hard or too easy  (too hard and they won’t be successful, too easy and they  won’t improve).  4. Provide an answer key so that students can check their work  as they go. 5. Observe students as they work to see how they’re getting  along. 6. Have students reflect on what they learned. Graduated  Difficulty:  Fractions Graduated Difficulty: Fractions Level One 60 24
  25. 25. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Graduated Difficulty: Fractions Level Two 61 Graduated Difficulty: Fractions Level Three 62 Graduated Difficulty: Fractions Level Four 63 25
  26. 26. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Reflection on Graduated Difficulty for Fractions • What level did you choose? Why did you choose it?   • What makes level two more challenging than level 1?  What makes levels 3 more challenging than 2?  What  makes level 4 more challenging than 3? • What do you need to work on to move to the next  level? • Write a learning goal that expresses what you need  to know and be able to do to move to the next level. 64 How Will I Help Students Improve Their Work Through Feedback and Self- Self- What is the question? Assessment? Other rappers dis me. Say my rhymes are sissy. Why? Why exactly? Be more constructive  With your feedback, please. —M i Music parody specialists The Flight of the Conchords,  d i li t Th Fli ht f th C h d “Hiphopopatamus vs. Rhymenoceros” When anyone is trying to learn, feedback about the effort has three  elements: recognition of the desired goal, evidence about present  position, and some understanding of a way to close the gap between  the two. All three must be understood to some degree by anyone  before he or she can take action to improve learning.  — Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam, Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment, 1998, p. 143 Glow and Grow What is it? A feedback tool that boosts confidence and achievement  by telling students what they’ve done well (what “glows”)  and what they can do to improve (where they can “grow”)  26
  27. 27. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Glow and grow What do you think  glows? What do you think  What do you think needs to grow? Glow and grow Three ways your work GLOWS GLOWS…   • Your sentences start with capital letters and end with periods.   • You remembered to give three reasons why you like your toy.   • You stuck to the topic. Everything is about your favorite toy.  Two ways your work can GROW GROW…  • Four of your sentences start with the word “my.”           Can you start some of them with a different word?    • Your letter “z” is backwards. Can you find and fix your  mistakes?  WHAT AND WHY FEEDBACK What is it? Feedback that prepares students to produce  higher‐quality work by helping them understand what  they’ve done well,  what needs work, and why they’ve done well what needs work and why 69 27
  28. 28. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm WHAT AND WHY FEEDBACK What’s the difference between the sentences in column A and  column b? Column A Column B This is an extremely effective  It sums‐up the ideas in your  concluding sentence. paragraph and relates back to  y your topic sentence. p This is the third problem set in a  Your strategy of checking your  row where you’ve gotten a  calculations before submitting  perfect score. your work is paying off! WHAT AND WHY FEEDBACK What: This is an extremely effective concluding sentence. Why: It sums‐up the ideas in your paragraph and relates back to  your topic sentence. What: This is the third problem set in a row where you’ve gotten  a perfect score.  Why:  Your strategy of checking your calculations before  submitting your work is paying off! What is the question? How Will I Help Students Monitor Their Learning and Establish Goals and Plans for Moving Forward? Without continual growth and progress, such words as  improvement, achievement, and success have no meaning. — Benjamin Franklin  We tend to think of students as passive participants in assessment  rather than engaged users of the information that assessment can  produce. What we should be asking is, how can students use  assessment to take responsibility for and improve their own  learning? — Stephen Chappuis and Rick Stiggins,  “Classroom Assessment for Learning,” 2002, p. 41 28
  29. 29. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm TEST ASSESSMENT What is it? A tool that transforms classroom tests into learning  opportunities by helping students analyze their  performance and devise customized plans for  improvement (Which content objectives did I master?  Which caused me problems? What can I do to move  forward?) TEST ASSESSMENT 74 SECOND‐CHANCE TEST What is it? A tool used to give students a second  chance to take a test after they have  analyzed their errors in order to improve  their performance h i f Retention is stronger when students analyze and correct their own mistakes. — IES National Center for Educational Research          Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning 29
  30. 30. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm TEST FEEDBACK What is it? A tool that makes test‐taking experiences more  positive by giving students the opportunity to  demonstrate their knowledge of untested material  and express their feelings about their tests and express their feelings about their tests It also provides teachers with feedback about the  effectiveness of classroom instruction TEST FEEDBACK 77 What is the question? How Will I Use Writing Tasks to Have Students Synthesize and Show What They Know? Dancing in all its forms cannot be excluded from the curriculum of all  noble education; dancing with the feet, with ideas, with words, and,  need I add that one must also be able to dance with the pen?  — Friedrich Nietzsche If you detest the idea of school becoming an academic boot camp filled  f d h id f h lb i d i b fill d with six hours a day of practice multiple‐choice test questions, then you  should support student writing for its engagement, interest, and fun. If  you worry about your child’s performance in the world of high‐stakes  testing, then you too should support student writing, because it is the  skill most directly related to improved scores in reading, social studies,  science, and even mathematics. — Douglas Reeves,  Reason to Write, 2002, p. 5 30
  31. 31. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE What is it? An acronym‐based technique that helps students craft high‐ quality answers to constructed‐response items; students’  responses can then be used to assess their content knowledge  and/or writing skills  / g CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE What are some of the problems your students  have difficulty with when writing a response to  an open‐ended question? CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Eight challenges students face when writing a constructed response: 1. How to read the question carefully 2. What kind of thinking the question is asking of them 3. How to collect and organize their ideas 4. How to find their big idea 5. 5 How to use details and give supporting evidence How to use details and give supporting evidence 6. How to sequence their arguments 7. How to end a writing piece 8. How to write legibly, spell correctly, and use proper  writing mechanics 31
  32. 32. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Read the question or writing prompt slowly and  carefully Establish the purpose for writing Start by introducing your topic or thesis Provide evidence, reasons, or examples to support your  , , p pp y opening statement or thesis Organize your supporting information Nail your ending Skim your draft for errors, unclear terms/ideas, and  rough‐sounding writing Edit and polish your original response WRITING FRAMES What is it? A collection of customizable writing frames that can  be used to assess and extend student learning  WRITING FRAMES Writing Frames are extremely versatile in the sense that they  can be used in different ways and for different purposes:  • They can be used to deepen and check students’ grasp  of critical content at any point in the instructional  process (start, middle, or end of a lesson/unit).  • They can be used for both formative and summative  purposes.  • They can be used to develop specific kinds of thinking  and writing skills. • They can be used to differentiate assessment and boost  student engagement.  • They can be used to target Common Core State  Standards. 32
  33. 33. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm Compare & Contrast Identify & describe Relate personally Define Evaluate Explore possibilities Associate Argue a position Summarize Trace/sequence Interpret/analyze Validate Explain What is the question? How Will I Develop High-Quality Culminating High- Assessment Tasks and Evaluation Frameworks? What we want is to see the child in pursuit of knowledge, and not  knowledge in pursuit of the child. — George Bernard Shaw [Traditional tests] measure only narrow bands of skills. Broader  [Traditional tests] measure only narrow bands of skills Broader tests can give broader ranges of scores and help students see  where they have mastery and where they need to improve. —Robert J. Sternberg, “Assessing What Matters,” 2007/2008, p. 33 C‐LIST What is it? A tool that simplifies the process of creating rubrics and rating  scales by providing a list of criteria (a “C‐List”) to choose from  33
  34. 34. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm C‐LIST I will assess my students’ work for the following dimensions: Completion: Did the student complete the assignment in a timely and  responsible manner? Content: Does the student demonstrate a thorough understanding of the  relevant material? Competence:  Does the student’s work reflect competence in a particular skill(s)? Craftsmanship: Does the student’s work reflect care, craftsmanship, and quality? Communication:  Did th t d t C i ti Did the student communicate his or her thoughts in a clear and  i t hi h th ht i l d effective manner? Creativity: Is the student’s work creative, original, and interesting? Cooperation:  Did the student help others or contribute to the success of a  group? Character:  Did the student demonstrate positive attitudes, behaviors, or habits  of mind? Critical Thinking: Does the student’s work reflect complex and analytical thinking? Complex  Did the student approach problems in a thoughtful/logical way? Problem Solving:  PERFORMANCE TASK DESIGNER What is it? A tool that makes performance assessment tasks easier to  design by providing a planning template and a menu of  authentic tasks, contexts, and thinking skills to choose from PERFORMANCE TASK DESIGNER The Performance Assessment Designer tool helps you  design tasks that assess  students’ mastery of key content (declarative or  procedural knowledge); assess students ability to use a specific thinking process(es); assess students’ ability to use a specific thinking process(es); require students to create meaningful products; and incorporate real‐world contexts (increases authenticity and  engagement). See next page for activity sheet 34
  35. 35. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE THINKING PROCESSES Solving percentage problems Solving percentage problems Error analysis and pattern finding Error analysis and pattern‐finding You be the Teacher! TASK DESCRIPTION:  Here are six percentage problems that a student completed for homework.   Pretend that you are the teacher.  Examine the student s work, identify the  Pretend that you are the teacher Examine the student’s work identify the errors, and correct them. Then identify and explain the flaw in thinking that led  the student who jade these errors understand where he went wrong and how  to avoid making a similar type of mistake in the future. to avoid making a similar type of mistake in the future. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA • Locates and corrects mistakes Identifies and clearly explains the flaw in thinking that led to the mistakes. • Id tifi d l l l i th fl i thi ki th t l d t th it k • Designs a lesson plan that explains what the error is and how to avoid  making it. CONTEXT PRODUCT Teaching/Education Classroom lesson35 92
  36. 36. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm CONTENT KNOWLEDGE THINKING PROCESSES Different places have different  Interpreting data from brochures weather Planning what to pack The weather influences what  you wear   Packed and Ready to Go… TASK DESCRIPTION:  Look at the collection of travel brochures and pick a place that looks like it  would be fun to visit. Use the pictures on the brochure to guess what the  weather is like in that place. Then look at the pieces of clothing on your  worksheet and decide which ones you would pack if you were going there on  vacation. Cut those pieces of clothing out and paste them onto your suitcase.  Record the name of the place that you’re planning to visit and explain why you  packed what you packed. What will the weather be like? How do the clothes  that you packed “fit” with that weather? ASSESSMENT CRITERIA (not shown) CONTEXT PRODUCT Travel and Tourism  Suitcase full of clothing  and explanation 91 CONTENT KNOWLEDGE THINKING PROCESSES Solving percentage problems Error analysis and pattern‐finding You be the Teacher! TASK DESCRIPTION:  Here are six percentage problems that a student completed for homework.   Pretend that you are the teacher.  Examine the student’s work, identify the  errors, and correct them. Then identify and explain the flaw in thinking that led  the student who jade these errors understand where he went wrong and how  to avoid making a similar type of mistake in the future. ASSESSMENT CRITERIA • Locates and corrects mistakes • Identifies and clearly explains the flaw in thinking that led to the mistakes. • Designs a lesson plan that explains what the error is and how to avoid  making it. CONTEXT PRODUCT Teaching/Education Classroom lesson 92 What is the question? How Will I Differentiate Summative Assessment to Promote Success for All Students? Now, the world don’t move to the beat of just one drum, What might be right for you, may not be right for some. — Alan Thicke, Gloria Loring, and Al Burton, “It Takes Diff’rent Strokes” (theme song) Many of the students we are consigning to the dust heaps of our classrooms have the abilities to succeed. It is we, not they, who are failing. We are failing to recognize the variety of thinking and learning styles they bring to the classroom, and teaching them in ways that dont fit them well. — Robert J. Sternberg, Thinking Styles, 1997, p. 17 36
  37. 37. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm TASK ROTATION What is it? A differentiated assessment framework that uses four different  styles of tasks to test students’ grasp of critical content material 94 TASK ROTATION Sternberg and Grigorenko (2003) note that students who fail to  achieve their academic potential often fail because we have  failed to teach and assess them in ways that are consistent with  their individual talents. Task Rotation addresses this problem by  giving students the chance to “show what they know” in a way  that appeals to them and plays to their strengths. It also  h l h d l h h l prepares them to become stronger, more well‐rounded thinkers  by having them complete tasks that are outside of their normal  comfort zones.  95 Four Different Styles of Assessment Tasks  MASTERY TASKS INTERPERSONAL TASKS MASTERY TASKS assess students’ ability to remember information or  INTERPERSONAL TASKS assess students’ ability to make personal  follow procedures with accuracy and precision.  UNDERSTANDING TASKS SELF‐EXPRESSIVE TASKS INTERPERSONAL TASKS MASTERY TASKS connections to the content material and to other people. To create a Mastery task, you might ask students to To create an Interpersonal task, you might ask students to Recall important information (facts, formulas, dates, etc.) Share their feelings, reactions, or opinions about the content Define terms or concepts Connect or apply the content to their personal lives/experiences INTERPERSONAL TASKS assess students’ ability to make personal  UNDERSTANDING TASKS assess students’ ability to explain and think  MASTERY TASKS assess students’ ability to remember information or  SELF‐EXPRESSIVE TASKS assess students’ ability to express and apply  Demonstrate, describe, or follow a set of procedures Teach, work with, or offer advice to other people Put information into sequential order about the content in an analytical way. something (If you were __, what would you feel/do?) follow procedures with accuracy and precision.  their learning in new and creative ways. Create and label visual displays (charts, maps, diagrams, etc.) Personify connections to the content material and to other people. Put themselves in someone else’s shoes (real or fictional) To create an Understanding task, you might ask students tobased on personal values To create an Interpersonal task, you might ask students to To create a Mastery task, you might ask students to decisions To create a Self‐Expressive task, you might ask students to Perform calculations or procedures with accuracy Prioritize information or make List or summarize information Communicate with others (write a letter, diary entry, etc.) Share their feelings, reactions, or opinions about the content Speculate or anticipate consequences (What if __?) Compare and contrast items, ideas, events, procedures, or people Recall important information (facts, formulas, dates, etc.) Describe something or someone (who, what, when, where) Role play Analyze causes and effects Represent information non‐linguistically (Create a symbol for __.) Define terms or concepts Connect or apply the content to their personal lives/experiences UNDERSTANDING TASKS UNDERSTANDING TASKS SELF‐EXPRESSIVE TASKS SELF EXPRESSIVE TASKS Teach, work with, or offer advice to other people Create or invent something original (product, slogan, myth, etc.) Present a logical argument/support a position with evidence Demonstrate, describe, or follow a set of procedures UNDERSTANDING TASKS assess students’ ability to explain and think  SELF‐EXPRESSIVE TASKS assess students’ ability to express and apply  about the content in an analytical way. their learning in new and creative ways. Personify something (If you were __, what would you feel/do?) Explain why Put information into sequential order Discuss the implications or big‐picture significance of something To create an Understanding task, you might ask students to To create a Self‐Expressive task, you might ask students to Use a simile to illustrate their understanding of a concept or idea  Put themselves in someone else’s shoes (real or fictional) Create and label visual displays (charts, maps, diagrams, etc.) Classify and categorize Compare and contrast items, ideas, events, procedures, or people Speculate or anticipate consequences (What if __?) Analyze causes and effects Represent information non‐linguistically (Create a symbol for __.) Generate alternatives (solutions to a problem, endings to a story) Prioritize information or make decisions based on personal values Generate and test hypotheses Perform calculations or procedures with accuracy Present a logical argument/support a position with evidence Create or invent something original (product, slogan, myth, etc.) Explain why Discuss the implications or big‐picture significance of something Apply their learning to a new and different context etc.) Make or evaluate decisions using specific criteria List or summarize information a Use a simile to illustrate their understanding of a concept or idea  Communicate with others (write letter, diary entry, Classify and categorize Express their learning in a creative or artistic way Analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions about data, texts, etc. Role play Describe something or someone (who, what, when, where) Generate and test hypotheses Generate alternatives (solutions to a problem, endings to a story) Make or evaluate decisions using specific criteria Apply their learning to a new and different context Analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions about data, texts, etc. Express their learning in a creative or artistic way 96 See next page for full sheet 37
  38. 38.   MASTERY TASKS  INTERPERSONAL TASKS     MASTERY TASKS assess students’ ability to remember  INTERPERSONAL TASKS assess students’ ability to information or follow procedures with accuracy and  make personal connections to the content material precision.   and to other people. To create a Mastery task, you might ask students to   To create an Interpersonal task, you might ask  • Recall important information (facts, formulas,  students to   dates, etc.)  • Share their feelings, reactions, or opinions  • Define terms or concepts  about the content  • Demonstrate, describe, or follow a set of  • Connect or apply the content to their personal  procedures  lives/experiences  • Put information into sequential order  • Teach, work with, or offer advice to other  • Create and label visual displays (charts, maps,  people  diagrams, etc.)  • Personify something (If you were __, what  • Perform calculations or procedures with  would you feel/do?)  accuracy  • Put themselves in someone else’s shoes (real  • List or summarize information  or fictional)  • Describe something or someone (who, what,  • Prioritize information or make decisions based  when, where)   on personal values  • Communicate with others (write a letter, diary  entry, etc.)  • Role play   UNDERSTANDING TASKS  SELF‐EXPRESSIVE TASKS     UNDERSTANDING TASKS assess students’ ability to  SELF‐EXPRESSIVE TASKS assess students’ ability to explain and think about the content in an analytical  express and apply their learning in new and creative way.  ways. To create an Understanding task, you might ask  To create a Self‐Expressive task, you might ask students to   students to   • Compare and contrast items, ideas, events,  • Speculate or anticipate consequences (What if  procedures, or people  __?)  • Analyze causes and effects  • Represent information non‐linguistically  • Present a logical argument/support a position  (Create a symbol for __.)  with evidence  • Create or invent something original (product,  • Explain why  slogan, myth, etc.)  • Classify and categorize  • Discuss the implications or big‐picture  • Generate and test hypotheses  significance of something  • Make or evaluate decisions using specific  • Use a simile to illustrate their understanding  criteria  of a concept or idea Generate alternatives  • Analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions  (solutions to a problem, endings to a story)  about data, texts, etc.   • Apply their learning to a new and different  context  • Express their learning in a creative or artistic  way   38
  39. 39. Tools for thoughtful Assessment Break out Session #3 2:15pm‐3:45pm SAMPLE TASK ROTATION: Mathematics (Middle School) AREA & PERIMETER Mastery Task Interpersonal Task If a 4˝ X 10˝ rectangle were placed next  Pick your two favorite rooms at home or  to a 5˝ X 12˝ rectangle as shown in the  in school and sketch their floor plans.  figure below, what would be the area On your sketch, record the dimensions  and perimeter of the combined figure?  of the rooms (remember to indicate  units), their areas and perimeters, and  the reasons why you selected them. Criteria for success: Show and explain  Criteria for success: Complete all parts  your work. of the task and show your calculations. Understanding Task Self‐Expressive Task What is the fewest number of sides  Create a problem that asks someone to  that you must know to accurately  calculate the area and perimeter of a  calculate the area and perimeter of a  shape that you create by combining  figure like this one? two rectangles, a square, and an  equilateral triangle. Provide a detailed  Criteria for success: Explain your  answer key. reasoning. Criteria for success: The problem that  you create must be solvable using only  four measurements. SAMPLE TASK ROTATION: Social Studies (High School) “I HAVE A DREAM” Mastery Task Interpersonal Task Pretend that you are a reporter assigned to cover  If you had been on the National Mall that day  Dr. King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Write an article  with the hundreds of thousands of other people  about what you saw and heard.  who came to hear Dr. King speak, how do you  think you would you have felt? Describe your  Criteria for success: Your article should indicate  feelings in a diary entry. when, where, and why the speech was given. It  Criteria for success: Describe how you would have  should also summarize Dr. King’s dream. felt and why you would have felt that way. Be  specific: What aspects of the speech, the crowd, or  the overall scene would have triggered those  feelings? Understanding Task Self‐Expressive Task Has Dr. King’s dream been realized? Write a one or  Dr. King’s speech was so rich with images and  two paragraph response to this question. metaphors that people could see his dream in  their minds as he spoke. What did you see when  Criteria for success: Take a clear position and  you listened to his speech? Draw your vision of Dr.  support that position with specific evidence and King’s dream on paper. Identify at least three  examples. specific lines or passages that inspired your  image. Criteria for success: Your completed product  should illustrate your understanding of the  specific passages that you selected. It should also  convey a general understanding of Dr. King’s  hopes and dreams for the future.  What is the question? How Will I Help Students Reflect on, Learn from, and Celebrate Their Achievements? By three methods we may learn wisdom: first, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest. — Confucius Teachers who promote reflective classrooms ensure th t T h h t fl ti l that students are fully engaged in the process of making meaning. They organize instruction so that students are the producers, not just the consumers, of knowledge. To best guide children in the habits of reflection, these teachers approach their role as that of "facilitator of meaning making.” — Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick, Learning and Leading with the Habits of Mind, 2008, p. 222 39