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Primary & Secondary Research

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Covers sources such as surveys, questionnaires, and Wikipedia. Also describes common APA style guidelines that can help students avoid plagiarism.

Covers sources such as surveys, questionnaires, and Wikipedia. Also describes common APA style guidelines that can help students avoid plagiarism.

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  • 1. Primary & Secondary Research Avoiding Plagiarism Karen O’Hara November, 2012
  • 2. Primary Research:Surveys & Questionnaires Some information in this presentation comes from s3.amazonaws.com/SurveyMonkeyFiles/SmartSurvey.pdf
  • 3. Primary research• Includes interviews, surveys, questionnaireshttp://youtu.be/SsZySkZ8bRo
  • 4. Why use a survey/questionnaire?• Gather people’s opinions about a particular topic• Find out who is using a product (identify your customer base)• Measure customer satisfaction• Identify trends over time• Get the latest information about a topic (something that publications would not have)• Back up a plan or recommendation with hard data (e.g., show that people support what you propose to do)
  • 5. Survey preparation• Know exactly what you want to find out (objectives)• Write questions that will yield the information you need• Put yourself in the place of the respondents: Keep It Simple, Sweetie• Consider how you will “crunch” the data that you get. – Statistics or personal narratives? Or both?
  • 6. Survey TipsBrief: The shortest way to ask the question is always the best.Objective (Impartial): Don’t lead users toward the answer yousecretly want or try to cater to someone’s ego or pride. Don’tassume users are familiar with your topic.Simple: Use plain language, no double-barreled questionsSpecific: Be precise; don’t use words like “often, usually,generally”; don’t use unexplained abbreviations or acronyms
  • 7. Question Types• Open-Ended: respondents answer in their own words – Pros: good for learning about attitudes, feelings, likes/dislikes, opinions – Cons: take effort to fill out and to evaluate• Close-Ended (multiple choice or multiple answer) – Yes/No questions – Radio button: only one choice can be selected – Checkboxes: multiple choices can be selected • Pros: easy to analyze, allows users to skip irrelevant questions • Cons: may not cover all possible answers
  • 8. Other Question Types• Ranked or Ordinal: rating scales; rank numerically from most important to least important• Matrix & Rating Types: rank or rate from low to high – Likert scale: agree/disagree scale; assigns a score to each rating (typically 1 to 5) – Semantic differential: opposite ends of the scale marked with two different or opposing statements
  • 9. Other tips• Research performed on human subjects is often subject to regulations and review.• Respect respondents’ privacy; omit personal information unless it’s absolutely necessary.• Keep your data 100% secure (require passwords or encryption).
  • 10. Secondary Research:Library and Wikipedia
  • 11. Wikipedia Research Wikipedia: Beneath the Surfacehttp://www.lib.ncsu.edu/tutorials/wikipedia/
  • 12. Citing Research
  • 13. Tips for citing research• Take careful notes about your sources: author, title of work, publisher, URL, page numbers, dates, etc.• “Better cite than sorry” – Cite all images and graphics – Cite theories, concepts & ideas – If you copy & paste from the web, add a citation IMMEDIATELY.• Use citation managers (offered by most libraries & some web browsers)
  • 14. More tips for citing research• Paraphrase, but be careful to give credit – Paraphrased text does not require quotation marks – Add in-text citation at end of quote• Surround direct quotations with quotation marks. – Indent it if it runs more than 3 lines. – Add in-text citation at end of quote
  • 15. American Psychological Association (APA) style in-text citationsIn-text citations: – Author’s last name – Publication year – Page number, if availableExample: In class, we learned that technicalwriters use APA citation style for theirresearch (O’Hara, 2012).*APA style is preferred in technical fields because itemphasizes year of publication
  • 16. Full APA citation style– Author’s last name and initials– Publication year– Italicized title of work (not underlined)– City & publisher OR retrieval date & URLExamples:O’Hara, K.M. (2012). Some web page. Retrieved March 14, 2012, from http://www.somewebsite.comO’Hara, K.M. (2012). Some book. Hamilton, OH: My House Publications.
  • 17. Special Situations From http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on- references.aspx
  • 18. Web page with no author?• Move title to the first position of the reference entry. Example: New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/stor y_13178.asp• Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title, in quotation marks) and the year. ("New Child Vaccine," 2001)
  • 19. Personal communications (interviews, email, surveys)• If the information is retrievable (published) use the appropriate reference format (both in References and in-text.)• If the information is not retrievable (not published), it should be cited in-text only. Example: (G. Smith, personal communication, April 5, 2011)• No name citation is needed for remarks made by participants in the research on which you’re reporting (e.g., surveys)
  • 20. Social Media (Twitter, Facebook)• Currently no guidelines; adapt it to the style used for web pages• General usage: President Hodge uses Twitter (http://www.twitter.com/PresHodge) to keep the university up to speed on his activities and interests.– In-text citations of a particular post: President Hodge recognized the importance of interns in local organizations (PresHodge, 2012).– For reference list entries:PresHodge. (2012, August 12). Terrific piece about how Miami interns impact the organizations they work for. http://cincyentre.com/2012/08/19/#miamioh #miamiu [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/PresHodge/status/237255102325485568
  • 21. The EndFollow me on TwitterVisit my WorkplaceWriting Blog