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  • There is a similar text in Warmer: Breeze 9 OPTIONAL Teachers may prefer to use a different warmer activity.
  • To raise awereness of the importance of teaching writing and the place of writing in daily life. Ask teachers why they wrote and how they felt while writing. You can ask a different question … What do you write in real life? What do your students write in the classroom. The aim of this slide is to draw teachers’ attention to the fact that in real life we are motivated, we have a purpose and we know the audience. Therefore it is real and authentic.
  • guided fantasy. Imagine that you don’t have a pen, a pencil, computer, mobile phones, pagers, or any means of writing. How would the life be like?For example in the school, in personal affairs, official business....
  • Elicit from the audience first. Emphasize that writing is a more challenging skill that we can’t use non-verbal clues everything has to be clear in a piece of writing. The reciever does not have the chance to ask for clarification. Therefore everything has to be well organized and well ordered.
  • Elicit from the audience and then show your answer key. Sts are not genereally enough time to plan and think about topic or they are not provided with enough background knowledge. So assign them some research on that topic on the internet the night before. Sts sometimes write irrelevant information in their writing. Because of L1 interference sts may not use punctuation rules appropriately. Because of L1 interference Turkish users tend to use a lot of idiomatic problems. And they think if they use a lot of linkers and cohesive devices their writing will look better. Sts do not have the habit of using dictionaries and they do not know how to make use of dictionary.
  • Turkish and English writing rhetoric is different and therefore student have difficulties in organization. Students are not given a purpose, they do not know the audience, topics are not authentic As they do not have the necessary vocab to fullfil the writing task they use direct translation It is claimed that sts do not like reading or writing but they all use text messages and the internet. This is something that teachers should consider while preparing their writing tasks. OPTIONAL : Problems can be discussed within the groups and the participants are encouraged to find possible solutions.
  • If we know what constitutes writing and the elements of writing, we can handle the difficulties easily. Explain that syntax, grammar, word choice and mechanics comes more from the students and the content, process, organization, audience , purpose has to be led by the teacher or in the control of the teacher.
  • Show the same writing task applied to the two approaches, process and product. Elicit what the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches. Emphasize that both of them are good but process approach emphasizes what learners do during the writing process.
  • Planning : generating ideas, rapid writing, vocabulary generaitng, mind mapping, researching, background reading, brainstorming and selecting the relelvant ideas and coming up with an outline to get the learners ready for the task so that they have an idea what to write. Drafting and Editing : Student writes the first draft and get feedback on the content and organization. They rewrite and this time they get feedback on the grammar, vocabulary and punctuation. They rewrite again and the process goes. If you need, you can show samples of mind mapping, brainstorming, rapid writing, etc.
  • Different type of activities for CONTROLLED-GUIDED-FREER WRITING ACTIVITIES will be added later and these activities will be chosen from the coursebooks.
  • What is the problem with this student paper? Teacher corrected every mistake, T. Provided full correciton and T. Did not respond to the content.
  • Elicit the error correction techniques that teachers use while providing feedback to student writing and WE explain the necessary techniques and give examples. We provide our suggestion key. And ask teachers to order these techniques from very controlled to less controlled.
  • Using such a set of codes will surely help you to minimize the time that you spend while correcting the mistakes. Moreover, as the correct answer is not given by the teacher, the student has to revise his/her production and correct the mistakes.
  • If the mistakes is above the students level we have to provide them full correction but if the mistake is related to something that they have practiced recently use error codes or just underline, less teacher controlled techniques. Be selective and decide wht you would like to focus on. But the sts should know what the teachers will focus on while giving feedback. Being awere of the students’ need.
  • Writingufuktan

    2. 2. Guess What? Mersin 11 January Istanbul Massachusetts Shiraz & Merlo
    3. 3. (A Light-hearted Personality Profile)
    4. 4. <ul><li>If the cat is drawn : </li></ul><ul><li>toward the top of the paper, </li></ul><ul><li>you are a POSITIVE, OPTIMISTIC person </li></ul><ul><li>toward the middle of the page, </li></ul><ul><li>you are a REALIST </li></ul><ul><li>toward the bottom of the page, </li></ul><ul><li>you are PESSIMISTIC and have a tendency to BEHAVE NEGATIVELY </li></ul><ul><li>facing left, </li></ul><ul><li>you believe in TRADITION, are FRIENDLY, and remember DATES including birthdays </li></ul><ul><li>facing forward (looking toward you) </li></ul><ul><li>you are DIRECT, enjoy playing DEVIL’S ADVOCATE, and neither FEAR nor AVOID DISCUSSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>facing right, </li></ul><ul><li>you are INNOVATIVE and ACTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>with many details, </li></ul><ul><li>you are ANALYTICAL and CAUTIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>with few details, </li></ul><ul><li>you are EMOTIONAL and care little for details and are a RISK-TAKER </li></ul><ul><li>with fo u r legs showing, </li></ul><ul><li>you are SECURE, STUBBORN, and stick to your IDEALS </li></ul><ul><li>the size of the cat’s ears indicate how GOOD A LISTENER the artist is – the larger the ears the better. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Yo Jenna, R U OK? Thr’s a gr8 party 2nite @ the Club Odeon. Will u b able 2 come? Hope 2 c u there. All the gals gonna b there. Y don’t we go 2gether. W8 4 me @ the station if im l8. FYI, James gonna b there 2 LOL :) BTW party starts @ 11 pm. O me asap. </li></ul><ul><li>C u 2nite. </li></ul><ul><li>LUWAMH </li></ul><ul><li>XOX </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>To r a i se awareness of importance of teaching writing </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the difference between speaking and writing </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the common learner problems in writing </li></ul><ul><li>To suggest some solutions to common learner problems </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss how to exploit coursebooks in line with the curriculum for writing activities </li></ul><ul><li>To familiarize with some classroom activities . </li></ul>AIMS OUTLINE
    7. 8. What have you written in the last 24 hours?
    8. 10. Life without writing ?
    9. 11. Differences between W riting & S peaking S PEAKING WRITING We acquire it We learn how to read and write Spontaneous Planned Speakers use pauses and intonation Writers use punctuation Speakers use simpler sentences Writers use more complex sentences Speakers can evaluate the attitudes, beliefs, and feelings of their audience by their verbal and non-verbal reactions Writers must consider what and how much their audience needs to know about a given topic
    10. 12. <ul><li>Timing ( they need much time) </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence ( it is sometimes difficult for the students ) </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Poor use of dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Writers’ block. </li></ul>Common Learner Difficultie s
    11. 13. <ul><li>Lack of cross-cultural awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Need for motivation and readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Habits of direct translation </li></ul><ul><li>Being reluctant to write either in L1 or L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Having differences between L1 and L2 syntactic features. </li></ul>
    12. 15. What does writing cons ist of? SYNTAX Sentence structure, stylistic choices etc. CONTENT Relevance, clarity, originality etc GRAMMAR Verbs, agreements, articles etc. ORGANIZATION Paragraphs, topic and support, cohesion and unity WORD CHOICE Vocabulary, idiom, tone WRITER’S PROCESS Getting ideas, drafting, revising AUDIENCE The readers PURPOSE Reason for writing MECHANICS Handwriting, spelling, punctuation etc. WRITING
    13. 16. <ul><li>Look at two different writing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions </li></ul><ul><li>Point out the differences. </li></ul>
    14. 17. What are the strengths of this writing task?   How would you further improve this writing task?
    15. 19. Product oriented approach <ul><ul><li>Focus on the final product, the coherent, error free text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of ideas more important than ideas themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I ndividual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitation or copying tasks for learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy focus on accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence level grammar very important which then leads to text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No focus on discourse... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P rocess approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There will never be a perfect text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on discourse and higher order choices like audience, purpose and genre determine lower order ones, grammar, word choice etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on creative process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on feedback </li></ul></ul>
    16. 20. The Process Wheel Final Version Harmer, J.2004
    17. 21. <ul><li>Genre theorists –language is there to fulfil certain functions </li></ul><ul><li>Each genre has specific functions which determine language, organization, content etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of models through text analysis . </li></ul>Genre Approach
    18. 22. <ul><li>WRITING TASK </li></ul><ul><li>WRITE ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>OF ETHICS IN DAILY LIFE? </li></ul>
    19. 24. STAGES IN A WRITING LESSON Pre-writing While-writin g Post - Writing
    20. 25. <ul><li>Brainstorming for ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping / Drawing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid writing </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting data. </li></ul>Pre-writing stage is the time for the student to explore topics via
    21. 26. Possible While-writing Activities <ul><li>Controlled Writing Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Guided Writing Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Free r Writing Activities </li></ul>
    22. 27. <ul><li>Dictation </li></ul><ul><li>Gap-filling </li></ul><ul><li>Re-ordering words </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution tables (mechanical) </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution (meaningful) </li></ul><ul><li>Answering the questions </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Correct the facts . </li></ul>Some Examples for Controlled Activities
    23. 28. Activity: Banana dictation
    24. 29. <ul><li>Writing Activity : DICTATION </li></ul><ul><li>It was a 2 day in 5 . I was in 9 and I was drinking some 14 . Suddenly the phone rang. It was 3 and friends.They were 15 because I was late. So, I put on my 1 10 and picked up my 13 . I made sure that 4 the 7 had some 8 , and left. I quickly travelled by 6 and went to 11 .When I arrived, I was surprised to see my friends were 12 there! </li></ul><ul><li>………………………………………………………………………………………………… .. </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Favourite colour </li></ul><ul><li>2. Adjective for the weather </li></ul><ul><li>3. Favourite actor/singer </li></ul><ul><li>4 . Favourite boy’s/girl’s name </li></ul><ul><li>5 . Favourite month </li></ul><ul><li>6 . Favourite transport </li></ul><ul><li>7. Favourite animal </li></ul><ul><li>8. Favourite food </li></ul><ul><li>9. Favourite place(town/country etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>10 . Favourite article of clothing </li></ul><ul><li>11. Favourite shop </li></ul><ul><li>12 . Favourite action(in ‘ing’ form) </li></ul><ul><li>13 . Favourite object </li></ul><ul><li>14 . Favourite drink </li></ul><ul><li>15 . Favourite emotion </li></ul>
    25. 30. Activity : Substitution Writing
    26. 31. Activity: Correct the facts /mistakes : Rewrite the sentences so they match the picture. Yesterday in the bazaar I saw an old man sitting in a chair. He was selling eggs. It was raining … .
    28. 34. Story Square Look at the letters in the grid. Can you write them out to make a story? Think about where to put capital letters, full stops, commas and speech marks . A little boy was walking along the road when he saw a man shaking powder on the ground . He asked him ……… ……………………………………………………………………………….. a l i t t l e b o y w a s w a l k i n g a l o n g t h e r o a d w h e n h e s a w a m a n s h a k i n g p o w d e r o n t h e g r o u n d h e a s k e d h i m w h a t i t w a s f o r t h e m a n s a I d i t w a s a n t i e l e p h a n t p o w d e r t h e b o y t o l d h I m t h a t h e h a d n e v e r s e e n e l e p h a n t s t h e r e t h e m a n s a i d s e e i k n e w t h i s p o w d e r w o r k e d  
    29. 35. SPACED OUT   Can you write this story out again putting the spaces in the correct places between the words?   Myfri endis call edTo mHeh asgo tbro wnhair a ndblue eyes andheh as go ton es is terand ape t do gcal ledP oke mon Yes ter da yweh ada fig htbe cau sehe to okmy G ame Bo yan dlef tito nthe b usIh ithi mand hek icked meIv ego tab iglump onmy legno wb uthes go tab ig blac key eIl ike myfr i end T om al ot  
    30. 36. Activity : You will form two teams. One person from each group will hear a word. S/he &quot;writes&quot; the word in the air and others guess what it is. The team with more correct answers wins the game.
    31. 37. <ul><li>provide an additional supported step towards independent writing. </li></ul><ul><li>enable the teacher to tailor the teaching to the needs of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>encourage the children to be active participants in discussions about writing in order to build confidence . </li></ul>Guided Writing Activities
    32. 38. <ul><li>Incomplete sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Reading a short text and rewriting the text </li></ul><ul><li>Completing the end of the story </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Mad Ads (adverts) . </li></ul>Some Examples for Guided Writing Activities
    33. 39. Activity: U se S tory S cripts Write a story according to the pictures.
    34. 42. Activity: M ake U p Y our O wn S tory It was a sunny day. Garden School bus Doctor Frog Police Plane
    35. 43. Activity: 11 Stories <ul><li>Create a story according to the headline in a newspaper/magazine </li></ul><ul><li>Create a story according to the given pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Create a story according to the prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Writing alternate ending </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing the story </li></ul><ul><li>Changing/Rewriting the story </li></ul>
    36. 44. Activity: Little red riding Hood <ul><li>Sequence the pictures according to the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Write alternative funny/ scary/ weird endings. </li></ul>
    37. 45. Activity: Think of ways to stay healthy. Write notes. Compare your notes with your friends. Use the graphic organizer.
    38. 51. Activity: Wish Tree
    39. 52. Activity: Wish Tree
    40. 53. Activity: Wish Tree
    41. 54. Activity : Work in groups of 5. Make a grid with 7 columns. Write category titles in columns: Name, Plant (Vegetable or fruit), Animal, Object, Adjective, Place (city or country), and Celebrity. I will say a letter and you will find one answer for each category in 30 seconds. The group with more correct answers gets a point.
    42. 55. Name Plant (Vegetable or fruit) Animal Object Adjective Place Celebrity Ann apple antelope accordion amazing Argentina Arnold Schwarzenegger
    43. 56. Activity : Fill in the speech bubbles.
    44. 62. Activity: Work in groups of 5. Create a product that you think will sell. Name it. Decide on a slogan, and write an advertisement for your product.
    45. 63. Totashi Choose the product ( What is it? ) Prepare a poster Choose a Motto Prepare a jingle ( You will sing it) Shoot a video film ( act in the classroom) Sell us
    46. 64. Mad Ads e.g. “ Pokia.. Today something we do will touch your life” (an advert for mobile phone) Students’ production: “Pokia.. Today something we do will destroy your life” 
    47. 65. <ul><li>Students read a text, e.g. about a famous person. And they are asked to write a sample paragraph by making use of this paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>They see an example of a quiz show, interview or a dialogue from a Tv programme etc.. and they make their own product. </li></ul>Free r Writing Activities Some Examples for free r writing activities
    48. 72. Post-writing <ul><li>After writing about the topic they have studied, the students are asked to speak about it to reinforce their speaking ability . </li></ul>
    49. 73. <ul><li>ERROR CORRECTION </li></ul>
    50. 75. <ul><li>Teacher provides full correction </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher underlines the mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher underlines the mistakes and uses error codes to indicate the type of the error </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher indicates on the right margin that there is a mistake </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher puts a number next to the mistakes and mentions in her summarizing comments the type of the error </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher underlines the mistakes and provides options. </li></ul>Common written error correction techniques
    51. 76. “ It’s the message I sent last week. Apparently, it was found by an English teacher. He’s corrected the spelling mistakes and sent it back.”
    52. 77. Correction Code <ul><li>ww wrong word - My mother is a house. </li></ul><ul><li> ww </li></ul><ul><li>T wrong tense - I go cinema yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li> T </li></ul><ul><li>wo word order – I like don’t apples. </li></ul><ul><li> wo </li></ul><ul><li>P punctuation – I like apples pears and oranges. </li></ul><ul><li> P </li></ul><ul><li>// new paragraph needed </li></ul><ul><li>sp s pelling mistake – Last yaer we went to Side. </li></ul><ul><li> sp </li></ul><ul><li>^ missing word – On Monday, I went to cinema. </li></ul><ul><li> ^ </li></ul>
    53. 78. Writing Activities
    54. 79. What to consider while giving feedback? <ul><li>Profiency level of the learners </li></ul><ul><li>The learner </li></ul><ul><li>Level objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the writing task </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s purpose. </li></ul>
    55. 80. <ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Vary </li></ul><ul><li>Arouse curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Age-appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Consider different learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback on time. </li></ul>
    56. 83. [email_address]