History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine
Greek Civilization
• Greece is a small country in Europe.
• Greece is near the Mediterranean
Sea.
• The main part of Greece in on a
peninsula...
Ancient Greece
•2.1 Archaic Greece
•2.2 Classical Greece
•2.3 Hellenistic Greece
•2.4 Roman Greece
Geography of Greece
• Greece is a small country in Europe.
• Greece is near the Mediterranean
Sea.
• The main part of Gree...
Located in southeastern Europe, Greece is defined by a series of mountains and
surrounded on all sides except the north by...
• GREECE WAS SURROUNDED ON 3 SIDES BY
SEA, WITH INNUMERABLE ISLANDS OF
ARCHIPELAGO. GREEKS WERE GREAT
SAILORS, AS THEY WER...
Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Phoenicians
The three cultures
that influenced the
development of
Greek civilization
8PLAN OF THE PALACE OF KNOSSOS, CRETE 1700 – 1380 BCE
9
RECONSTRUCTED LIGHT WELL
PALACE OF KNOSSOS, CRETE
LOCATED ON THE UPPER STOREY, THIS LIGHT-WELL
IS LOCATED DIRECTLY ABOVE...
THIS FABLED CITY WAS STRATEGICALLY SITUATED TO CONTROL MAJOR
TRANSPORTATION ROUTES IN THE VICINITY. THE ENCLOSING WALLS IS...
AT MYCENAE, THE PALACE
MEGARON IS THE LARGEST ROOM,
ROUGHLY 40’ SQUARE. BASES FOR
THE FOUR COLUMNS THAT
SUPPORTED THE ROOF...
GREEK HISTORY: AN OVERVIEW
Greek CIVILIZATION started around 2000 B.C. By 1600 B.C., the Greek people
had built fortified ...
13
Greek CITIES
GREEK CITY PLANNING WAS NOT ALWAYS AS ASYMMETRICAL & EVOLUTIONARY IN FORM AS THE AGORA IN
ATHENS. THE GREE...
Greek City-States
• Because Greece is made up of many islands, and has many tall
mountains, the Greeks began to build city...
Greek City-States
• Shared a language & letters
• Remained independent of each other
• Each region had a Polis
• Each regi...
Structure
of the
City-States
Polis Acropolis
Agora
Polis
A city-state in ancient
Greece
Polis • Each polis was a nation of
its own
• developed because land
was isolated by mountains
or water
• common language
•...
Parthenon
Erechtheum
Erechtheion
Pinakotheke Theater of
Dionysius
King’s
Shrine
Sanctuary of
Asclepius
Odeum of Herodes
At...
ACROPOLIS
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter
and safety in times of war and met to discuss...
Agora
• A central area in Greek cities used both as a
marketplace and as a meeting place.
22
Athens
23
PLAN OF THE PARTHENON COMPLEX
THE ACROPOLIS IS A PLATEAU RISING ABRUPTLY ABOVE THE PLAIN OF THE CITY. FROM THE EARLIEST...
The POLIS (city-state) consisted of a city and its surrounding plains and valleys.
The nucleus of the polis was the elevat...
25
THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 479BCE
(FROM THE ENTRANCE SIDE)
THE REMAINS OF THE PROPYLAEA TO
THE LEFT AND THE TINY TEMPLE OF
A...
26
THE PERSIANS CONTROLLED
MESOPOTAMIA & THE IONIAN GREEK
AREAS AROUND THE AGEAN SEA IN ASIA
MINOR FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE ...
27
EXTERIOR OF THE CELLA WALL, AND ACTUAL USE OF
THE IONIC ORDER IN THE WESTERN
OPISTHODOMOS (BACK ROOM) THAT HOUSED THE
T...
28
SCULPTED FIGURES ADORNED BOTH THE OUTSIDE AND THE INSIDE OF THE PANTHENON. THE 2 END PEDIMENTS WERE
FILLED WITH OVER – ...
29
THEATER EPIDAUROS,350-200BCE
THE THEATRE AT EPIDAUROS IS EXCEPTIONALLY WELL PRESERVED AND BEAUTIFULLY SITED IN THE LAND...
30
PLAN OF THE THEATER EPIDAUROS,
350 – 200 BCE
VIRTUALLY EVERY GREEK CITY HAD ITS OWN THEATER THAT COULD ACCOMMODATE A GO...
31
STOA OF ATTALOS, ATHENS 159 – 132 BCE
THIS BUILDING WAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE CITY BY ATTALOS OF PERGAMON. IT IS RECONSTUC...
32
PLAN OF PAESTUM (POSEIDONIA) 7TH CENTURY BCE
THIS GREEK COLONIAL CITY WAS LAID OUT WITH ELONGATED BLOCKS ON THE ORTHOGO...
Four major TYPES OF GOVERNMENT evolved in ancient
Greece:
• Monarchy (rule of a king) limited by an aristocratic council a...
Monarchy
Some city-states had a single ruler
Oligarchy
In some city-states, a small group of the richest and most powerful
citizens controlled decision-making
Democracy
Rule by the citizens
37
THEGREEKORDERS
38
THE LANGUAGE OF ARCHITECTURE: THE THREE ORDERS OF COLUMNS USED IN GREEK
ARCHITECTURE
VITRUVIUS, THE ROMAN ARCHITECT WHO...
39
BUILDERS OF THE EARLY DORIC TEMPLES MADE USE OF
LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIAL, MOST OFTEN LIMESTONE.
THIS IMPOSED STRUCTUR...
40
THE IONIC HAS A BASE SUPPORTING ITS FLUTED COLUMN SHAFT
AND A CAPITAL WITH VOLUTES (SCROLLS). ITS ENTABULATURE IS
ALSO ...
41
CORINTHIAN CAPITAL, THOLOS,
EPIDAUROS 360 – 330 BCE
LAVISH CORINTHAIN CAPITALS LIKE
THIS COMBINED IONIC VOLUTES
WITH TH...
Socrates
• Socrates was a philosopher
of Ancient Greece.
• A philosopher is someone
who tries to explain the
nature of lif...
Plato
• Plato was a student of Socrates.
• He started a school called The
Academy.
• Plato’s writing took the form of a
di...
Aristotle
• Aristotle was another Greek
philosopher and student of
Plato.
• He wrote about science, art,
law, poetry, and ...
Alexander the Great
• Alexander the Great was the son of
King Phillip II of Macedonia.
• Alexander conquered Persia, Egypt...
Alexander’s Empire
Greek religion was polytheistic.
Assignment
1. Minoans
2. Mycenaeans
3. Phoenicians
4. Time period of ancient Greece
5. Geographic peculiarities and differ...
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Greek

  1. 1. History of Architecture(Year 1) By Anjith Augustine Greek Civilization
  2. 2. • Greece is a small country in Europe. • Greece is near the Mediterranean Sea. • The main part of Greece in on a peninsula. • A peninsula is a body of land surrounded by water on three sides. • The rest of Greece is made up of islands.
  3. 3. Ancient Greece •2.1 Archaic Greece •2.2 Classical Greece •2.3 Hellenistic Greece •2.4 Roman Greece
  4. 4. Geography of Greece • Greece is a small country in Europe. • Greece is near the Mediterranean Sea. • The main part of Greece in on a peninsula. • A peninsula is a body of land surrounded by water on three sides. • The rest of Greece is made up of islands.
  5. 5. Located in southeastern Europe, Greece is defined by a series of mountains and surrounded on all sides except the north by water.
  6. 6. • GREECE WAS SURROUNDED ON 3 SIDES BY SEA, WITH INNUMERABLE ISLANDS OF ARCHIPELAGO. GREEKS WERE GREAT SAILORS, AS THEY WERE SAILING TOWARDS MEDITERRANEAN IN SEARCH OF FOOD, TRADE AND ADVENTURE, THEY WERE LOOKING FOR NEW PLACES TO BUILD GREEKS CITIES AND OUTPOSTS. • WHILE SAILING THEY CAME ACROSS A TRIBE OF PEOPLE LIVING ON AN ISLAND IN CRETE. THESE PEOPLE WERE THE MINOANS, THEY WERE VERY ADVANCED CIVILIZATION FOR THEIR TIMES. • GREEKS HAD ABUNDANCE OF STONE ESPECIALLY MARBLE FOUND NEAR ATHENS • THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS THERE WERE MODERATE NEITHER TOO HOT NOR TOO COLD. • OUTDOOR LIFE SUITED THEM . 6
  7. 7. Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Phoenicians The three cultures that influenced the development of Greek civilization
  8. 8. 8PLAN OF THE PALACE OF KNOSSOS, CRETE 1700 – 1380 BCE
  9. 9. 9 RECONSTRUCTED LIGHT WELL PALACE OF KNOSSOS, CRETE LOCATED ON THE UPPER STOREY, THIS LIGHT-WELL IS LOCATED DIRECTLY ABOVE THE THRONE ROOM. THE FRESCO SHOWN HERE IS A RESTORATION AS FAR AS WE KNOW KNOSSOS WAS UNFORTIFFIED. AS MAJOR CEREMONIAL ROOMS WERE LOCATED PARTIALLY UNNDER GROUND, STAIRS TO REACH THEM WERE CONSTRUCTED AROUND OPEN SHAFTS TO BRING LIGHT AND FRESH AIR TO LOWER LEVELS. THE ORIGINAL WOODEN COLUMNS AND SUPPORTING BEAMS WERE DESTROYED IN THE FIRE THAT CONSUMED THE PALACE AROUND 1380 BCE
  10. 10. THIS FABLED CITY WAS STRATEGICALLY SITUATED TO CONTROL MAJOR TRANSPORTATION ROUTES IN THE VICINITY. THE ENCLOSING WALLS IS COMPOSED OF ROUGHLY SHAPED BOULDERS. PLAN OF THE CITADEL MYCANAE 1600 – 1250 BCE 10
  11. 11. AT MYCENAE, THE PALACE MEGARON IS THE LARGEST ROOM, ROUGHLY 40’ SQUARE. BASES FOR THE FOUR COLUMNS THAT SUPPORTED THE ROOF ARE STILL VISIBLE, AS IS THE CENTRAL HEARTH. THIS PART OF THE PALACE WAS BUILT IN PART ON FILL, SUPPORTED BY RETAINING WALL, AND THERE IS STILL A SPLINDID VIEW OUT OVER THE VALLEY FROM THE COURT IN FRONT OF THE MEGARON. TO THE NORTH, A SMALLER ROOM WITH A STUCCOED POOL HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED AS A BATHING ROOM. THE CITADEL OF MYCENAI WAS SURROUNDED BY SMALLER SETTLEMENTS, PERHAPS COMPRISING OF EXTENDED FAMILY GROUPS WHO LIVED IN HOUSES CLOSELYL ASSOCIATED WITH THE TOMBS OF THEIR ANCESTORS. NINE OF THESE TOMBS HAVE BEEN FOUND IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. 11
  12. 12. GREEK HISTORY: AN OVERVIEW Greek CIVILIZATION started around 2000 B.C. By 1600 B.C., the Greek people had built fortified cities in the major valleys and many people were educated. Greece then had several wars, including the Trojan War around 1200 B.C., which threw them into what is known as the Dark Age. During the DARK AGE, knowledge of writing was lost and most people lived in isolated villages. The Dark Age ended in about 800 B.C when the Greeks started to write again with an alphabet based on that of the Phoenicians. During that time, many city-states emerged and struggled with each other for power for hundreds of years after that. In 480 B.C., the Greeks UNITED to defeat the invading Persians, but the alliance didn’t last long. Around 477 B.C., two city-states, ATHENS AND SPARTA, became the dominant powers in that region and constantly fought each other for power. Greece had its GOLDEN AGE in Athens around 477 - 431 B.C.
  13. 13. 13 Greek CITIES GREEK CITY PLANNING WAS NOT ALWAYS AS ASYMMETRICAL & EVOLUTIONARY IN FORM AS THE AGORA IN ATHENS. THE GREEKS WERE PERFECTLY CAPABLE OF PRODUCING REGULAR, ORTHONONAL TOWN PLANS AND FREQUENTLY EMPLOYED THEM FOR COLONIAL CITIES, AS MAY BE SEEN AT PAESTUM (POSEIDONIA), WHICH A STREET PATTERN FROM THE MID- SEVENTH CENTURY BCE THAT PRODUCED HUGE, ELONGATED, RECTANGULAR BLOCKS. WHILE MANY CITIES GREW ORGANICALLY OVER TIME, OTHERS WERE REBILT, OFTEN AFTER SUFFERING WAR DAMAGE, ACORDING TO THE NEW, MORE REGULAR TOWN PLANNNING PRINCIPLES. SUCH WAS THE FACE IN THE 5TH AND 4TH CENTURIES BCE, WHEN A NUMBER OF TOWNS WERE PROVIDED WITH GRID BLOCKS & CAREFULLY CONSIDERED OPEN SPACES AND ORTHOGAL AGORA.
  14. 14. Greek City-States • Because Greece is made up of many islands, and has many tall mountains, the Greeks began to build city-states instead of one country. • A city-state is a city with its own laws, rulers, and money. • City-states were cities that acted like countries.
  15. 15. Greek City-States • Shared a language & letters • Remained independent of each other • Each region had a Polis • Each region was built around an acropolis
  16. 16. Structure of the City-States Polis Acropolis Agora
  17. 17. Polis A city-state in ancient Greece
  18. 18. Polis • Each polis was a nation of its own • developed because land was isolated by mountains or water • common language • depend on one another to survive. • met every year at a great athletic contest known as the Olympics.
  19. 19. Parthenon Erechtheum Erechtheion Pinakotheke Theater of Dionysius King’s Shrine Sanctuary of Asclepius Odeum of Herodes Atticus (Roman) Stoa of Eumenes The Acropolis of Athens
  20. 20. ACROPOLIS a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
  21. 21. Agora • A central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place.
  22. 22. 22 Athens
  23. 23. 23 PLAN OF THE PARTHENON COMPLEX THE ACROPOLIS IS A PLATEAU RISING ABRUPTLY ABOVE THE PLAIN OF THE CITY. FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES, THE ROUTE TO THE PANATHENAIC WAY FROM THE CIVIC COMMERCCIAL CENTER ( THE AGORA) TO THE ACROPOLIS TRAVERSED A WINDING STEPPED PATH UP THE WESTERN ESCARPMENT. AS MOST GREEK TEMPLES FACE EAST, THIS MEANS THAT THE INITIAL VIEW THAT ONE HAS IS OF THE BACK SIDES OF THE BUILDINGS. IT HAS A DIGNIFIED SYMETRICAL ENTRANCE WAY AMID ASYMMETRIES ACCOMMODATING A FRAGMENT OF THE ORIGINAL MYCENAEYAN FORTIFICATION WALL AND A GRADIENT CHANGE THRU THE DEPTH OF THE BUILDING.
  24. 24. The POLIS (city-state) consisted of a city and its surrounding plains and valleys. The nucleus of the polis was the elevated, fortified site called the ACROPOLIS where people could take refuge from attack. With the revival of commerce, a TRADING CENTER developed below the acropolis-Agora
  25. 25. 25 THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 479BCE (FROM THE ENTRANCE SIDE) THE REMAINS OF THE PROPYLAEA TO THE LEFT AND THE TINY TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE IN THE CENTER STAND OUT IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE GABLE END OF THE PARTHENON VISIBLE ON THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM BELOW OF THE ACROPOLIS, ATHENS THE PARTHENON TEMPLE SITS ON THE HIGHTST GOUND AND STILL DONINATES THE MODERN CITY. PART OF THE ERECHTHEION IS VISIBLE AT THE EXTREME LEFT, WHILE THE TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE STANDS AT THE FAR RIGHT SIDE. IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND REMAIN THE RUINS OF THE RAMS AND STAIRS THAT LED TO THE PROPYLAEA. THE PARTHENON IS FIRST SEEN AT AN ANGLE & THRU A SCREEN OF COLUMNS
  26. 26. 26 THE PERSIANS CONTROLLED MESOPOTAMIA & THE IONIAN GREEK AREAS AROUND THE AGEAN SEA IN ASIA MINOR FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE 6TH BCE. IN 480 BCE THE PERSIANS ATTACKED THE GREEK PENINSULA AND DESTROYED ATHENS BUT WERE FINALLY DEFEATED BY THE GREEK NAVY. ATHENS THEN DEVELOPED AS THE LEADING CITY ON THE MAINLAND . IT UNITED WITH IONIAN CITIES TO BETTER ITS MIGHT. A CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF MONEY WAS SPENT ON REBUILDING THE RAVAGED ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS, WHICH HAD BEEN A MILITARY, POLITICAL, AND RELIGIOUS SANCTUARY SINCE MYCENAEN TIMES. THE 4 BUILDINGS ERECTED THERE AFTER 479 BCE USHERED IN THE MATURE PHASE OF GREEK ARCHITECURE KNOWN AS THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (479 – 323 BCE) THE PARTHENON ATHENS, 448 – 432 BCE THIS IS HOW THE PARTHENON APPEARS TO SOMEONE LEAVING THE PROPYLAEA AND LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AS IS THE CASE WITH MANY GREEK TEMPLES, THE BUILDING IS SET SO THAT THE VIEWER LOOKS UP TO IT AND SEES TWO SIDES AT ONCE.
  27. 27. 27 EXTERIOR OF THE CELLA WALL, AND ACTUAL USE OF THE IONIC ORDER IN THE WESTERN OPISTHODOMOS (BACK ROOM) THAT HOUSED THE TREASURY, WHERE 4 IONIC COLUMNS SUPPORT THE ROOF. THE USE OF 8 COLUMNS ACROSS THE GABLE END, UNUSUAL IN DORIC, HAS CONNECTIONS TO THE EARLIER IONIC TEMPLES. BEHIND THEM AT EACH END STAND SIX PROSTYLE COLUMNS, OR COLUMNS IN FROM OF THE EAST AND WEST WALLS. ENTASIS , WHICH WAS RATHER HEAVY HANDED IN THE TEMPLE OF HERA AT PAESTUM , WAS USED SUBTLY HERE TO CREAT A SENSE OF REPOSE. MINUTE ADJUSTMENTS IN THE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL LINES OF THE STRUCTURE ENHANCE THE PERCEPTION OF ORTHOGONAL GEOMETRY: THE STYLOBATE ( THE PLATFORM FROM WHICH THE COLUMNS RISE) IS ACTUALLY CONVEX UPWARD; THE COLUMNS INCLINE IMPERCEPTIBLE AWAY FROM THE VIEWER; AND THE CENTRAL AXES OF THE COLMNS ARE NOT VERTICAL BUT LIE ALOND RADII EMANATING FROM A POINT OVER 6800’ ABOVE THE GROUND. THE COLUMNS ARE NOT THE SAME DIAMETER – THE END ONES ARE LARGER – NOR ARE THEY EQUIDISTANTLY SPACED; THE CORNER ONES ARE CLOSER TOGETHER. THE PARTHENON, ATHENS IT WAS THE LARGEST AND MOST FAMOUS OF THE GREEK TEMPLES, DEDICATED TO ATHENA POLIAS, PATRON GODESS OF THE CITY. AFTER THE PERSIANS DESTROYED THE 0LD TEMPLE OF ATHENA, A NEW PERIPTERAL TEMPLE, DESIGGNED BY THE ARCHITECTS IKTINOS AND KALLIKRATES WAS BUILT OF THE FINEST MARBLE FROM MOUNT PENTELIKOS (PENTELIC MARBLE). IT WAS BUILT ON THE SAME SITE AS THE PREVIOUS TEMPLE, WITH ENLARGEMENTS AND PROBABLY MADE USE OF COLUMN DRUMS AND METOPES CARVED FOR THE OLDER TEMPLE. IT IS A DORIC TEMPLE, 8 COLUMNS WIDE X 17 COLUMNS DEEP, BUT IT INCORPORATES IONIC ATTRIBUTES, INCLUDING SLENDER COLUMN PROPORTIONS, A CONTINUOUS FRIEZE AROUND THE
  28. 28. 28 SCULPTED FIGURES ADORNED BOTH THE OUTSIDE AND THE INSIDE OF THE PANTHENON. THE 2 END PEDIMENTS WERE FILLED WITH OVER – LIFESISE FIGURES REPRESENTING, ON THE EAST, THE BIRTH OF ATHENA WHINESSED BY THE DOGS, AND ON THE WEST , THE CONTEST BETWEEN ATHENA AND POSEIDON FOR CONTROL OF ATHENS. THE METOPES CONTAINED RELIEF SCUPLTURES DEPICTING STRUGGLES BETWEEN GREEKS AND AMOZONS. GREEKS AND TROJANS, GODS AND GIANTS, AND LAPITHS (PEOPLE OF THESSALONIA) AND CENTAURS (CREATURES COMBINING THE UPPER TORSOS OF MEN WITH THE B ODIES OF HORSES), ALL COMMEMORATING THE TRIUMPH OF GREEKS CIVILIZATION OVER BARBARIANISM.
  29. 29. 29 THEATER EPIDAUROS,350-200BCE THE THEATRE AT EPIDAUROS IS EXCEPTIONALLY WELL PRESERVED AND BEAUTIFULLY SITED IN THE LANDSCAPE, LOOKING OUT TO DISTANT HILLS. TRADITION ASSIGNS ITS DESIGN TO POLYKLEITOS, ARCHITECT OF THE THOLOS, BUT NOT ALL SCHOLARS AGREE WITH THIS ATTRIBUTION. THE THEATER WAS BUILT IN 2STAGES, THE LOWER 5000 SEATS IN 34 TIERS DATING FROM 350 BCE, WHITH THE UPPER 23 TIERS BEING ADDED IN THE SECOND STAGE. 5TH CENTURY ATHENIANS CONSTRUCTED THE THEATER OF DIONYSOS ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ACROPOLIS HILL, USING THE RISING EMBANKMENT TO PROVIDE SUPPORT FOR A CONCENTRIC SEATING FOCUSED ON THE CIRCULAR ORCHESTRA, A FLAT AREA FOR DANCING. BEHING THE ORCHESTRA WAS A BACKDROP STRUCTURE, THE SKENE, & THE ARE DIRECTLY IN FRONT, THE PROSKENION, WAS A RAISED PLATFORM FROM WHICH ACTORS DECLAIMED THEIR LINES. (NOTE H OW THIS TERMINOLOGY CONTINUES TO BE USED TODAY; THE FRAMING ARCH OVER THE STAGE OF TODAY’S THEATERS IS KNOWN AS THE PROSCENIUM, WHILE THE ORCHESTRA SEATS ARE THOSE PLACED DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF THE STAGE). SEVERAL DOORS SET IN THE SKENE SERVED AS ENTRANCES & EXISTS AS NEEDED IN THE DRAMA, AND ACTORS SPOKE LINES FROM THE GODS FROM THE ROOF O FTHE BUILDINGS.
  30. 30. 30 PLAN OF THE THEATER EPIDAUROS, 350 – 200 BCE VIRTUALLY EVERY GREEK CITY HAD ITS OWN THEATER THAT COULD ACCOMMODATE A GOOD PORTION OF THE POPULATION, AS ATTENDING FRAMATIC PERFORMANCES WERE ENCOURAGED TO PROMOTE CIVIC VALUES
  31. 31. 31 STOA OF ATTALOS, ATHENS 159 – 132 BCE THIS BUILDING WAS CONTRIBUTED TO THE CITY BY ATTALOS OF PERGAMON. IT IS RECONSTUCTED FORM, IT AND THE HEPHASTEION ARE THE ONLY STRUCTURES FORM ANTIQUITY REMAINING IN THE ATHENIAN AGORA. THE COLUMN FILE ORGAIZATION OF THE STOA CAN BE TRACED BACK TO EGYPTIAN COMPLEXES SUCH AS THE TEMPLES OF QUEEN HATSHEPSUT & MENTUHOTEP. TOWN PLANNING WENT BEYOND SPECIFYING THE LOCATION OF THE CIVIC BUILDINGS, THE LAYOUT OF STREETS, AND THE POSITIONING OF OPEN SPACES, TO ENCOMPASS DESIGN OF TYPICAL SINGLE – FAMILY HOUSES FOR AN ESTIMATED POPULATION OF 15,000 TO 20,000. HOUSES WERE CONSISTENTLY ORIENTED WITH THEIR MAJOR ROOMS OPENING TO THE SOUTH, AND THE MEGARON FORM ALREADY FAMILIAR FROM MYCENAEAN TIMES WAS USED AGAIN AS THE BASIC LIVING UNIT OF THE HOUSE. DURING HELLENISTIC PERIOD BOTH ARCHITECTURE & T.P. BECAME MORE ELLABORATE AND THEATRICAL.
  32. 32. 32 PLAN OF PAESTUM (POSEIDONIA) 7TH CENTURY BCE THIS GREEK COLONIAL CITY WAS LAID OUT WITH ELONGATED BLOCKS ON THE ORTHOGONAL PATTERN. ACROSS THE CENTER WAS THE PULIC SECTOR, WITH COMMERCIAL STRUCTURES, GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, & TEMPLES, INCLUDING THE TEMPLE OF HERA. THIS SITE WAS SUBMERGED BY THE SEA DURING THE MIDDLE AGES BUT IS LOCATED AGAIN ON DRY LAND TODAY
  33. 33. Four major TYPES OF GOVERNMENT evolved in ancient Greece: • Monarchy (rule of a king) limited by an aristocratic council and a popular assembly. • Oligarchy (rule of the few) arising when the aristocratic council ousted the king and abolished the assembly. • Tyranny (rule by one who ruled without legal authority) riding to power on the discontent of the lower classes. • Democracy (rule of the people), the outstanding political achievement of the Greeks.
  34. 34. Monarchy Some city-states had a single ruler
  35. 35. Oligarchy In some city-states, a small group of the richest and most powerful citizens controlled decision-making
  36. 36. Democracy Rule by the citizens
  37. 37. 37 THEGREEKORDERS
  38. 38. 38 THE LANGUAGE OF ARCHITECTURE: THE THREE ORDERS OF COLUMNS USED IN GREEK ARCHITECTURE VITRUVIUS, THE ROMAN ARCHITECT WHOSE FIRST – CENTURY BCE TREATISE WAS BASED IN PART ON EARLIER, NOW LOST, GREEK TEXTS, NAMES THREE SUCH ORDERS : 1 ) THE DORIC 2) THE IONIC & 3) THE CORINTHIAN. THE DORIC , THE STURDIEST, WAS BASED ON THE PROPORTIONS OF A MAN. THE IONIC, WAS LIGHTER IN CHARACTER TO REFLECT THE PROPORTIONS OF A WOMAN THE CORINTHIAN, SLENDEREST OF ALL, HAD A HIGHLY DECORATED CAPITAL TO SUGGEST THE FORM AND PROPORTIONS OF A YOUNG MAIDEN. THE DORIC ORIGINATED ON THE MAINLAND OF GREECE, WHILE THE IONIC DEELOPED ON THE ISLANDS OF THE AEGEAN AND THE COAST OF ASIA MINOR. THE CORINTHIAN ORDER ONLY APPEARED LATER. EACH ORDER HAS ITS OWN PARTICULAR COMBINATION OF ELEMENTS. THE DORIC COLUMN HAS NO BASE AND HAS THE SIMPLEST CAPITAL ATOP THE FLUTED SHAFT; ITS ENTABULATURE CONSISTS OF A PLAIN ARCHITRAVE AND ALTERNATING METOPES AND TRIGLYPHS IN THE FRIEZE, WHICH IS CROWNED WITH A CORNICE.
  39. 39. 39 BUILDERS OF THE EARLY DORIC TEMPLES MADE USE OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIAL, MOST OFTEN LIMESTONE. THIS IMPOSED STRUCTURAL LIMITATIONS ON THE LENGTH OF SPANS FOR LINTELS AND THE DIAMETER OF COLUMNS NEEDED TO SUPPORT THE HEAVY TILE ROOF. IONIC TEMPLES USED MARBLE, A SUPERIOR STONE, AND THUS HAD A MORE SLENDER PROFILE. AT PAESTUM IN SOUTHERN ITALY, THE TEMPLE OF HERA IN THE FORMER COLONIAL CITY OF POSEIDONIA IS ONE OF THE MOST SUBSTANTIAL OF SURVIVING ARCHAIC TEMPLES. BUILT IN ABOUT 550 BCE, IT HAS STURDY DORIC COLLUMNS. THE COLUMN SHATS SWELL, THEN DIMINISH, AS THEY RISE TO THE BULBOUS ECHINUS MOULDING THAT FORMS THE CAPITAL. THIS CHANGE IN SOLUMN DIAMETER IS CALLED ENTASIS, AND IT WAS THOUGHT TO BE COMPARABLE TO THE MASCULAR STRENGTH OF AN ARM OR LEG, EXPRESSING VISUALLY THE PHYSICAL LOAD SUSTAINED BY THE SHAFT. EACH FLUTE IS THE COLUMN HAS A PRECISE EDGE, AN ARRIS, WHERE THE CURVED SECTIONS OF ADJACENT FLUTES INTERSECT, AND THESE ARRISES RUN ABSOLUTELY STRAIGHT UP THE SHAFT ON EVERY COLUMN. ABOVE THE ECHINUS IS A FLAT SQUARE BLOCK, THE ABACUS, WHICH PROVEDES THE TRANSITION FROM THE CYLINDRICAL FORM OF THE COLUMN TO THE RECTANGULAR AND LINEAR ARCHITRAVE ABOVE. JOINTS BETWEEN LIMESTONE BLOCKS ARE EASILY SEEN AT PAESTUM, AND THE LLIMITED SPANNING CAPABILITY OF THE STONE IS REFLECTED IN THE CLOSE COLUMN SPACING . TEMPLE OF HERA AT PAESTUM 550 BCE THE END ELEVATION OF NINE STURDY COLU,NS, WITH ENTASIS, CAPITAL WITH FLATTENED ECHINUS PROFILES, AND SUBSTANTIAL ABACUS BLOCKS, ALL SUPPORTING AN ENTABLATURE. NOTICE HOW SHADOWS CAST BY FLUTING ON THE COLUMN SHAFTS ENHANCE THE SENSE OF VOLUME
  40. 40. 40 THE IONIC HAS A BASE SUPPORTING ITS FLUTED COLUMN SHAFT AND A CAPITAL WITH VOLUTES (SCROLLS). ITS ENTABULATURE IS ALSO COMPOSED OF AN ARCHITRAE AND FRIEZE. THERE IS REGIONAL VARIATION IN THE IONIC : ALONG THE COAST OF ASIA MINOR, THE FRIEZE IS USUALLY TREATED AS THREE STEPPED BANDS OF MASONRY. WHILE ON THE MAINLAND OF GREECE THE FRIEZE OFTEN FEATURES CONTINUOUS SCULPTED RELIEF. A CORNICE OFTEN WITH DENTILS CONCLUDES THE ORDER. THERE WAS ALSO GENERAL CONVENTIONS REGULATING THE PROPORTIONS OF THE PARTS, THE OVERALL HEIGHT, AND THE COLUMN SPACING, WHICH THE ANCIENT GREEKS ADJUSTED ACCORDING TO PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES. ITALIAN ARCHITECTS OF THE RENAISSANCE 2000 YEARS LATER CODIFIED THE PRACTICE INTO A SET OF MATHEMATICAL RATIONS BASED ON THE COLUMN’S DIAMETER AT THE BASE, BUT MEASUREMENTS OF SURVIVING TEMPLES PROVIDE NO EVIDENCE THAT THE GREEKS EVER REDUCED TEMPLE DESIGN TO A SINGLE FORMULA. THE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE WERE THUS AT ONCE SPECIFIC AND FLEXIBLE, NOT A RESTRICTION FOR DESIGNERS BUT AN EXPRESSIE MEDIUM THAT COULD BE ADAPTER TO PECIFIC CIRCUMSTANCES. THE ORIGINS OF THE ORDERS REMAIN OBSECURE. VITRUVIUS MAINTAINS THAT THE ORDERS WERE DERIVED FROM EARLIER ARCHITECTURE IN WOOD, A MATERIAL THAT WE KNOW WAS ONCE USED FOR TEMPLES. EVEN AFTER WALLS AND COLUMNS WERE BUILT IN STONE, WOODEN BEAMS CONTINUED TO BE USED FOR FRAMING THE ROOF, SO THESE HAVE NOT SURVIVED. THE IONIC ORDER AS FOUND ON THE NORTH PORCH OF THE ERECHTHEION, ATHENS. THE IONIC’S DECORATIVE FLOURISHES MAY RELFECT INFLUENCE FROM ORIENTTAL SOURCES. ALTHOUGH THE ENTABLATURE IS SIMPLER THAN THE DORIC’S ITS CAPITALS AND BASES ARE SUBJECT TO CONSIDERABE ARTISTIC INTERVENTION
  41. 41. 41 CORINTHIAN CAPITAL, THOLOS, EPIDAUROS 360 – 330 BCE LAVISH CORINTHAIN CAPITALS LIKE THIS COMBINED IONIC VOLUTES WITH THE LEAVES OF THE ACANTUS PLANT, WHICH IS STILL COMMONLY FOUND IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA. ONLY PENTELIC MARBLE OR OTHER STONE WITH SO FINE A GRAIN ALLOWS FOR THE CARVING OF SUCH FINE DETAIL.
  42. 42. Socrates • Socrates was a philosopher of Ancient Greece. • A philosopher is someone who tries to explain the nature of life. • Socrates taught by by asking questions. This method of questioning is still called the Socratic method.
  43. 43. Plato • Plato was a student of Socrates. • He started a school called The Academy. • Plato’s writing took the form of a dialogue between teacher and student.
  44. 44. Aristotle • Aristotle was another Greek philosopher and student of Plato. • He wrote about science, art, law, poetry, and government.
  45. 45. Alexander the Great • Alexander the Great was the son of King Phillip II of Macedonia. • Alexander conquered Persia, Egypt, the Middle East and Northern India. • He died at age 33 from malaria.
  46. 46. Alexander’s Empire
  47. 47. Greek religion was polytheistic.
  48. 48. Assignment 1. Minoans 2. Mycenaeans 3. Phoenicians 4. Time period of ancient Greece 5. Geographic peculiarities and different cities 6.Greek city states-overview 7. Parthenon 8. Acropolis 9. Agora 10. THEATER EPIDAUROS,350-200BCE 11. STOA OF ATTALOS, ATHENS 12. Different governing systems 13. Doric order 14. Ionic order 15. Corinthian order 16. Philosophers 17. Alexander and his empire 18. Optical correction-Parthenon 19. City planning-Athens 20- polis-Sparta 21- Iron grid planning 22- beginning of olympics

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