ISLAND NEIGHBOURHOOD COCHIN towards a sustainable future… A Thesis submitted to: The School Of Planning And Architecture, New Delhi (Deemed to be a University) In fulfillment of the requirements for: The degree in Bachelors in ArchitectureStudio Co Ordinator: Dr.Aruna Ramani Grover Anjith AugustineThesis Guides: I.M.Chisti, Rajiv Agarwal 5th Yr. B.Arch.Studio Faculty: Dr. Arvind Krishan ,Professor Satish K Dabral, A/1853/06Ar.Arun Rewal, Ar.Sambuddha Sen, Ar.Malpani, SPA,Ar.Vinod Gupta, Ar.Sweta Manchanda,.Ar.M.L.Bahri.Prof.S.Auluck New Delhi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere thanks to my thesis guides Prof. I.M.Chisti &Ar. Rajeev Aggarwal for guiding me through out the research and design process, for theirsuggestions and inputs at critical stages of design translation that finally helped to shape theidea. It was their timely interventions that led to the formulation of this thesis which otherwisewould have ended just as an idea which didn’t conceive. I would deeply thank Prof. Aruna Ramani Grover, Studio Director, for thesystematic structuring the design studio so as to make it a gradual process of learning andapplication; for her regular evoking insightful discussions. The program helped me tounderstand my thesis well and respond to the needs well. Last but not the least, my deepest gratitude goes to Hang fen, Krishna Verma andDondetti Karthik for being a support through the design development and for showing thedifferent aspects for the same. I would thank my friends Harshidh, Ojaswini, Vivek, Iyaz, Shashank, Preeti,Protyosha, Kota and Abhishek for the much needed pep talks and discussions and all those whomade this thesis come alive. Last but not the least to my parents and the Almighty for guiding me through thiswonderful experience.Anjith Augustine Towards a sustainable future…
DECLARATION The research work embodied in the thesis titled Island Neighbourhood Cochinhas been carried out by the undersigned as part of the undergraduate program in theDepartment of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002, Indiaunder the supervision of Prof.I.M.Chisti and Ar. Rajeev Agarwal.The undersigned hereby declares that this is his original work and has not been plagiarized inpart or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree inthis or any other University.----------------------(Anjith Augustine)A/1853/2006 May 2011
CERTIFICATE Certified that the thesis titled, Island Neighbourhood, Cochin submitted inpartial fulfillment of the requirements of the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture, is thebonafide work of Anjith Augustine who carried out the research work under our supervision inthe Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002.Further certified that to the best of our knowledge the work reported herein does not form anyart of any other thesis or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred onan earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.We recommend that the thesis be placed before the examiners for their consideration for theaward of a Bachelors Degree.Guide Guide________________ _________________Professor I.M.Chisti Ar. Rajiv AgarwalDepartment of Architecture Department of ArchitectureSchool of Planning and Architecture School of Planning and ArchitectureNew Delhi – 110002 New Delhi – 110002 _________________ (Dr.Aruna Ramani Grover) Thesis Co-ordinator Department of Architecture School of Planning and Architecture New Delhi – 110002
PART 1- DESIGN INVESTIGATION PART 2- DESIGN TRANSLATION CHAPTER 1.0- THE SEARCH CHAPTER 6.0- DESIGN IDEATION • Synopsis • Conception • Area of Concern • References from study • Realization • Hypothesis CHAPTER 7.0- DESIGN EVOLUTION • Research-exploration • Design process • Project more than a project CHAPTER 2- THE RESEARCH CHAPTER 8.0- FINAL DESIGN 2.1.0- (Re)search • Drawings • Introduction • Area program achieved • Primary research • 3d views • Secondary research • Physical model • Tertiary research • inferences Bibliography 2.2.0- Case Studies • Classification of cases • Case studies • inferences CHAPTER 3.0- DESIGN PROJECT • Functional components-MASTER PLAN • Functional components-SITE PLAN • Area program • Program analysis • Inferences CHAPTER 4-THE SITE 4.1.0- Study City Scale • Location • Demography • Physiography • Heritage/culture • Transport • Port • services • Inferences 4.2.0- Study Site Specific • Location • Prescient • Morphology • Physiography • Transport • Ecotect analysis • InferencesCHAPTER 5.0- INFERENCES& DESIGN DETERMINANTS• Inferences• Design determinants
SYNOPSISTHESIS SEARCH The thesis develops from a realization that the problems the current metropolitans are facingshouldn’t be the case with the growing metropolitans. It is possible to determine the urban fabric of the new metrosby careful urban intervention. The end to all the problems, cities are facing today can be through a new vision for the city itself.First and foremast the need for the new city is a carbon neutral development, a city where the net emission is zero, acity where net discharge is zero. This will be the key to all the future cities. In short a city which rather than exploit thenature but contribute to and enhance the nature.exploring the possibilities of a sustainable development.Understand the possibilities of implementing these strategies in the Indian subcontinent and its effects.To develop strategies that leads to a minimum footprint development, but in turn are compactible with the IndiancontextTo create typologies or replicable patterns of the traditional techniques making it more viable and productive. Thiswill be developed in two tiersMaster plan levelModule level SITE The site is an island lying between City and the new container terminal. Hence the site carries lots of importance in terms of its future prospects. Also the future city is likely to expand into this island. So to demonstrate the right way to go ahead in designing these future expansions and the way the new city should come up is my thesis about. PROGRAM The objective of the thesis is to develop a carbon Area Division neutral neighborhood in the Indian context that can resolve issues which the current metropolitans are facing .to demonstrate the feasibility of a carbon neutral environment in the Indian context using Residential traditional methods as well as the technological improvisations. Socio-cultural Whos program is this? office This program is prepared myself considering various Shopping factors and constraints that’s becomes determinants in the development of a carbon neutral environment and also the existing bye laws.
SYNOPSISCASE STUDIES DONGTON MASDARCase studies were done in three levels at a planning level architectural level and at a technologylevel. Dongton and Masdar a master plan for a zero carbon city in china and Muscat respectively.DESIGN EVOLUTION
AREA OF CONCERN During my short span of interactions within thearchitectural community, the 5 yrs. of architecturaleducation and related work fields, I have comeacross only one crucial topic being pondered upon.The problems of the existing metropolitans. Howthe present Indian metropolitans are insufficient,how they are due to the urban interventionsbecame a disturbance to the urban fabric, how theydestroyed the ecological balance and so on and soforth. But all these discussions ended up as merediscussions and not realizations. MUMBAIThe problems the present metropolitans like Delhiand Mumbai are facing are true to every detail butwhat next?REALIZATIONDiscussions over the existing metropolitans shouldlead to a realization that at least the problemswhich the present metropolitans are facingshouldn’t be the case with the growingmetropolitans. We still have time ,talent andtechnology to change the future of the springingmetros. It is possible to determine how the urbanfabric of the new metros should look like by carefulurban intervention.HYPOTHESIS The end to all the problems, cities are facing todaycan be through a new vision for the city itself. To DELHIbreak away from the conventional way of urbandesigning, and built the future city(if we can callso.) Here decentralization and multiple cities andsimilar concepts come into play. But first andforemast the need for the new city is a carbonneutral development, a city where the net emissionis zero, a city where net discharge is zero. This willbe the key to all the future cities. In short a city ?which rather than exploit the nature but contribute COCHINand enhance the nature. Hence the new city is acarbon neutral one.
RESEARCH-EXPLORATION The research begins by exploring the possibilitiesof a sustainable development. Research will be tounderstand this development and what are thedeterministic factors which goes into designing aspace of such quality. From the existing examplesworld wide to develop a critical understanding ofsuch developments and to analyze them from anarchitects point of view. SLOPING ROOFSFurther the research will be to understand thepossibilities of implementing these strategies inthe Indian subcontinent and its effects.The exploration will be to develop strategies thatleads to a minimum footprint development, but inturn are compactible with the Indian context.The project will be an exploration in this directionto showcase the possibility of developing a COURTYARD LIGHTINGsustainable environment with the help of thestrategies developed within the frame of research.This will be developed in two tiersMaster plan levelModule level VENTILATION PATTERNAnalyzing traditional architectural techniqueswhich can bring effective reduction in carbonfootprint and integrating these principles in thedesign.To create typologies or replicable patterns of thetraditional techniques making it more viable andproductive. WATER AS A CENTRAL FACILITYFAÇADE TREATMENTS SHADED YARDS TEMPLE STREETS
PROJECT MORE THAN A PROJECTThe thesis will search the need for a new visionfor future development. The thesis will go deep REPLICABLEinto the probabilities of a possible carbon neutral DEVELOMENTfuture MODULEdevelopment which can be a model to thegrowing cities. Cochin is chosen as the area of MASTER PLANintervention since I personally am attached to thiscity , which is a growing metropolitan fastdeveloping into one of the major power houses ofIndia.SCOPEThe thesis will envisage a master plan for the sitelaid out with the carbon neutral aspects put intofrom. The layout will speak of architecturalinterventions in the master plan.Further the development is concise into a • Developing the master planprototype which can act as the module for further With all networks.such development. The reason for choosing the • Development of a carbon neutralsite is to have a set of given constraints since the module that will generate thepracticality of carbon neutral development largely master plan.lies in the site conditions.LIMITATIONS The project will be hypothetical inThe thesis will look into the carbon neutral aspectsof the development only in an architects terms of its generation but theperspective, leading to more architectural constraints provided will be real,solutions, both in the master plan as well as the hence the solution also tends to bemodule. real.This is a list of the most populous citiesdefined according to the concept of cityproper (an urban locality without itssuburbs).CITY DENSITIESManila:430/hctrDelhi:291/hctrKolkata:277/hctrChennai:255/hctrMumbai:229/hctr residentialCochin:62/hctrAssuming a density of 200/hctr Office spaceTotal site area:130acre=50hctrPopulation catering to:10000 ppl(residents) commercialCommuters:20000ppl transit
RESEARCHIntroduction to research understand the project tries to demonstrate the feasibility of acarbon neutral development in the Indian contextwhich can enhance the sustainable future of the developcountry as well as solve the issues of themetropolitans of the present.The project demands a direction which leads to a implementzero carbon environment development whichneeds study in the same topic based on existingtechnologies and case studies.The study can be broadly classified into threestages. PRIMARY RESEARCH: carbon neutral developmentThis part of the study involves the basicunderstanding of the concept of a carbon neutraldevelopment to its core which becomes theplatform for a design translation. The study willinclude all existing data analyses regarding carbonneutral conceptSECONDARY RESEARCH: architectural strategiesadoptable for zero carbon environmentOnce the concept of carbon neutrality isunderstood the secondary stage will try to researchon strategies that can be adoptable for a carbonneutral development. This may include referencesfrom existing and proposed projects as well asliterature.TERTIARY RESEARCH: modularizing traditional andadvanced technologiesSpecific strategy development will be done fromthe traditional methodologies and new agetechnologies which will be analyzed and formulatedo develop a module which can be replicable innature for further such developments.
RESEARCH PRIMARY RESEARCH: carbon neutral developmentUnderstanding the concept of carbonneutral development will include thefollowing step by step process.:• Understand the terminologies carbon neutral, carbon footprint, carbon offset..• Define major carbon emitting sources.• Understand the scope of the project and confine the emission sources taken into consideration• Define carbon neutral with respect to a neighborhood• Calculate and estimate the emissions from a project of similar scale to that of the program• Compare and analysis the emissions with other similar projects• Understand the international standards for a carbon neutral development• Understand the major emitters in numbers• Estimate the carbon footprint needed to negate and bring the project to a KYOTO PROTOCOL zero carbon point. Red marked countries are not committed to any reduction Yellow full reduction and green minimal reduction
RESEARCHZero Energy Design (ZED) differs from Carbon Neutral Design (CND) in that it is more concernedwith the reduction of the operating energy requirements for a building, focusing on the eventualuse of zero fossil energy. The official ASHRAE definition for a Net Zero Energy building is“buildings which, on an annual basis, use no more energy than is provided by on-site renewableenergy sources.”Design With Climate", 1963, by Victor Olgyay was the first book to take a critical look at theneed to relate building design to climateTargeting Carbon: Reduce, Renew, OffsetZED and CND buildings:- begin the design with a positive acknowledgment of their climate, location and orientation- take advantage of the sun to reduce their energy requirements- take advantage of the wind to reduce their energy requirements- employ a high degree of passive solar heating to reduce their energy requirements- employ a high degree of natural ventilation to reduce their energy requirements- manipulate the microclimate around their buildings to temper the environment- use shading devices and vegetation to control summer over heating- employ a high degree of day lighting to reduce their energy requirements- have a broader acceptable range of temperature and humidity when assessing occupant comfort- are typically super insulated if located in a cool to cold climate- use higher quality glazing systems to control heat flow- interior finishes include thermal mass to store the free heat they capture from the sun- use highly efficient mechanical, electrical and plumbing equipment- generate their own electricity through wind turbines, photovoltaics and micro generationfacilities- their goal is to be able to generate more electricity than they require for operation- include occupant education as part of their design strategy to ensure the proper, energy efficientlong term use of the buildingTo build carbon neutral also suggests a paradigm shift from the classic 3 Rs, reduce, reuse andrecycle, to Reduce, Renew and Offset:Reduce - build less, protect natural ecosystems, build smarter, build efficiently.Renew - use renewable energy, restore native ecosystems, replenish natural building materials,use recycled and recyclable materials.Offset - compensate for the carbon you cant eliminate, focus on local offset projects. Carbonoffsetting is gaining popularity, but it needs to be remembered that purchased offsets cannot begenerated in adequate quantity to perpetuate and sustain our current practices.
RESEARCH High energy wind turbinesSECONDARY RESEARCH: architecturalstrategies adoptable for zero carbonenvironmentSecondary research will include the developmentof strategies based on the studies, case studiesand literature surveys. The process will include thefollowing :• Analyzing the core issues by putting up the main carbon emission sources in frame• Looking into case studies, literature and proposals for existing strategies• Resolving each issue separately by studies and bringing forth viable options.• Develop architectural strategies from these studies that resolves the issue.modularizing traditional and advancedtechnologiesThis will include the rationalization of strategiesdeveloped from the second stage. Strategies aremodularized for further replication in the Indiancontext which is the only viable option for lesserfootprint. This stage of research will follow thebelow given strategy:• Search for traditional methods and modern age technologies that aids sustainable development Vetical greens• Developing and incorporating this methods COURTYARD LIGHTING into the design in a viable manner.• Possibility of modularizing these methods to make it a replicable unit Flexible solar cells WATER AS A CENTRAL FACILITY
RESEARCH“It has become apparent that urban waterfronts, whether natural or artificial arenow prime pieces of real estate, essential ingredients in forming a communityimage ,valuable stages for architectural display and great places for publicrecreation”Grady clay 1998 TERTIARY RESEARCH: water front development strategiesThe site has the peculiar advantage of waterfrontage on both sides with the longer sidetowards water. Hence its important tounderstand water front development in detailto develop feasible design output for the site.The search will incorporate sustainable waterfront development strategies and also study theprecautions to be taken for such a Venicedevelopment. The study will be as follows:• Elements of water front development• Planning strategies and design guidelines for such development• Sustainable water front development• Different typologies of water front development• Case studies Interface between water and land Coastal development Water front development Water side developmet cochin To study the possibilities of a water transport, its implications, precautions etc. will be covered in this part of research.
INTRODUCTIONCase studies plays an important role in the developmentof the thesis aiding it at different levels from micro tomacro. A zero carbon urban intervention is possibleonly with the help of existing and proposed similar casestudies. A study of strategies thus become crucial indesign exploration. The case studies will impact thethesis in 3 levels.PLANNING LEVELThis will include the in depth study of planning in anurban scale. Strategies involved in the development ofcarbon neutral communities are studied in detail withexamples which are live. This study will includevehicular, orientation, linkages, morphology… study willbe done to understand zero carbon neighborhoods andsustainable water front development.ARCHITECTURAL SCALEStudy at architectural scale will include architecturalinterventions in built level which aids a net zerocarbon built environment. Live examples will bestudied in detail to understand the various strategies.This will include orientation, spacing, envelope design,ventilation, climatic response,circulation,program..DETAIL STUDYDetail study will include specific interventions thatcan help in the design development. It may or my notbe from a particular case but from different cases atvarious levels.For example a strategy used in traffic control in oneproject and façade treatment used in another will bestudied in particular in this part of case studies.INFERENCESInferences will be drawn out of the case studies andconcluded to form basis for the design development.
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOOD –URBAN SCALELOCATION: Wallington, South LondonUKDATES: planning begun 1999,completed 2002TYPE: new construction on formerbrown field siteUSE: residential, office/ workspace,open spaceSIZE: 3.5 acres, 1.42 hectaresPEOPLE: 240 residents (100 units), 100workersACTORS: Peabody Trust, BioRegionalArchitect: Bill Dunster Architects,ENERGY &ENGINEERINGCONSULTANTS: Ove Arup and PartnersQUANTITY SURVEYORS:Gardiner andTheoboldPROJECT INTRODUCTION The Beddington Zero EnergyDevelopment (BedZED) is the UK’slargest carbon-neutral eco-community– the first of its kind in the country.Completed in 2002, BedZED wasdeveloped by the Peabody Trust inpartnership with Bill Dunster Architectsand BioRegional Development Group(environmental consultants).BedZED is a mixed-use, mixed-tenuredevelopment that incorporatesinnovative approaches to energyconservation and environmentalsustainability.The design is to a very high standardand is used to enhance theenvironmental dimensions, with strongemphasis on roof gardens, sunlight,solar energy, reduction of energyconsumption and waste waterrecycling.
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOOD Urban contextPROGRAM The site is situated in a dense residential suburb• 100 ECO HOMES of wellington in south London. Activity I s mainly• 1,405 SQUARE METERS OF residential . The site edge is the main road WORK SPACE connecting city to wallington town. The proposal• COMMERCIAL SPACE was an end product of the decision by UK to go• EXHIBITION CENTRE carbon neutral by 2036. the proposal was a live demonstration of the possibilities of zero carbon• CHILDREN’S NURSERY neighborhoods which is achievable with proper• SHOW FLAT interventions. N Bedzed pavillion Dunster bill zed factory residential City road
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOODPROGRAM• 100 eco homes –the projects main built includes 100 residential homes• 1,405 square meters of work space – work space for the residents are provided along side to bring forth the concept of work and live together.• Commercial space- basic commercial needs are satisfied by providing a commercial center• Exhibition center- bed zed pavilion is an exhibition center demonstrating the carbon neutral activities.• Children’s nursery- a day care c entre is proposed within the site.• Show flat- a live fully furnished flat is kept for demonstration N Bedzed pavillion Dunster bill zed factory residential City road
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOODBUILDING PHYSICS S SBedZED aim – reduced thermaldemand:Passive solar gain; dwellings face southwithtriple-storey conservatories (sunspaces)• Super insulation; 300mm insulationjacketaround each terrace• 2 skins of double-glazing to southelevation and Striple-glazing for all other elevations• Thermal mass provided by denseconcreteblockwork and concrete floor slabs andexposedradiant surfaces to aid heat absorption• Passive ventilation with heat recovery• Reduced flow taps and showers• Visible hot water meter N
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOODBUILDING PHYSICS S MINIMUM OVERSHADING BY ADJASCENT BUILDINGS
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOOD BUILDING PHYSICSSpace heatingThrough the innovative design and construction, heat from the sun and heatgenerated by occupants and every day activities such as cooking, is sufficient toheat BedZED homes to a comfortable temperature. The need for space heating,which accounts for a significant part of the energy demand in conventionalbuildings, is therefore reduced or completely eliminated.
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOOD SECTIONAL 3D WIND COWLS SOLAR PANELS SUN SPACE SOLAR HEATER WIND COWLS WOODEN FRAME SOLAR SHADINGLIVING SPACE WITHSUN SPACE SOLAR SPACE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOOD SUN SPACE RES OFFICE SPACEPHYSICAL MODEL TERRACE GARDENS SOLAR SHADING SUN SPACE OFFICE SPACE RES
BED-ZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOODNEIGHBOURHOOD SECTIONFRONT ELEVATION TYPICAL SECTIONTYPICAL SECOND FLOOR PLAN
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOOD SERVICESGreen Water Treatment Plant (GWTP) An effluenttreatment facility used to clean effluent to astandard whereby it can used for toilet flushingand irrigation. The BedZED system comprises twounderground septic tanks followed by a series oftreatment tanks that treat the water biologically.BedZED Wastewater Reclamation PlantBedZED is again using recycled water and nowhosts the UK’s first membrane bioreactor (MBR) forrecycling waste water for non-potable domesticuse (toilet flushing and irrigation).The water conservation measures include:• Low-flow tabs in households and commercialspaces• Dual-flush toilets in developments• Biomembrance reactor for on-site recycled-water.Wind cowls BedZED’s wind cowls are partof the passive ventilation system. Theyare the Combined heat and power plantcolourful cowls located on the roofs. They BedZED receives power from a small-scalebring in fresh air through one duct combined heat and power plant (CHP). Inand expell it through the other. conventional energy generation, the heat that is produced as a by-product of generating electricity is lost. With CHP technology, this heat can be harnessed and used. At Bed ZED, the heat from the CHP provides hot water, which is distributed around the site via a district heating system of super-insulated pipes. If residents or workers require a heating boost, each home or office has a domestic hot water tank that doubles as a radiator. The CHP plant at Bed ZED is powered by off-cuts from tree surgery waste that would otherwise go to landfill. Wood is a carbon neutral fuel because the greenhouse gases released when it’s burned is equal to that absorbed by the tree as it grew.
BEDZED ZERO EMISSION NEIGHBOURHOOD INFERENCES TARGET ACHIEVED AT THE END OF 5 YEARSEnergy: 81% reduction in energy use for heating,45% reduction in electricity use (compared tolocal av.).Transport: 64% reduction in car mileage2,318km/year (compared to national av.).Water: 58% reduction in water use 72litres/person/day (compared to local av.).Waste: 60% waste recycled.Food: 86% of residents buy organic food.Community: residents know 20 neighbours byname on average. NEGATIVESPOSITIVES Most answers fell into the following• BedZED community categories • Architecture/ design (shown in order of frequency and number of • Sustainability interviewees who mentioned it):• Wellbeing (feeling of space, light, quiet, • Locationhealth…) • Lack of wellbeing (temperature, noise…) • Garden and sunspace • Things not working (CHP, hot water, repairs• Cost needed…)• Location • Management• Other (uniqueness, modernity…) • Size• Facilities (community centre, car club, • Nothingshowers…) • Crime/ fear of crime• Size • Parking • BedZED community • Design • Intrusion from visitors • Sustainability
DONGTON ECOCITY, SHANGHAI –URBAN SCALE PROJECT INTRODUCTION Dongtan aims to be the world’s first purpose-built City eco-city. The city is designed not only to be environmentally sustainable, but also socially,Dongtan, near Shanghai, China economically and culturally sustainable. Its goal is toPopulation be as close to carbon neutral as possible, with cityProjected upwards of 500,000 vehicles that produce no carbon or particulatepeople emissions and highly efficient water and energyProject Start Date systems. Dongtan will generate all of its energyConstruction: 2007Move-In needs from renewable sources including bio-fuels, wind farms and photovoltaic panels. A majority ofDate: 2010 for up to 10k Dongtan’s waste will be reused as biofuel forpeople2020 for up to 80k additional energy production and organic waste willpeople2050 for up to 500k be composted. Even human sewage will bepeople composted and processed for energy andAnnual CO2 Reductions composting, greatly reducing or entirely eliminating750,000 tons of carbon per year landfill waste sites.for 80,000 people compared to‘business as usual’Project StatusDesign and master plancompletedProject actors: arup
DONGTON ISLAND, CHINAPROJECT OBJECTIVESHuman and Environmental HealthEconomic Vitality and Individual ProsperityEnergyHousingNutrition and Urban Rural LinkagesMobility and AccessEducation and CultureGovernance and Civic EngagementWaterMaterials and WasteEcological FootprintThe key principles of the sustainabilityframework are:• To preserve the wetland habitat• To create an integrated, vibrant and evolvingcommunity• To improve quality of life and createdesirable lifestyles• To create an accessible city• To ingrain contemporary Chinese cultureinto the city fabric• Managing the use of resources in anintegrated manner• Working towards carbon neutrality• Utilizing governance to achieve long termeconomic, social andenvironmental sustainability
DONGTON ISLAND, CHINA PROGRAM Components: City Design: The city is being designed asSITE three village neighborhoods concentrated at the southern tip of the site. The infrastructure (roads, public transport, schools, hospitals, commercial areas, green spaces) will be designed to encourage inhabitants to travel by bicycle or public transport rather than car. These ‘villages’ meet to create a city center, SITE PLANNING where commercial activities will be concentrated.
DONGTON ISLAND, CHINASITE LAYOUTSITE PLAN
DONGTON ISLAND, CHINATRANSPORT PALNNING Transportation: City will be linked by a network of pedestrian walkways Car- Pool: an intranet service will connect people who want to share a car and forecasts travel times. Only zero-carbon vehicles will be allowed to drive within the city. Pollution-free buses, trams or water taxis, powered by fuel-cells or other zero-carbon technologies will run between neighborhoods.
DONGTON ISLAND, CHINATOWN CENTER CITY CENTRE
DONGTON ISLAND, CHINAAGRICULTURAL LAND DEVELOPMENT
DONGTON ISLAND, CHINACITY CENTREOVERVIEW MASSING
MASDAR CITY, MUSCAT –URBAN SCALEMasdar City• World-leading sustainable city, 6.5 km2• 100% based on renewable energy• Zero carbon balance• Close to zero waste• Car-free• Provide working and living space for up PROJECT INTRODUCTIONto 90000 Masdar City is a clean‐technologypeople cluster that will be powered by• Elements: university, special economic renewable energy. This specialzone, economic zoneresidential, leisure & complementary located about 17km from downtowncomponents, Abu Dhabi will eventually be home tointegrated sustainable infrastructure companies, researchers, andARCHITECT:NORMAN FOSTER AND academicsPARTNERS from across the globe, creating anSTRCUTURAL CONSULTANTS: ARUP international centre of research and development in the fields of renewable energy and sustainable technologies – a tremendous growth industry worldwide.
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALECONCEPT DEVELOPMENT
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALECITY PLANNINGOVERVIEW
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALESITE PLANNING
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALECITY LAYERINGSECTION SHOWING LAYERS OF DEVELOPMENT
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALECITY LAYERING
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALEDISTANCE RELATIONSHIP TRANSPORT PLANNING
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALE WATER GRID WASTE GRID WATER GRID
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALESWISS VILLAGESWISS VILLAGE VICINITY
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALESWISS VILLAGE
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALELAND USE
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALESWISS VILLAGE-MATERIALS MATERIALS COCNCRETE WOOD ZINC STEEL AL FACADE Concretes uses supplementary cements such as ground, granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash •Durable, high sustainability mix designs with lifespan typically >75 years •High levels of Portland Cement replacement typically above 60% •On-site concrete supplied so far 234,000m³ (since January ‘09) with savings of approximately 29,250 Mt ofcarbon
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALEMASDAR HEAD QUARTERS STRUCTURE LOWER TRELLIS PEEL CONESVLOWER TRELLIS MESH TRUSSLOWRER TRELLIS PEEL CONES
MASDAR CITY, ABUDHABI –URBAN SCALEVISUAL STUDY
CASE STUDY INFERENCES Pedestrian movementOptimum orientation Maintenance strategy Transit network Water +trees= power Layering of tasks Mutual shading design development based on traditional methods Passive approach Active approach Alternative power
INFERENCESInferences drawn out of the case studies andconcluded to form basis for the designdevelopment.• TRANSPORT PLANNING PLAYS A KEY ROLE IN THE DESIGN DEVELOPMENT AS A IT ACCOUNTS TO A MAJOR PORTION OF CARBNO EMISSIONS.• ORIENTATION IN SITE PLANNING BECOMES A CRUCIAL DECIDING FACTOR IN THE DESIGN• WIND, AIR AND SOLAR STUDIES CAN RESULT IN DESIGNS THAT WILL AID THE DESIGN TO A GREAT EXTEND• SERVICE ORINTED TECHNOLOGIES ARE TO BE ADOPTED FOR A BETTER DEVELOPMENT• SOLAR, WIND, BIOMASS ETC ARE RESOURCEFULL MEANS OF ENERGY.• PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT IS GIVEN PRIME IMPORTANCE IN THE DESIGN STAGE.• SERVICES ARE TO BE HANDLED CAREFULLY TO DEVELOP A DESIGN THAT WORKS WELL• DESIGN DEVELOPMENT IN MOST CASES HAS UNDERGONE A DEFINITE PROCESS WHICH IS BASED ON TRADITIONAL OR HISTORIC BACKGRUND. WHICH LATER HAS BEEN MODIFIED WITH CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES.• WATER OR GREENS AS A CENTRAL ELEMENT IS COMMON IN MOST DESIGN SOLUTIONS- ACCOUNTED TO THE SERVICES THEY PROVIDE.• LAYERING OF DESIGN IS CRUCIAL IN MOST DESIGNS WHICH HELPS IN DISTRIBUTING THE COMPLEX SERVICES.• NEW INNOVATIONS RATHER THAN OLDER TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN APPLIED TO SOLVE PROBLEMS• BEDZED BEING A PASSIVE RESPONSE TO THE ISSUE MASDAR AND DONGTON ARE ACTIVE RESPONSES.