What is a Flowchart • Is a diagram that uses graphic symbols to represent the nature and ﬂow of the steps in a process
When Should Use It? • At the beginning of your process improvement eﬀorts • Understanding of a process by explaining the steps pictorially (illustrated)
When Should Use It? • Because the visually sequence steps, it can be very helpful in training the employees according to standardized procedures • IdenHfy process improvement; once you break down the process, problem areas become more visible
When Should Use It? • Easy to spot redundant steps and rework loops • Helping the process workers to understand who their customer are, and how they may someHmes act as suppliers and someHmes as customers in relaHons to other people
QuesHon! • What is a Flowchart?
QuesHon! • Beneﬁts of Flowchart?
What Symbols are Used? • Symbols have speciﬁc meanings and are connected by arrows indicaHng the ﬂow from one step to another – Oval; starHng point – Box; acHvity in the process – Diamond; decision point – Circle; parHcular step is connected to another page
What are the level of Flowchart Detail? • Consider how it will be used and the amount and kind of informaHon needed by the people who will use it – Macro level; big picture – Mini; focus on only a part of macro-‐level – Micro; people trying to improve the way a job is done (very detailed), documenHng every acHon and decision
How Do We Get Started? • Determine what you expect to get from the Flowchart • IdenHfy who will use it and how • Deﬁne the level of detail you need
Boundaries! • These are the starHng and ending points for your Flowchart • E.g. for repair shop for pump; might start when pump enters the shop and when it passes ﬁnal tesHng • Boundaries determine the number of acHviHes to be studied and the number of people involved in the process, funcHonally and cross-‐funcHonally
What are the keys to successful ﬂowcharHng • It is vital that you start by depicHng the process the way it really works • You need to chart the process as it is
The Success • Start with the BIG Picture – It is best to draw the macro level ﬁrst, then increased levels of detail • Observe the current process (in actual operaHon) • Record the process steps you observed • Arrange the sequence of steps • Draw the ﬂowchart
QuesHon! • The Key Success?
Flowchart Types • Three main types – Linear; is a diagram that displays the sequence of work steps that make up a process (can help idenHfy rework and redundant unnecessary steps) – Deployment Flowchart • Shows the actual process ﬂow and idenHﬁes the people or groups involved at each step • Chart shows where the people or groups ﬁt into the process sequence, and how they relate to one another throughout the process
Flowchart Types • The last one: – Opportunity Flowchart • VariaHons of the basic linear type – Value added steps; – Cost added only;
How to Construct a Linear • Deﬁne the process to be ﬂowcharted • Assemble the right people (actually involved in the process) • Establish process boundaries (starHng and ending points) • List the steps, acHviHes, and decisions to be charted
How to Construct a Linear • Put the steps in chronological sequence (might form the last to the ﬁrst) • Assign ﬂowchart symbols such as boxes, diamonds • Review and Htle the ﬂowchart
ConstrucHng a Linear Flowchart
How do we construct a Deployment Flowchart? • Follow the basic steps for construcHng a Linear Flowchart, but modify them as follows: – List the major steps of the process verHcally on the le_ side of a sheet of paper – List the responsible process workers across the top, each in a separate column – Place each step in the appropriate column under the responsible process worker’s name – Connect the steps in the order in which they relate to each other NOTE: EveryhorizontallineinaDeploymentFlowchar9 den9ﬁesacustomer-‐supplier rela9onship.