‘ On their own, cross-sectional international comparisons such as PISA cannot identify cause-and-effect relationships between certain factors and educational outcomes, especially in relation to the classroom and the processes of teaching and learning that take place there’.
CRAS analysis is used as a basis for organising the thoughts of reviewers with regard to specific features at question, task or question paper level.
CRAS analysis Learner needs to devise their own strategy Learner must monitor the application of their strategy Learner must select content from a large, complex pool of information Learner must organise how to communicate response Strategy for answer is given No need to monitor strategy No selection of information required No organisation required The extent to which the learner devises (or selects) and maintains a strategy for tackling and answering the question Strategy S Highly abstract Requires use of technical terms Deals with concrete objects Avoids need for technical terms The extent to which the learner deals with ideas rather than concrete objects or phenomena Abstractness A Learner must generate all the necessary data/information All and only the data/ information needed is given The use of data and information Resources R Synthesis or evaluation of operations Requires technical comprehension Makes links between operations Simple operations (i.e. ideas/steps) No comprehension, except that required for natural language No links between operations The complexity of each component operation or idea and the links between them Complexity C 4 2–3 1 Scoring What is it? Category
CRAS analysis Learner must generate all the necessary data/information. 4 All and only the data/ information needed is given. Scoring: 1 The use of data and information. What is it? Category: Resources
CRAS analysis Highly abstract. Requires use of technical terms. 4 Deals with concrete objects. Avoids need for technical terms. Scoring: 1 The extent to which the learner deals with ideas rather than concrete objects or phenomena. What is it? Category: Abstractness